BMW 3 Series (E36)
The BMW E36 is the third generation of the BMW 3 Series range of compact executive cars, was produced from October 1990 to 2000. The initial models were of the four-door sedan body style, followed by the coupe, convertible and hatchback body styles in years; the E36 was the first 3 Series. It was the first 3 Series to be available with a six-speed manual transmission, a five-speed automatic transmission and a four-cylinder diesel engine; the multi-link rear suspension was a significant upgrade compared with previous generations of 3 Series. The E36 was named in Car and Driver magazine's 10Best list for every year it was on sale; the E36 M3 is powered by the BMW BMW S52 straight-six engine. The E36 M3 was available in coupé, sedan and convertible body styles. Following the introduction of its successor, the E46 3 Series in 1998, the E36 began to be phased out. Development of the E36 began in 1981 and the exterior design was influenced by aerodynamics the overall wedge shape, headlight covers and smaller wing mirrors.
The lead designers were Boyke Boyer. The E36 production was launched in October 1990, with press release in November and market launch in early 1991; the body styles of the range are: 4-door sedan/saloon, sold from 1991 to 1998. 2-door coupé, sold from January 1992 to 1999. 2-door convertible, sold from 1993 to 1999. A Baur "Top Cabriolet" conversion was available. 5-door wagon/estate, sold from 1994 to 1999. 3-door hatchback, sold from 1993 to 2000. Safety equipment available included a driver's airbag, passenger airbag, ABS braking and stability control. Electronic climate control was available on the E36; the four-cylinder petrol engines used in the E36 range were engines carried over from the previous generation 3 Series: the BMW M40 SOHC engine and the BMW M42 DOHC engine. In 1993, the M40 was replaced by the BMW M43 SOHC engine and the M42 was replaced in 1996 by the BMW M44 DOHC engine. For the six-cylinder models, the E36 was launched with the then-new BMW M50 DOHC petrol engines. In 1993 the M50TU versions added single-VANOS.
In 1995, the BMW M52 engine replaced the M50TU, resulting in the 328i model replacing the 325i and the addition of a new mid-range 323i model. The 1992 M3 introduced the 3.0 L BMW S50 engine. In 1995, its capacity was increased to 3.2 L and VANOS was added to the intake camshaft. * Sold as 316i in South Africa ** Sold as 318i in United States and South Africa Initially, the turbocharged straight-six BMW M51 engine was used in the E36 325td model. In 1993, the 325tds model was released, which added an intercooler to the M51. In 1994, the 318tds model was introduced, powered by the four-cylinder BMW M41 turbocharged and intercooled engine; the E36 was produced with the following transmissions: 5-speed manual 6-speed manual 4-speed automatic 5-speed automaticAll models are rear-wheel drive, since the E36 was not produced with all-wheel drive. The sedan, coupé, convertible and Touring models use the "Z-axle" multilink suspension in the rear, introduced in the BMW Z1 roadster; the hatchback models use a rear semi-trailing arm suspension based on the older E30 3 Series design.
This was done in order to save space due to the truncated rear end of the hatchback. The E36 M3 is powered by the BMW S50 and BMW S52 straight-six engines, was produced in coupé, sedan and convertible body styles; the Alpina "B6 2.8", "B3 3.0", "B3 3.2", "B8 4.0" and "B8 4.6" models were based on the E36. The B3 and B6 models were powered by straight-six engines, while the B8 models were powered by V8 engines; the 3 Series Compact range of three-door hatchback models were introduced in 1993, based on a shortened version of the E36 platform. The model code for the hatchback body style is "E36/5" and the model range consisted of the 316i, 318ti, 323ti and 318tds. A modified version of the E36 platform was used for the 1996-2002 Z3 roadster and coupé; the BMW E36 3 Series was imported as a Complete knock-down car. Between 1995 and 1999, the Thai market lineup included an exclusive 2.4L version of the M52 engine with 135 kW. The North American model range consisted of: 318i, 318is, 318ic 318ti 318i, 318ti 320i Canada only 323i Coupe and convertible models only.
