Motorcycle stunt riding
Motorcycle stunt riding referred to as stunting, is a motorcycle sport characterized by stunts involving acrobatic maneuvering of the motorcycle and sometimes the rider. Common maneuvers in stunt riding include wheelies and burnouts. Sport bikes have become a common vehicle for stunts. Stunters are a controversial subculture of motorcycling. Stunters perform motorcycle stunts both on public roads and in private venues; some stunters have organized commercial teams. A wheelie on a motorized vehicle is nothing new. In drag racing they are considered a problem, robbing power that could be used to accelerate the vehicle faster, many classes of drag racing use wheelie bars to prevent them. One of the original public stunts done on a motorcycle was riding the Globe of Death. In this stunt, one or more riders enter a steel banded sphere through a trap door and begin circling; the centripetal force of accelerating along the curve allows the rider to circle on any plane inside the sphere, including sideways and upside-down.
Though this is one of the original stunts, it is still seen among circus acts. But those are for vehicles built for drag racing, which are street-legal, or unmodified from stock. In contrast, since at least the 1970s, some motorcycles straight from the showroom floor were able to be wheelied. In the late 1980s and continuing today and sportbikes, have become lighter and more powerful, have therefore become easier to wheelie. Other stunts have become possible if not easy with the advancement of motorcycle technology; as Martin Child wrote in Bike, "With lighter, better-braked bikes on the market, the stoppie has never been so easy for so many." But at the same time, the cost of a motorcycle has remained low compared to other street-legal vehicles with similar power-to-weight ratios. In the 1990s some riders made performing stunts the primary focus of their riding. A wheelie or other stunt was not just something to do while riding, it became the main goal in riding. Stunters will modify their motorcycles to better adapt them to the sport.
Stunting equipment includes: Frame sliders — These large knobs are attached to a motorcycle's frame to protect the fairing from damage should the rider lay down the bike, are used by many non-stunters. Frame sliders should not be considered a substitute for a cage. Although Frame sliders will reduce the damage to the plastics and certain parts of the bike they are not enough to keep from cracking motor cases and or cracking the frame itself. Crash cages — These cages provide more protection from damage than frame sliders and are used by stunters. There are many examples of cages on the market today and a vast array of different designs and styles, it is important to search for cages designed to your bike’s make and model to work best at maximizing the protection for your specific motorcycle. A cage should be one of the first things purchased when learning how to stunt due to the fact that most drops and falls will occur during this time. Subcages — Subcages are similar to crash cages, but for protection of a different sort.
While crash cages are protection for the frame itself, motor mounts and cases subcages focus on protecting the subframe of the motorcycle. In certain cases, subcage applications will eliminate the stock passenger pegs and relocate them to a different spot; this is more becoming for staggered stance wheelies among other tricks. These pegs will in some cases be solid mounted to eliminate the possibility of them folding up on the rider when doing wheelies on the passenger pegs. Front Upper Stay — This bracket is meant to replace the upper stay on the motorcycle which holds the upper fairing and gauges in place; this is only necessary when running a full fairing bike and is meant in like fashion as both the subcage and crash cage to protect the front of the bike and provide increased stability for the front end of the motorcycle. This will not save the front fairing from damage. 12 o'clock bar — 12 bars, as they are referred to, are used on stunt bikes. These bars are used when 12ing the bike; these bars are meant to scrape the ground in place of the tail section.
Furthermore, with the introduction of the 12 bar came an array of bar tricks which all occur while the motorcycle is resting on the bar itself. These tricks include but are not limited to the ape hanger, watch tower, various other acrobatics while the bike is on the bar; this modification is only used by stunters. Hand Brake — The handbrake came onto the stunting scene much and in actuality within recent years gained popularity. With the sport pushing its bounds into new territory came tricks that involved the rider in a position in which he cannot access the rear brake to control the balance point of the motorcycle; when tricks such as seat standers and spreaders came on the scene at first it was not necessary to use a handbrake, however these tricks developed into scraping while in a highchair or spreader which involved the use of a hand mounted rear brake Round bar— A variation of the 12 bar, round bars are becoming more and more popular nowadays with riders straying away from bar tricks and increasing the technicality of Circle combinations.
