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Motor vehicle

A motor vehicle known as motorized vehicle or automotive vehicle, is a self-propelled vehicle wheeled, that does not operate on rails and is used for the transportation of people or cargo. The vehicle propulsion is provided by an engine or motor an internal combustion engine or an electric motor, or some combination of the two, such as hybrid electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids. For legal purposes, motor vehicles are identified within a number of vehicle classes including cars, motorcycles, off-road vehicles, light trucks and regular trucks; these classifications vary according to the legal codes of each country. ISO 3833:1977 is the standard for road vehicle types and definitions. To avoid requiring handicapped persons from having to possess an operator's license to use one, or requiring tags and insurance, powered wheelchairs will be excluded by law from being considered motor vehicles; as of 2011, there were more than one billion motor vehicles in use in the world, excluding off-road vehicles and heavy construction equipment.

Global vehicle ownership per capita in 2010 was 148 vehicles in operation per 1000 people. China has the largest motor vehicle fleet in the world, with 322 million motor vehicles registered at the end of September 2018; the United States has the highest vehicle ownership per capita in the world, with 832 vehicles in operation per 1000 people in 2016. China became the world's largest new car market in 2009. In 2011, a total of 80 million cars and commercial vehicles were built, led by China, with 18.4 million motor vehicles manufactured. The US publisher Ward's estimates that as of 2010, there were 1.015 billion motor vehicles in use in the world. This figure represents the number of cars and buses, but does not include off-road vehicles or heavy construction equipment; the world vehicle population passed the 500 million-unit mark in 1986, from 250 million motor vehicles in 1970. Between 1950 and 1970, the vehicle population doubled every 10 years. Two US researchers estimate that the world's fleet will reach 2 billion motor vehicles by 2020, with cars representing at least 50% of all vehicles.

China's and India's automobile fleets are expected to grow at an annual rate of around 7 or 8%, while the slowest growth is expected in the United States, with less than 1% a year, Western Europe, with 1 to 2%. Navigant Consulting forecasts that the global stock of light-duty motor vehicles will reach 2 billion units in 2035. Global vehicle ownership in 2010 was 148 vehicles in operation per 1000 people, a ratio of 1:6.75 vehicles to people down from 150 vehicles per 1000 people in 2009, a rate of 1:6.63 vehicles to people. The global rate of motorization increased in 2013 to 174 vehicles per 1000 people. In developing countries vehicle ownership rates exceed 200 cars per 1,000 population; the following table summarizes the evolution of vehicle registrations in the world from 1960 to 2012: The 27 European Union member countries had a fleet of over 256 million in 2008, passenger cars accounted for 87% of the union's fleet. The five largest markets, Italy, the UK, Spain, accounted for 68% of the region's total registered fleet in 2008.

The EU-27 member countries had in 2009 an estimated ownership rate of 473 passenger cars per 1000 people. According to Ward's, Italy had the second highest vehicle ownership per capita in 2010, with 690 vehicles per 1000 people. Germany had a rate of motorization of 534 vehicles per 1000 people and the UK of 525 vehicles per 1000 people, both in 2008. France had a rate of 575 vehicles per 1000 people and Spain 608 vehicles per 1000 people in 2007. Portugal, between 1991 and 2002 grew up 220% on its motorization rate, having had in 2002, 560 cars per 1000 people. Italy leads in alternative fuel vehicles, with a fleet of 779,090 natural gas vehicles as of June 2012, the largest NGV fleet in Europe. Sweden, with 225,000 flexible-fuel vehicles, has the largest flexifuel fleet in Europe by mid-2011. More than one million plug-in electric passenger cars and vans have been registered in Europe by June 2018, the world's second largest regional plug-in stock after China. Norway is the leading plug-in market with over 296,00 units registered as of December 2018.

In October 2018, Norway became the world's first country where 10% of all passenger cars on the road are plug-in electrics. The Norwegian plug-in car segment market share has been the highest in the world for several years, achieving 39.2% in 2017, 49.1% in 2018. The United States has the second largest fleet of motor vehicles in the world after China; as of 2016, had a motor vehicles stock of 259.14 million, of which, 246 million were light duty vehicles, consisting of 112.96 million passenger cars and 133 million light trucks. A total of 11.5 million heavy trucks were registered at the end 2016 Vehicle ownership per capita in the U. S. is the highest in the world, the U. S. Department of Energy reports a motorization rate of 831.9 vehicles in operation per 1000 people in 2016, or a ratio of 1:1.2 vehicles to people. According to USDoE, the rate of motorization peaked in 2007 at 844.5 vehicles per 1000 people. In terms of licensed drivers, as of 2009 the country had 1.0 vehicle for every licensed driver, 1.87 vehicles per household.