323is, 323ic 325i, 325is, 325ic 325i, 325is, 325ic Coupe models sold as 325is. 328i 328is, 328ic Coupe models sold as 328is. M3 US-specific M3 engines: S50B30US and S52B32 Diesel models were not sold in the United States. A sport version of the 318i in coupé form, powered by the BMW M42 DOHC engine; the 318is had an Mtech bumper, skirt, 16-inch alloy wheels, a rear spoiler, a sportier interior. In 1993-1994 BMW North America produced 150 "325is Mtechnic" models. Bodyworks included the M3 front spoiler, side skirts, rear valence and rear-vision mirrors, all were painted with BMW Alpine White III; the result was a model with the appearance of a 1995 M3, however without the higher performance engine. Handling upgrades included 17-inch BBS alloy wheels, M Tech suspension and a limited slip differential. Joachim Winkelhock competed in the British Touring Car Championship with the 318i and 320i from 1993 to 1995, winning the title in 1993. In the
Alfa Romeo V6 engine
The Alfa Romeo V6 engine was a 60° V6 engine made by Alfa Romeo from 1979 to 2005. It was developed in the early 1970s by Giuseppe Busso, used on the Alfa 6 with a displacement of 2.5 L and a SOHC 12-valve cylinder head. Versions ranged from 1,997 to 3,195 cc and had DOHC 24-valve valvetrains; the original design had short pushrods for the exhaust valves in a design similar to earlier Lancia Fulvia engines. The first DOHC version was in the 1993 Alfa Romeo 164, with an aluminium alloy engine block and head with sodium filled exhaust valves; the Alfa Romeo V6 has been used in kit cars like the Ultima GTR, Hawk HF Series, DAX, as well as the Gillet Vertigo sports car. In August 2011 EVO magazine wrote that "the original Alfa Romeo V6 was the most glorious-sounding six-cylinder road engine ever," while the British Classic & Sports Car magazine described it as "the best sounding engine this side of a Maserati V8." A 2.0 L. Both carburetted 136 PS and fuel-injected 132 PS versions were available from the start.
Applications: 1983–1986 Alfa Romeo Alfa 6 2.0 V6 1984–1987 Alfa Romeo 90 2.0 V6 A 2.0 L. The engine has a bore and stroke of 80 mm × 66.2 mm. Applications: 1991–1992 Alfa Romeo 164 V6 Turbo 1992–1997 Alfa Romeo 164 Super V6 TB 1994–2000 Alfa Romeo GTV 2.0 V6 TB 1998–2000 Alfa Romeo Spider 2.0 V6 TB 1996–2000 Alfa Romeo 166 Super V6 TB The original engine displaced 2.5 L. It was a 2-valve-per-cylinder design with a single belt-driven camshaft per cylinder bank and six carburettors; the engine has a stroke of 88 mm × 68.3 mm. The Bosch L-Jetronic fuel injection was added for the 1983 Alfa 6, which produced the same 158 PS; the 2-valve engine ended its life in the Alfa 155, where there were two series for this engine, the 2.5 L. Differences between them were small and only on torque and power delivery producing the same horsepower. Applications: 1979–1986 Alfa Romeo Alfa 6 1980–1986 Alfa Romeo GTV6 1984–1987 Alfa Romeo 90 1985–1991 Alfa Romeo 75/Milano 1992–1997 Alfa Romeo 155 1985–1996 Fiat Croma 1987–1989 Rayton Fissore Magnum V6 In 1982, the German Alfa Romeo dealer and tuner Gleich offered a 2.8 conversion of the GTV6 2.5 engine.
Dieter Gleich was sure that engine displacement enlargement is still the best and, for the life of the engine, the healthiest way of tuning. The engine capacity was increased to nearly 2.8 liters by using new bushings and custom-built forged Mahle pistons while the compression ratio was raised from 9.5 to 10.5:1. The 2.5 liter was rebored to 93 mm. Total displacement was 2,783.7 cc. Power produced were 191 PS at 6,300 rpm and torque 24.6 kg⋅m at 4200 rpm. The magazine "Sport driver" tested a 2.8 Gleich powered GTV6 in June 1982: "After engaging the first gear and a somewhat careless step on the gas pedal you get a touched feel to the epiphany GTV6 shot, accompanied by the typical Alfa Romeo exhaust sound. It was a pleasure; the fact was the sprint from 0 to 100 km/h is not further under the seven-second limited by a tricky-to-be-shifted five-speed gearbox. The vehement propulsion waned only when the speedometer 230 km/h mark has left behind. Another eye-opening experience awaits when you realize that the lightning speed to 7000 rpm rotating in any gear pinion in fifth gear still from 1500 rpm is smooth."