A round bar is the same principle of a 12 bar as far as scraping the bar instead of the tail section or exhaust with one difference. The round bar is just that, it is a curved bar that hugs the contour of the motorcycle tail section with no flat sections. Sprocket Kit - Most stunters upgrade the gearing to allow for slower wheelies. Typical gearing consists of 1 down for the front sprocket and anywhere
North America is a continent within the Northern Hemisphere and all within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands are included. North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge 40,000 to 17,000 years ago; the so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans the 6th to 13th centuries.
The Pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. Owing to the European colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, their culture reflects Western traditions; the Americas are accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil, he explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio:... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam.
For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name, but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". Other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent, In 1538, Gerard Mercator used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere; some argue that because the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries, the derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be put in question. In 1874, Thomas Belt proposed a derivation from the Amerrique mountains of Central America. Marcou corresponded with Augustus Le Plongeon, who wrote: "The name AMERICA or AMERRIQUE in the Mayan language means, a country of perpetually strong wind, or the Land of the Wind, and... the can mean... a spirit that breathes, life itself." The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, The Caribbean.
This has been formally defined by the UN Statistics Division. The term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with context. In Canadian English, North America refers to the land mass as a whole consisting of Mexico, the United States, Canada, although it is ambiguous which other countries are included, is defined by context. In the United States of America, usage of the term may refer only to Canada and the US, sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands. In France, Portugal, Romania and the countries of Latin America, the cognates of North America designate a subcontinent of the Americas comprising Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, Bermuda. North America has been referred to by other names. Spanish North America was referred to as Northern America, this was the first official name given to Mexico. Geographically the North American continent has many subregions; these include cultural and geographic regions. Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs, such as the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement.
Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Latin America. Anglo-America includes most of Northern America and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations; the southern North American continent is composed of two regions. These are the Caribbean; the north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of "North America", which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used to refer only to Mexico, the United States, Greenland; the term Northern America refers to the northern-most countries and territories of North America: the United States, Bermuda, St. Pierre and Miquelon and Greenland. Although the term does not refer to a unifie
The American Legion is a U. S. war veterans' organization headquartered in Indiana. It is made up of state, U. S. territory, overseas departments, these are in turn made up of local posts. The legislative body of The American Legion is a national convention, held annually; the organization was founded on March 15, 1919, at the American Club near Place de la Concorde in Paris, France, by members of the American Expeditionary Forces, it was chartered on September 16, 1919, by the U. S. Congress; the organization played the leading role in drafting and passing of the Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944, otherwise known as the "GI Bill." In addition to organizing commemorative events, members provide assistance at VA hospitals and clinics. It is active in issue-oriented U. S. politics. Its primary political activity is lobbying on behalf of interests of veterans and service members, including support for benefits such as pensions and the Veterans Health Administration; the organization has historically promoted "Americanism."
Veterans who served at least one day of active duty during wartime, or are serving now, are eligible for membership in The American Legion. Members must have been honorably discharged/discharged under honorable conditions or are still serving honorably. Merchant Marines who served from December 7, 1941, to December 31, 1946, are eligible. World War I veterans were eligible during their lifetimes. Membership peaked for The American Legion right after World War II, when enrollments doubled from 1.7 million to 3.3 million. After the Korean War, there were 2.5 million Legionnaires. As the baby boomers joined, its membership increased to 3.1 million in 1992. However, membership has been decreasing since then. In 2013, National Headquarters of The American Legion reported 2.3 million members. The aftermath of two American wars in the second half of the 19th century had seen the formation of several ex-soldiers' organizations. Former Union Army soldiers of the American Civil War of 1861–65 established a fraternal organization called the Grand Army of the Republic, while their Southern brethren would join together in the United Confederate Veterans.