Passenger car registrations in the United States declined -11.5% in 2017 and -12.8% in 2018. As of 2016, the stock of alternative fuel vehicles in the United States included over 20 million flex-fuel cars and light trucks, the world's second largest flexible-fuel fleet in the world after Brazil. However, actual use of ethanol fuel is limited

Nuru Kane

Nuru Kane is a Senegalese singer/songwriter who plays guitar and guimbri, a three-stringed bass in the band Bayefall Gnawa. Nuru's debut CD, released in the UK on March 14, 2006 and the rest of the world on April 24 by Riverboat Records and World Music Network, included griot and blues influences. In 2013, he released Exile by World Music Network. Nuru Kane played with his band Bayefall Gnawa at the 2004 Festival in the Desert in Mali, at the 2006 Africa Oye, as well as at the Oslo World Music Festival 2010 in Norway. Two of Nuru's songs, appear on soundtracks: Goree in the film The Mechanic at the graveyard scene and Toub in the film Wonderful World. AlbumsSigil Number One Bus Exile Contributing artistThe Rough Guide to the Music of Senegal The Rough Guide to Acoustic Africa Review of "Sigil" in The Guardian History of performers in Oslo

Kamran Abbasi

Kamran Abbasi is a physician, executive editor of the British Medical Journal, editor of the Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, cricket writer and broadcaster. Raised in Yorkshire, he graduated in medicine from Leeds School of Medicine in 1992 and worked in general medicine before commencing a career in journal editing in 1997, beginning with the BMJ, followed by the Bulletin of the World Health Organization and the JRSM, he is an honorary senior lecturer at the Department of Primary Care, Imperial College, a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh and the Royal College of Physicians of London. He has been a consultant editor for PLOS Medicine and has created e-learning resources for professional development of doctors, including BMJ Learning and the Royal Society of Medicine's video lecture service. In addition, he is a writer in 2012 authored Zindabad. Kamran Abbasi was born in Lahore and raised in Yorkshire, he completed his early education at Oakwood School before attending the Thomas Rotherham College, both in Rotherham, South Yorkshire.

In 1992, he graduated in medicine from Leeds School of Medicine. In 1997, following five years in internal medicine in both Yorkshire and London, he joined the BMJ from the Royal London and St Bartholomew's Hospitals, he took up the post of editorial registrar and assistant editor, before becoming deputy editor in 2002 and acting editor in 2004. He was influenced by Richard Smith. In 1999, he published a series of six articles in the BMJ looking at the role of the World Bank in global health. A year he was appointed editor of the Bulletin of the World Health Organization. Abassi became the BMJ's executive editor for content, developing the journal's expansion internationally, in print the BMJ International editions, which he considers his greatest achievement; the first of the themed issues was in 2003, shortly after, he was one of the three main organisers of the BMJ’s first international theme issue on South Asia, where investment in primary care and the education of girls in Sri Lanka and Kerala was shown to be beneficial.

Their interest and continued work in South Asia has led to the BMJ offering a dedicated page to South Asia on their website since 2013. In October 2004, while he was acting editor of the BMJ, Abbasi became the recipient of a sudden flood of responses to a BMJ article written by Derek Summerfield, who published his personal view over what he saw as organised violations of the fourth Geneva Convention by the Israeli army in Gaza and their effects on public health; the reaction to that article was analysed by Karl Sabbagh and revealed the hostility that editors can receive when publishing on a sensitive issue. In response to the messages sent to the journal's website and the over 1000 emails sent directly to Abbasi, a sample number were published on-line within 24 hours of submission. Sabbagh explained that the published messages "were a skewed sample of what had been received, as abusive and obscene contributions were not posted", In response to these messages, many of which "abused the BMJ or Abbasi personally", Abbasi published an editorial entitled: “Should journals mix medicine and politics?”

Abbasi noted that the messages were "largely biased and inflammatory on both sides" and that a number of people felt that dialogue could resolve the conflict. He specified that “in a state of conflict views will be sometime abrasive and unpalatable" and argued that medicine cannot exist in a political void, he founded an e-learning resource. Abbasi has been editor of the Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine since 2005, he is an honorary senior lecturer at the Department of Primary Care, Imperial College, member of the General Advisory Council of the King's Fund, a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh and the Royal College of Physicians of London, patron of the South Asian Health Foundation. He is a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh and the Royal College of Physicians of London, he has been a consultant editor for PLOS Medicine and has created three e-learning resources for professional development of doctors, including BMJ Learning and the Royal Society of Medicine's video lecture service.

He has consulted for a number of organisations including Harvard University, the NHS, the World Health Organization and McKinsey & Co. He has made contributions on radio and television with Mark Porter. In this role, Abbasi has acted as a sceptic to BBC Radio 4's weekly medical programme, Inside Health, he writes for Dawn, a Pakistani English-language newspaper. Following cricket since the 1970s, Abbasi has been an international writer on Pakistan cricket since 1996, starting as a blogger for Cricinfo.com with a blog called Pak Spin, with a particular interest in the politics of cricket. He was the first Asian columnist in an English cricket publication when he started writing for Wisden Cricket Monthly. In 2000, in one Wisden Cricket entry, he reported on Hansie Cronje and the South Africa cricket match fixing and responded by saying that the "enigma of match fixing will remain, but the reflex judgement that white is good and brown is bad is now less sustainable than it was. For that at least, thank you, Hansie".

In 2004, he co-authored a paper on the influence of a 1986 Pakistani victory in cricket over India on subsequent matches up to 2003. In 2012, he published a book titled The English Chronicles: Zindabad: A Modern History of Pakistan Cricket. “Butchers and gropers”. British Medicsl Journal. 1998 Dec 5. Doi:10.1136/bmj.317.7172.1599c “The World Bank and World Health”. British Medicsl Journal 2