Applications: 1982 Alfa Romeo Alfetta GTV6 2.8 Gleich The original 2.5 engine as used in the Alfa 6 was bored and stroked by Autodelta, the former Alfa Romeo racing department to match the racing rules for South African and Australian championships. Bore was increased from 88 mm to a new crankshaft stroked to 72 mm; the total displacement was 2,939.5 cc and it's a different engine from the 2,959 cc that powered the 75/Milano models. It was, too, a 2-valve-per-cylinder design with a single belt-driven camshaft per cylinder bank and six carburettors. Special camshafts and carbs were used giving a power figure of 176.4 PS at 5800 rpm. Torque was 222 N⋅m at 4300 rpm, while compression ratio was 9:1. Only 174 complete GTV6 3.0 SA cars were produced in 1984 plus 68 more in 1985. The last ones were fitted with EFI; the 3.0 GTV6 was sold in South Africa in 1983-1985, predating the release of the 3.0 L displacement to the rest of the world. This engine was an Autodelta hand made conversion based on Alfa Sei 2.5 carburated engines enlarged to bore and stroke of 93 mm × 72 mm.
Applications: 1984–1985 Alfa Romeo Alfetta GTV6 3.0 SA Pulled by the racing success of the 3.0 SA engine and looking for more power to boost 75/Milano sales in countries like USA, Alfa Romeo introduced a production version of the 3.0 engine. Bore was 93 mm, as the 3.0 SA. The total displacement was 2,959 cc; as the previous engines, it was a 2-valve-per-cylinder design with a single belt-driven camshaft per cylinder bank. The main difference with the racing 3.0 SA was the use of modern L-Jetronic fuel injection system by Bosch. Power figures vary from 188 PS to 192 PS at 5800 rpm, with compression ratio 9:1; this engine was modified for transverse placement in the 164 and fitted with a high-performance camshaft and low-restrictio
Midas has been designing and manufacturing audio consoles since the early 1970s. On it became part of the Telex group. When, in January 2006, Telex Communications was acquired by the Bosch group, Midas consoles became part of the business unit "Bosch Communications Systems". Midas are now part of The Music Group. Midas consoles are being used around the world by audio engineers in the live sound realm. Applications for these boards monitor console positions. Common and historical consoles include the Heritage 1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000, the venerable XL4, XL3 and XL200 & 250 large frame professional touring consoles and a variety of less expensive versions aimed at the club and regional sound market; the first digital console from Midas, the XL8, was launched at the Frankfurt Music Messe in 2006, becoming the flagship Midas console. Notable features include three pre-amps per channel to enable Front of House and broadcast control surfaces to be fed from the same input rack, dual redundant master control processors, integration with the Klark Teknik Helix EQ system via the Rapide remote.
In September 2008 at the annual PLASA tradeshow, Midas introduced the PRO6 Live Audio System, the second networked digital audio system from Midas. Employing technologies developed from the XL8, the PRO6 offers similar audio performance in a compact package. In 2010, the PRO3 and PRO9 digital consoles were added to the Midas product line, along with the VeniceF digital-analog hybrid console, which replaced the Venice analog console. At the 2011 PLASA show, Midas unveiled the PRO2 and PRO2C consoles, which bring Midas digital features from the larger PRO and XL8 consoles into a more compact package and a lower price point. Midas launched the PRO1 digital console at InfoComm 2012 in Las Vegas; the PRO1 features an smaller physical footprint and lower price point than the PRO2/PRO2C. In January 2014 at Winter NAMM in Anaheim, California, MIDAS introduced their newest console, the M32, based on hugely-successful Behringer X32 mixer, sharing most of OS but with different microphone preamps, same as in MIDAS Pro series mixers..