Both organizations emerged as powerful political entities, with the GAR serving as a mainstay of the Republican Party, which controlled the Presidency from the Civil War through William Howard Taft's administration except for the two terms of office of Grover Cleveland. In Southern politics the UCV maintained an more dominant position as a bulwark of the Democratic Party which dominated there; the conclusion of the brief Spanish–American conflict of 1898 ushered in another soldiers' organization, the American Veterans of Foreign Service, today known as the Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United States. Concerned about the United States' absence from the world war and the preparedness of its army and navy, magazine editor Arthur Sullivant Hoffman and writer Stephen Allan Reynolds founded The American Legion in February 1915, inspired by a letter from reader E. D. Cook, they lobbied government to strengthen the military. They held a preparedness parade in New York City and made a film America Prepare Officers included Theodore Roosevelt, Arthur S. Hoffman, William Howard Taft, Elihu Root, Jacob M. Dickinson, Henry L. Stimson and Luke E. Wright, George von L. Meyer, Truman H. Newberry and Charles J. Bonaparte.
Its officers were at New York City. In 1917, when war was declared the Legion had 23,000 members skilled in 77 professions pledged to fight, their pledge cards were shared with the government and used to raise two regiments of air mechanics. The Legion was discorporated in 1917. With the termination of hostilities in World War I in November 1918, some American officers, participants in the conflict began to think about creating a similar organization for the two million men, on European duty; the need for an organization for former members of the AEF was immediate. With the war at an end, hundreds of thousands of impatient draftees found themselves trapped in France and pining for home, certain only that untold weeks or months lay ahead of them before their return would be logistically possible. Morale plummeted. Cautionary voices were raised about an apparent correlation between disaffected and discharged troops and the Bolshevik uprisings taking place in Russia, Finland and Hungary; this situation was a particular matter of concern to Lt. Col. Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. eldest son of the 26th President.
One day in January 1919, he had a discussion at General Headquarters with a mobilized National Guard officer named George A. White, a former newspaper editor with the Portland Oregonian. After long discussion, he suggested the establishment at once of a new servicemen's organization including all members of the AEF, as well as those soldiers who remained stateside as members of the Army and Marine Corps during the war without having been shipped abroad, he and White advocated ceaselessly for this proposal until they found sufficient support at headquarters to move forward with the plan. General John J. Pershing issued orders to a group of 20 non-career officers to report to the YMCA in Paris on February 15, 1919; the selection of these individuals had been made by Roosevelt. They were joined with a number of regular Army officers Pershing selected himself; the session of reserve and regular officers was instructed to provide a set of laws to curb the problem of declining morale. After three days, the officers presented a series of proposals, including eliminating restrictive regulations, organizing additional athletic and recreational events, expanding leave time and entertainment programs
James Daniel May is an English television presenter and journalist. He is best known as a co-presenter of the motoring programme Top Gear alongside Jeremy Clarkson and Richard Hammond from 2003 until 2015; as of 2016 he is a director of the production company W. Chump & Sons and is a co-presenter in the television series The Grand Tour for Amazon Video, alongside his former Top Gear colleagues and Hammond, as well as Top Gear's former producer Andy Wilman. May has presented other programmes on themes including science and technology, wine culture, the plight of manliness in modern times, he wrote a weekly column for The Daily Telegraph's motoring section from 2003 to 2011. James Daniel May was born in one of four children. May attended Caerleon Endowed Junior School in Newport, he spent his teenage years in South Yorkshire where he attended Oakwood Comprehensive School in Rotherham and was a choirboy at Whiston Parish Church. May studied music at Pendle College, Lancaster University, where he learned to play the flute and piano.
After graduating, May worked at a hospital in Chelsea as a records officer, had a short stint in the civil service. During the early 1980s, May worked as a sub-editor for The Engineer and Autocar magazine, from which he was dismissed for performing a prank, he has since written for several publications, including the regular column England Made Me in Car Magazine, articles for Top Gear magazine, a weekly column in The Daily Telegraph. He has written the book May on Motors, a collection of his published articles, co-authored Oz and James's Big Wine Adventure, based on the TV series of the same name, he wrote the afterword to Long Lane with Turnings, published in September 2006, the final book by motoring writer L. J. K. Setright. In the same month he co-presented a tribute to Raymond Baxter. Notes From The Hard Shoulder and James May's 20th Century, a book to accompany the television series of the same name, were published in 2007. In an interview with Richard Allinson on BBC Radio 2, May confessed that in 1992 he was dismissed from Autocar magazine after putting together an acrostic in one issue.