At that same time, Midas began retiring much of its analog console product line. The Verona analog console and VeniceF and VeniceU analog-digital hybrid versions of the original Venice console are still an active part of Midas' product line. Midas markets the digital audio distribution components that are used with their digital consoles as stand-alone digital snakes, or larger multi-site audio distribution networks. Linux is used at the core of all Midas digital consoles; this is mentioned prominently in their marketing materials, as well as in their preference for Linux development and kernel programming experience in job postings for development positions. At the core of all MIDAS Pro desks is standard PC motherboard with 4Gb flash card. In December 2009, Midas and Klark Teknik were acquired by Music Group, a holding company chaired by Uli Behringer, which owns other audio companies such as Turbosound and Bugera as well as Electronic Manufacturing Services company Eurotec. Midas Website
The Volvo V70 is an executive car manufactured and marketed by Volvo Cars from 1996 to 2016 across three generations. The name V70 combines the letter V, standing for versatility, 70, denoting relative platform size; the first generation debuted in November 1996. It was based on the P80 platform and was available with front and all-wheel drive, the latter marketed as the V70 AWD. In September 1997 a crossover version called the V70 V70 Cross Country was introduced; the sedan model was called Volvo S70. The second generation debuted in spring 2000, it was based on the P2 platform and, as with its predecessor, was offered as an all-wheel drive variant marketed as the V70 AWD and as a crossover version called V70 XC. For model year 2003 the crossover was renamed to XC70; the sedan model was called Volvo S60. The third generation debuted in February 2007, it was based on the P3 platform and marketed as the V70 and the XC70. Production of the V70 ended on 25 April 2016, the XC70 continued until 13 May 2016.
The sedan model was called Volvo S80. The first generation V70 was an improved development on the basis of the Volvo 850 estate, its overall design became more rounded doing away with the 850's square edges. Among the many changes were a revised front end painted bumpers and side trim and clear indicator lenses all around. Most of the interior was redesigned, with door panels and dashboard. According to Volvo a total of 1800 changes were made. Standard equipment was improved with remote central locking and electrically adjustable mirrors, two front- and two side airbags, power brakes with ABS and power windows being standard on every car. Trim levels varied for each market. In the United States, the badging denoted the engine variant, to some extent the equipment level, whereas in Europe engines and options could be chosen individually. In all markets more powerful versions received upgraded standard equipment; the T5 and R were the series high-performance models. Small cosmetic and major technical changes were introduced for model year 1999.
The Volvo logo on the front grill was redesigned, the square XC-style roof rails replaced the rounded version and black edge stickers on the rear doors were removed. Volvo improved the SRS-system airbags by introducing dual stage deployment logic for the front airbags, its second generation, side impact protection system side airbag, whose volume was increased to offer better protection. A whiplash protection system was introduced as part of the standard equipment. New engine management systems with drive-by-wire throttle replaced the mechanical throttle on all petrol turbo models, the turbo diesel engine retained a cable actuated throttle; the anti-lock braking system was upgraded from a three-channel to a four-channel system, an upgraded traction control now called STC was introduced. All-wheel drive models received redesigned rear calipers; the 4-speed automatic transmissions were upgraded to adaptive shift logic, replacing the previous three-mode selection. For model year 2000 a new 5-speed automatic transmission with adaptive shift logic was introduced.
It was only available on non-turbo, front-wheel drive models and the 2000 V70 R AWD. The aspirated 10V engine was replaced by a detuned 20V variant. Drive-by-wire throttle was introduced for all non-turbo petrol engines; the 2.0L V70 XC was discontinued. The standard V70 was available with a variety of engines and equipment; the standard configuration was front-wheel drive. An all-wheel drive version badged. For some markets Volvo offered a diesel version badged as V70 TDI. In countries such as Italy, with high taxes on cars with more than a 2.0L engine capacity, special petrol models with a 2000 cc engine capacity were offered. This included a 2.0T and a 2.0L T5 version, the latter with a lower power output than the 2.3L variant. An optional third row seat increased occupant capacity from five to seven seats while reducing underfloor storage space in the trunk. With the V70 Bi-Fuel Volvo continued to offer a factory compressed natural gas powered car. A 95-litre tank installed in the trunk allowed for a claimed range of 250 km running on CNG only.
Due to the bulky tank, rear cargo space was reduced considerably. Drivers could choose whether their car ran on CNG at the touch of a button. On Bi-Fuel models the temperature gauge in the instrument cluster was replaced by a level gauge for the gas tank. Several options, such as a trip computer and sports suspension, were not available for Bi-Fuel models. Neither Bi-Fuel nor TDI were offered on the North American market. Specialised vehicles, such as taxi and police versions, were available directly from the factory. Changes included preparations to install additional equipment, a certified calibrated speedometer, uprated brakes with wear indicators and a different level of standard equipment; the V70 XC referred to as the V70 Cross Country, the V70 AWD Cross Country, or the V70 Cross Country AWD was introduced in September 1997 at the Frankfurt Auto Show for the 1998 model year as a crossover version of the V70. It was available with only two engine and gearbox choices. In the US only the 2.4L turbo engine together with an automatic gearbox was available.
A 2.0L version of the V70 XC was available only for markets with high taxes on cars with an engine capacity of more than 2000 cc. Standard ride height was increased 35 mm overall with 26 mm more ground clearance comp
The BMW M44 is a DOHC four-cylinder petrol engine which replaced the BMW M42 and was produced from 1996-2001 at the Munich plant. It was produced alongside the BMW M43 SOHC four-cylinder engine, with the M44 being the higher performance engine. In 2001, the M44 was replaced by the BMW N42 engine. Compared with the M42, the M44 has revised rocker arms, a hot-wire MAF, displacement increased from 1.8 to 1.9 L and other detail changes. As per the final versions of the M42, the M44 has a dual length intake manifold. Peak power is the same as the M42, however torque is increased by 5 N⋅m; the M44 has a cast iron aluminium cylinder head, as per its predecessor. The M44B19 has a displacement of 1,895 cc, achieved through a bore of 85.0 mm and a stroke of 83.5 mm. A compression ratio of 10.0:1 is used, along with the Bosch Motronic 5.2 engine management system. The crankshaft is cast instead of forged. Revised were the valve actuators which are of a roller pivoting arm type. Applications: 1996-2000 E36 318iS, 318Ti and 318iC 1996-2001 Z3 1.9With time this engine was replaced by BMW N42 engine.
BMW List of BMW engines
Digifant engine management system
The Digifant engine management system is an electronic engine control unit, which monitors and controls the fuel injection and ignition systems in petrol engines, designed by Volkswagen Group, in cooperation with Robert Bosch GmbH. Digifant is the outgrowth of the Digijet fuel injection system first used on water-cooled Volkswagen A2 platform-based models. Digifant was introduced in 1986 on the 2.1 litre Volkswagen Type 2 engine. This system combined digital fuel control as used in the earlier Digi-Jet systems with a new digital ignition system; the combination of fuel injection control and ignition control is the reason for the name "Digifant II" on the first version produced. Digifant as used in Volkswagen Golf and Volkswagen Jetta models simplified several functions, added knock sensor control to the ignition system. Other versions of Digifant appeared on the Volkswagen Fox, Volkswagen Transporter, as well as 1993 and production versions of the rear-engined Volkswagen Beetle, sold only in Mexico.
Lower-power versions, 16-valve variants were produced. Nearly exclusive to the European market, Volkswagen AG subsidiary Audi AG used the Digifant system, namely in its 2.0 E variants of the Audi 80 and Audi 100. Digifant is an engine management system designed to take advantage of the first generation of newly developed digital signal processing circuits. Production changes and updates were made to keep the system current with the changing California and federal emissions requirements. Updates were made to allow integration of other vehicle systems into the scope of engine operation. Changes in circuit technology and processing speed along with evolving emissions standards, resulted in the development of new engine management systems; these new system incorporated adaptive learning fuzzy logic and expanded diagnostics, the ability to meet total vehicle emissions standards. Fuel injection control is digitally electronic, it is based on the measurement engine load, on engine speed. These primary signals are compared to a'map', or table of values, stored in the Engine Control Module memory.