At the end of the year, the magazine's "Road Test Year Book" supplement was published. Each spread featured each review started with a large red letter. May's role was to put the entire supplement together, which "was boring and took several months". To alleviate the tedium, May wrote each review such that the initials on the first four spreads read "ROAD", "TEST", "YEAR" and "BOOK". Subsequent spreads had random letters, starting with "SOYO" and "UTHI"; the curious noticed. May's original message, when punctuated, reads: "So you think it's good, yeah? You should try making the bloody thing up; the editors of Autocar missed the'joke' and only became aware of it when readers started calling in about it, thinking there might be a prize. His past television credits include presenting Driven on Channel 4 in 1998, narrating an eight-part BBC One series called Road Rage School, co-hosting the ITV1 coverage of the 2006 London Boat Show, he wrote and presented a Christmas special called James May's Top Toys.
James May: My Sister's Top Toys attempted to investigate the gender divide of toy appeal. In series 3, episode 3 of Gordon Ramsay's The F Word, May managed to beat Ramsay in eating bull penis and rotten shark and with his fish pie recipe. May was a co-presenter of the original Top Gear series during 1999, he first co-presented the revived series of Top Gear in its second series in 2003, where he earned the nickname "Captain Slow" owing to his careful driving style. Despite this sobriquet, he has done some high-speed driving – in the 2007 series he took a Bugatti Veyron to its top speed of 253 mph in 2010 he achieved 259.11 mph in the Veyron's newer 16.4 Super Sport edition. In an earlier episode he tested the original version of the Bugatti Veyron against the Pagani Zonda F. May, along with co-presenter Jeremy Clarkson and an Icelandic support crew, travelled by car to the magnetic North Pole in 2007, using a modified Toyota Hilux. In the words of Clarkson, he was the first person to go there "who didn't want to be there".
He drove a modified Toyota Hilux up the side of the erupting volcano Eyjafjallajökull. Following the BBC's decision not to renew Jeremy Clarkson's contract with the show on 25 March 2015, May stated in April 2015 that he would not continue to present Top Gear as part of a new line-up of presenters. May presented Inside Killer Sharks, a documentary for Sky and James May's 20th Century, investigating inventions, he flew in a Royal Air Force Eurofighter Typhoon at a speed of around 1320 mph for his television programme, James May's 20th Century. In late 2008, the BBC broadcast James May's Big Ideas, a three-part series in which May travelled around the globe in search of implementations for concepts considered science fiction, he has presented a series called James May's Man Lab. In 2013, May narrated To Space & Back, a documentary on the influence of developments in space exploration on modern technology produced by Sky-Skan and The Franklin Institute. James May on the Moon commemorated; this was followed by another documentary on BBC Four called James May at the Edge of Space, where May was flown to the stratosphere in a US Air Force Lockheed U-2 spy plane.
Highlights of the footage from the training for the flight, the flight itself was used in James May on the Moon, but was
Lake Winnipesaukee is the largest lake in the U. S. state of New Hampshire, located in the Lakes Region. It is 21 miles long and from 1 to 9 miles wide, covering 69 square miles —71 square miles when Paugus Bay is included—with a maximum depth of 180 feet; the center area of the lake is called The Broads. The lake contains at least 258 islands, half of which are less than a quarter-acre in size, is indented by several peninsulas, yielding a total shoreline of 288 miles; the driving distance around the lake is 63 miles. It is 504 feet above sea level. Winnipesaukee is the third-largest lake in New England after Moosehead Lake. Outflow is regulated by the Lakeport Dam in New Hampshire, on the Winnipesaukee River. Lake Winnipesaukee has been a popular tourist destination for more than a century among residents seeking a safe haven from the summer heat of Boston and New York City; the Native American name Winnipesaukee means either "smile of the Great Spirit" or "beautiful water in a high place". At the outlet of the lake, the Winnipesaukee Indians, a subtribe of the Pennacook and fished at a village called Acquadocton.