The amount of fuel delivered is controlled by the duration of actuation of the fuel injector. This value is taken from a programme in the ECM that has 16 points for speed; these 256 primary values are modified by coolant temperature, intake air temperature, oxygen content of the exhaust, car battery voltage and throttle position - to provide 65,000 possible injector duration points. Digifant is unlike the earlier CIS and CIS-E fuel injection systems that it replaced, in that fuel injectors are mounted on a common fuel rail. CIS fuel injection systems used mechanical fuel injectors; the fuel injectors are wired in parallel, are supplied with Constant System Voltage. The ECM switches the earth/ground off to control duration. All injectors operate at the same time each crankshaft revolution. Ignition system control is digital electronic; the sensors that supply the engine load and engine speed signals for injector duration provide information about the basic ignition timing point. The signal sent to the Hall control unit is derived from a programme in the ECM, similar to the injector duration programme.
Engine knock control is used to allow the ignition timing to continually approach the point of detonation. This is the point where the engine will produce the most motive power, as well as the highest efficiency. Additional functions of the ECM include operation of the fuel pump by closing the Ground for the fuel pump relay, control of idle speed by a throttle plate bypass valve; the Idle Air Control Valve, receives a changing milliamp signal that varies the strength of an electromagnet pulling open the bypass valve. Idle speed stabilisation is enhanced by a process known as Idle Speed Control; this function, allows the ECM to modify ignition timing at idle to further improve idle quality. The 25 pin electronic control unit used in the Golf and Jetta receives inputs from the following sources: Hall sender unit Air Flow Sensor Coolant temperature sensor Intake Air Temperature sensor Knock sensorAdditional signals used as inputs are: Air conditioner Car battery voltage Starter motor signal The Anti-lock Braking System, three-speed automatic transmission, vehicle speed sensor are not linked to this system.
Outputs controlling engine operation include signals to the following: Fuel injectors Idle Air Control Valve Hall control unit Fuel pump relay Oxygen sensor heater The evaporative emission system is controlled by a vacuum-operated mechanical carbon canister control valve. Fuel pressure is maintained by a vacuum operated mechanical fuel pressure regulator on the fuel injector rail assembly. Inputs and outputs are shown in the following illustration. Digifant II as used on Golf and Jetta vehicles provides the basis for this chart. In North America, Volkswagen released two other versions of the Digifant fuel injection system. A limited number of 1987-1990 California Golf and Jetta models are equipped with Digifant II that features an on-board diagnostics system; these vehicles have'blink code' capacity to store up
Broadcast Television Systems Inc.
Broadcast Television Systems was a joint venture between Robert Bosch GmbH's Fernseh Division and Philips Broadcast in Breda, Netherlands formed in 1986. Philips had been in the broadcast market for many years with a line of PC- and LDK- Norelco professional video cameras and other video products. By the 1980s, the Norelco name was dropped in favour of Philips. Robert Bosch GmbH's Fernseh Division had a long history going back to the early days of Television. BTS's North America headquarters was at first located in Utah; this was moved to Simi Valley, California, in 1991 returning SLC. In 1991, BTS Latin America headed by Mario Castellanos entered into an agreement to provide Televisa SA of Mexico what was believed to be until that time, the largest equipment sale in history. In 1995 Philips Electronics North America Corp. acquired BTS Inc. renaming it Philips Broadcast-Philips Digital Video Systems. The BTS Inc.'s Darmstadt factory in Germany was near the Darmstadt Train Station and European Space Operations Centre this was moved a short distance to Weiterstadt, Germany.