Today, the site is called The Weirs, named for the weirs colonists discovered when first exploring the region. Winnipesaukee is a glacial lake but an unusual one, since the last glaciation reversed the flow of its waters. Draining the central portion of New Hampshire, it once flowed southeast, leaving via what is now Alton Bay toward the Atlantic Ocean; when glacial debris blocked this path, flow was redirected westward through Paugus Bay into the Winnipesaukee River. The latter flows west from the lake and joins the Pemigewasset River in Franklin to form the Merrimack River, which flows south to Massachusetts and into the Atlantic. Center Harbor witnessed the first intercollegiate sporting event in the United States, as Harvard defeated Yale by two lengths in the first Harvard–Yale Regatta on August 3, 1852; the outcome was repeated 100 years when the schools celebrated the centennial of the race by again competing on Lake Winnipesaukee. Lake Winnipesaukee was where the eponymous Lake Winnipesaukee mystery stone was found.
The communities that surround the lake, clockwise from the southernmost town, are: Alton, the largest town by area in the Lakes Region. Gilford, home to Gunstock Mountain Resort and Bank of New Hampshire Pavilion at Meadowbrook, a popular New Hampshire concert venue. Laconia, the main commercial city on the lake. Included in Laconia is Weirs Beach, the largest public beach on Winnipesaukee; every year Laconia is home to Bike Week, attracting tens of thousands of motorcyclists to the area. Meredith, a tourist haven on the northwestern reach of the lake. Center Harbor, a small town in Belknap County which serves as the winter home for the MS Mount Washington. Moultonborough, with its Castle in the Clouds, an estate atop a small mountain. Tuftonboro, which contains the communities of Melvin Village and Mirror Lake. Wolfeboro, which bills itself as the "Oldest Summer Resort in America"; the lake consists of a wide open central region known as the Broads, surrounded by several large bays, as well as many smaller inlets.
The daytime speed limit for boats on the entire lake is 45 miles per hour. The main sections of the lake are: The Broads are a wide portion of Lake Winnipesaukee in Belknap County and extending into Carroll County, it is a large island-free zone occupying the center of the lake. Running along the main axis of the lake, the northwestern tip of the Broads is at the town of Center Harbor, while the southeastern end lies between the towns of Alton and Wolfeboro. Meredith Bay lies at the western edge of Winnipesaukee. At the northern tip of Meredith Bay is the main village of the town of Meredith. Paugus Bay branches off to the south of Meredith Bay at Weirs Beach, near to where Meredith Bay joins the main body of the lake. Meredith Bay is separated from the Broads by a narrow strait bordered by Governors Island to the south and Stonedam Island to the north; the northeastern shore of Meredith Bay is a long peninsula known as Meredith Neck. A hydrologically distinct lake, Paugus Bay became joined to Winnipesaukee when the dam at Lakeport was constructed, raising the surface of Paugus Bay to be contiguous with Winnipesaukee.
Paugus Bay joins the main lake in Meredith Bay, running south from a narrow channel connecting it to Meredith Bay. At the northern end of Paugus Bay, where it joins the main lake, is Weirs Beach, the largest and most visited public beach on the lake. At the other end is the village of Lakeport. Both Weirs Beach and Lakeport are villages within the city of Laconia; the eastern shore of the bay is followed by U. S. Route 3, has numerous motels, hotels and bungalow complexes; the western shore is much less developed. Alton Bay is a narrow bay, it lies within the town of Alton. The village of Alton Bay lies at the extreme southern tip. Wolfeboro Bay is a small wide bay lying in the town of Wolfeboro, creating a small northerly bulge in the shoreline to the eastern edge of Winnipesaukee. A series of smaller lakes and streams connects Wolfeboro Bay to Lake Wentworth. Winter Harbor is a Y-shaped bay with two branches, separated from the Broads by Wolfeboro Neck and Tuftonboro Neck. Winter Harbor is surrounded by many quiet resort communities in the towns of Wolfeboro and Tuftonboro.
It has panoramic views of the Belknap Mountains and looks out toward Rattlesnake Island. The
American Red Cross
The American Red Cross known as The American National Red Cross, is a humanitarian organization that provides emergency assistance, disaster relief, disaster preparedness education in the United States. It is the designated US affiliate of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and the United States movement to the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement; the organization offers services and development programs. ARC was established in Washington, D. C. on May 21, 1881, by Clara Barton. She became its first president. Barton organized a meeting on May 12 of that year at the home of Senator Omar D. Conger. Fifteen people were present at this first meeting, including Barton and Representative William Lawrence; the first local chapter was established in 1881 at the English Evangelical Lutheran Church of Dansville, New York. Jane Delano founded the American Red Cross Nursing Service on January 20, 1910. Clara Barton founded the American chapter after learning of the Red Cross in Switzerland.
In 1869, she went to Europe and became involved in the work of the International Red Cross during the Franco-Prussian War. She was determined to bring the organization to America. Barton became President of the American branch of the society, known as the American National Red Cross in May 1881 in Washington; the first chapters opened in upstate New York. John D. Rockefeller and four others donated money to help create a national headquarters near the White House. Frederick Douglass, famed abolitionist and friend of Clara Barton offered advice and support as Barton sought to establish the American chapter or the global Red Cross network; as Register of Deeds for the District of Columbia, Douglass signed the original Articles of Incorporation for the American Red Cross. Barton led one of the group's first major relief efforts, a response to the September 4–6, 1881 Great Fire of 1881 in the Thumb region of Michigan. Over 5,000 people were left homeless; the next major disaster was the Johnstown Flood, which occurred on May 31, 1889.
Over 2,209 people died and thousands more were injured in or near Johnstown, Pennsylvania in one of the worst disasters in United States history. Barton was unable to build up a staff she trusted and her fundraising was lackluster, she was forced out in 1904. Professional social work experts took control and made the group a model of Progressive Era scientific reform. New leader Mabel Thorp Boardman consulted with senior government officials, military officers, social workers, financiers. William Howard Taft was influential, they imposed an ethos of "managerialism", transforming the agency from Barton's cult of personality to an "organizational humanitarianism" ready for expansion. ARC is a nationwide network of 36 blood service regions. 166,000 Red Cross volunteers, including FemaCorps and AmeriCorps members, 30,000 employees annually mobilize relief to people affected by more than 67,000 disasters, train 4 million people in necessary medical skills and exchange more than a million emergency messages for U.
S. military service personnel and their family members. ARC is the largest supplier of blood products in the US, supplying 2,600 hospitals; the charity assists victims of international disasters and conflicts worldwide, connecting separated family members. In 2006, the organization had over $6 billion in total revenues, though revenues have fallen since Katrina. At that time, revenue from blood and blood products alone was over $2 billion - biological services represents about 63% of total operating expenses, though the unit operates at a deficit; the American Red Cross is divided into five divisions: Disaster Services, Blood Services, Training Services, International Services, Service to the Armed Forces. William K. Van Reypen 1905–06 Robert Maitland O'Reilly 1906 George Whitefield Davis 1906–15 William Howard Taft 1915–19 Livingston Farrand 1919–21 John Barton Payne 1921–35 Cary T. Grayson 1935–38 Norman Davis 1938–44 Basil O'Connor 1944–47, title changed to President, 1947–49 George Marshall 1949–1950 E. Roland Harriman 1950–1953, title changed to Chairman, 1954–73 Frank Stanton 1973–79 Jerome H. Holland 1979–85 George F.
Moody 1985–92 Norman Ralph Augustine 1992–2001 David T. McLaughlin 2001–04 Bonnie McElveen-Hunter 2004–present Recent presidents and CEOs include Gail McGovern, Elizabeth Dole, Bernadine Healy, Mary S. Elcano, Mark W. Everson and John F. McGuire. In 2007, U. S. legislation clarified the role for the Board of Governors and that of the senior management in the wake of difficulties following Hurricane Katrina. As of November 2017, the American Red Cross scores three out of four stars in Charity Navigator and B+ at CharityWatch. In 1996, the Chronicle of Philanthropy, an industry magazine, released the results of the largest study of charitable and non-profit organization popularity and credibility; the study showed that ARC was ranked as the third "most popular charity/non-profit in America" of over 100 charities researched with 48% of Americans over the age of 12 choosing "Love", "Like A lot" to describe the Red Cross. Cora L. Abbott, organizer of Turlock Red Cross Chapter Minnie C. Benson, American Red Cross Reserve alist Inez Mee Boren, organizing chairwoman of the Lindsay Strathmore Branch of the American Red Cross Emily M. Bruen, member of Committee for Red Cross Emilie Henry Burcham, treasurer Spokane Chapter American Red Cross Euna Pearl Burke, member of Board of Directors of Red Cross Emma P. Chadwick, member Executive Board of Red Cross Louise Keller Cherry, on
In vehicle acrobatics, a wheelie, or wheelstand, is a vehicle maneuver in which the front wheel or wheels come off the ground due to sufficient torque being applied to the rear wheel or wheels, or rider motion relative to the vehicle. Wheelies are associated with bicycles and motorcycles, but can be done with other vehicles such as cars in drag racing and tractor pulling; the first wheelie was done in 1890 by trick bicyclist Daniel J. Canary, shortly after modern bicycles became popular. Wheelies appear in popular culture as early as 1943, as U. S Army motorized cavalry are pictured in Life magazine performing high speed wheelies. Daredevil Evel Knievel performed motorcycle acrobatics including wheelies in his shows. Doug "The Wheelie King" Domokos has accomplished such feats as a 145-mile wheelie. Types of wheelie can be divided into two broad categories: 1. Wheelies in which the vehicle power is sufficient by itself, as described in the Physics section below; these include: Clutch wheelies: performed by revving the engine with the clutch disengaged, abruptly engaging the clutch.