In March 2001 Philips' broadcast video division was sold to the current owner. In 2002, the French electronics giant Thomson SA acquired the Grass Valley Group from Terry Gooding of San Diego, CA, USA. Grass Valley, Inc. the Thomson, Grass Valley, a Thomson Brand is headquartered in Nevada City, California. The Thomson Film Division, located in Weiterstadt including the product line of Spirit DataCine, Bones Work station and LUTher 3D Color Space converter, was sold to Parter Capital Group; the sale was made public on Sept. 9, 2008 and completed on Dec. 1, 2008. The new headquarters is in the former Bosch Fernseh - BTS factory. Parter Capital Group will continue to have worldwide offices to support products from Weiterstadt, Germany; the new name of the company is Digital Film Technology. On October 1, 2012 Precision Mechatronics and DFT were acquired by Prasad Corp, part of Prasad Studios. In 2013 DFT moved from Weiterstadt to Germany. Grass Valley operated offices in the cities of all the former acquisitions: Cergy, France Salt Lake City, Utah, USA - from TeleMation Inc.
-Bell and Howell - BTS Beaverton, Oregon, USA - from Tektronix Nevada City, California, USA - from Grass Valley Group Breda, Netherlands - from Philips - Norelco - BTSAfter the financial crisis of 2008, Thomson became upside-down in its financial covenants and was forced by its creditors to divest itself of Grass Valley and other manufacturing entities. On January 29, 2009, Thomson announced. In 2010, the Grass Valley business unit, not including the head-end and transmission businesses, was acquired by private equity firm Francisco Partners and resumed operating as an independent company on January 1, 2011. Grass Valley still maintains offices worldwide. Grass Valley was sold to Belden on February 6, 2014, Belden owns Miranda. See: Fernseh - for German-made products TeleMation Inc. for SLC products. Philips invented the plumbicon pick up video camera tube in 1965. Starting with the LDK 90 camera, Philips used their Frame transfer CCD - Charge-coupled device. Philips' patented Dynamic Pixel Management FT-17 CCD technology won awards and was first used in the 1994 LDK10 and LDK10p camera.
Philips-BTS product from Breda, professional video camera products: Current: LDK 300 CCD Thomson Grassvalley LDK 400 CCD Thomson Grassvalley LDK 500 CCD Thomson Grassvalley 2003 LDK23HS Mk2 CCD Super slow mo Thomson Grassvalley LDK 5000 CCD Thomson Grassvalley TTV 1657D CCD Thomson Grassvalley LDK 20S CCD Thomson Grassvalley LDK 1707 CCD Thomson Grassvalley LDK 4000 CCD HDTV Thomson Grassvalley LDK 5000 CCD HDTV Thomson Grassvalley LDK 6000 CCD HDTV Thomson Grassvalley LDK 6200 CCD HDTV Super SloMo LDK 8000 CCD HDTV/SDTVPhilips early VTRs: LDL110 Portable NL1500 cassette LDL110 Portable 1977 NL1702 VR202 VR2350 Outstanding Achievement in Technical/Engineering Development Awards from National Academy of Television Arts & Sciences. 1966-1967 PLUMBICON TUBE - N. V. Philips -Breda 1987-1988 FGS 4000 computer animation system CGI- BTS -SLC, UT 1991-1992 Triaxial cable Technology for Color Television Cameras -N. V. Philips -Breda 1992-1993 Prism Technology for Color Television Cameras -N. V. Philips -Breda 1993-1994 Controlled Edge Enhancement Utilizing Skin Hue KeyingBTS and Ikegami -Breda 1997-1998 Development of a High Resolution Digital Film Scanner Eastman Kodak and Philips Germany.
See Spirit DataCine 2000-2001 Pioneering developments in shared video-data storage systems for use in television video servers - BTS/Philips/Thomson/ - SLC, UT 2002-2003 Technology to encode multiple video qualities and the corresponding metadata to enable real-time conformance and / or playout of the higher quality video based on the decisions made using the lower quality proxies Montage. Philips and Thomson. Fernseh TeleMation Inc. Philips Robert Bosch GmbH Norelco Grass Valley Thomson SA Professional video camera tmquest.com onBTS Product thefreelibrary.com On BTS thefreelibrary.com On BTS, ABC'S KGO-TV Picks BTS Video Server to Go All Digital. Article from: Broadcasting & Cable | May 15, 1995 | McConnell, Chris business.highbeam.com New cable networks going digital. (includes related ar