Power wheelies or roll-on wheelies: performed by opening the throttle. If the engine has sufficient power, it will be able to lift the front wheel.2. Wheelies performed with the aid of rider motion; these include: Bounce wheelies or slap wheelies: performed by opening and closing the throttle in time with suspension rebounding, tire rebounding, rider motion, or any combination of the three. Manuals: performed without applying torque to the rear wheel at all, but instead by moving the rider's body backwards relative to the bike, pulling back on the handlebars near the end of available travel. Wheelies are a common stunt in artistic cycling and freestyle BMX; the bike is balanced by the rider's weight and sometimes use of the rear brake. A style of bicycle, the wheelie bike, has a seating position, thus center of mass, nearly over the rear wheel that facilitates performing wheelies. A wheelie is a common motorcycle stunt; the principle is the same as the bicycle wheelie, but the throttle and rear brakes are used to control the wheelie while a rider uses body weight and the steering to control the direction the inertia of the spinning front wheel acting as a balance.
The world's fastest motorcycle wheelie record is 307.86 km/h by Patrik Furstenhoff. April 18, 1999; the world record for the fast wheelie over 1 km is 343.388 km/h, set by Egbert van Popta at Elvington airfield in Yorkshire, England. In some countries, such as the United Kingdom and USA, motorcyclists performing a wheelie on a public road may be prosecuted for dangerous driving, an offense which can carry a large fine and a ban of a year or more. In Pakistan and some other countries, it is illegal to perform these kinds of stunts. If someone is caught performing these acts, the rider can have their motorcycle impounded and face jail time. Wheelies are common in auto- or motorcycle drag racing, where they represent torque wasted lifting the front end, rather than moving the vehicle forward, they usually result in raising the center of mass, which limits the maximum acceleration. In the absence of wheelie bars, this effect is quantified in the physics section below. If wheelie bars are present a wheelie results in a reduction of load on the rear driving wheels, along with a corresponding reduction in friction.
Wheelies are possible with some snowmobiles. Some wheelchair users can learn to do a wheelie; this enables them to descend curbs and maneuver over small obstacles. Wheelchair dancers perform wheelies. Wheelie bars help prevent a vehicle's front end from flipping over. Wheelie bars are required for some truck pull events. Wham-O sold an add-on wheelie bar for wheelie bikes. A wheelie is imminent when the acceleration is sufficient to reduce the load borne by the front axle to zero; the conditions for this can be calculated with the so-called "weight transfer equation": Δ W e i g h t f r o n t = a h w m where Δ W e i g h t f r o n t is the change in load borne by the front wheels, a is the longitudinal acceleration, h is the center of mass height, w is the wheelbase, m is the total vehicle mass. An equivalent expression, which does not require knowing the load borne by the front wheels nor the total vehicle mass, is for the minimum longitudinal acceleration required for a wheelie: a m i n = g b h where g is the acceleration due to gravity, b is the horizontal distance from the rear axle to the center of mass, h is the vertical distance from the ground to the center of mass.
Thus the minimum acceleration required is directly proportional to how far forward the center of mass is located and inversely proportional to how high it is located. Since mechanical power can be defined as force times velocity, in one dimension, force is equivalent to mass times acceleration, t