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Mouflon

The mouflon is a subspecies group of the wild sheep. Populations of O. orientalis can be partitioned into the urials. The mouflon is thought to be the ancestor for all modern domestic sheep breeds; the wild sheep of Corsica were locally called mufra. The French naturalist Buffon rendered this in French as moufflon. Mouflon sheep have reddish to dark brown, short-haired coats with dark back stripes and black ventral areas and light-colored saddle patches; the males are horned. The horns of mature rams are curved in one full revolution. Mouflon have shoulder heights around 0.9 body weights of 50 kg and 35 kg. Today, mouflon inhabit the Caucasus, Anatolia and eastern Iraq, most parts of Iran and Armenia; the range stretched further to the Crimean peninsula and the Balkans, where they had disappeared 3,000 years ago and came back to Bulgaria. Mouflon were introduced to the islands of Corsica, Sardinia and Cyprus during the neolithic period as feral domesticated animals, where they have naturalized in the mountainous interiors of these islands over the past few thousand years, giving rise to the subspecies known as European mouflon.

On the island of Cyprus, the mouflon or agrino became a different and endemic subspecies known as the Cyprus mouflon. The Cyprus mouflon population contains only about 3,000 animals, they are now rare on the islands, but are classified as feral animals by the IUCN. They were successfully introduced into continental Europe, including Portugal, France, central Italy, Austria, the Netherlands, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, the Canary Islands, some northern European countries such as Denmark and Finland. A small colony exists in the remote Kerguelen Islands in the southern Indian Ocean, on the Veliki Brijun Island in the Brijuni Archipelago of the Istrian Peninsula in Croatia. In South America, mouflon have been introduced into central Argentina. Since the 1980s, they have been introduced to game ranches in North America for the purpose of hunting. Mouflon have been introduced as game animals into Spieden Island in Washington state, into the Hawaiian islands of Lanai and Hawaii where they have become a problematic invasive species.

A small population escaped from an animal enclosure owned by Thomas Watson, Jr. on the island of North Haven, Maine, in the 1990s and still survives there. Their normal habitats are steep mountainous woods near tree lines. In winter, they migrate to lower altitudes; the scientific classification of the mouflon is disputed. Five subspecies of mouflon are distinguished by MSW3: Armenian mouflon, Ovis orientalis gmelini, northwestern Iran and Azerbaijan, it has been introduced in Texas, US. European mouflon, O. o. musimon was introduced about 7,000 years ago in Corsica and Sardinia for the first time. It has since been introduced in many parts of Europe. Cyprus mouflon, Ovis gmelini ophion called agrino, was nearly extirpated during the 20th century. In 1997, about 1,200 of this subspecies were counted; the television show Born to Explore with Richard Wiese reported. Esfahan mouflon, O. o. isphahanica, is from Iran. Laristan mouflon, O. o. laristanica, is a small subspecies. The eastern and the European mouflon appear in scientific literature as separate species, Ovis musimon and Ovis orientalis.

The mouflons are sometimes treated as a subspecies of the domestic sheep, Ovis aries, named with the same subspecific epithet as above: O. a. musimon, O. a. ophion, etc. Based on comparison of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences, three groups of sheep have been identified: Pachyceriforms of Siberia and North America, Argaliforms of Central Asia, Moufloniforms of Eurasia. However, a comparison of the mitochondrial DNA control region found that two subspecies of urial, Ovis vignei arkal and O. v./o. bochariensis, grouped with two different clades of argali. The ancestral sheep is presumed to have had 60 chromosomes, as in goats. Mouflon and domestic sheep have 54 chromosomes, with three pairs of ancestral acrocentric chromosomes joined to form bi-armed chromosomes; this is in contrast to the urial, which have 56 and 58 chromosomes respectively. If the urial is as related to the mouflons as mitochondrial DNA indicates two chromosomes would need to have split during its evolution away from the mouflon species.

In the Systema Naturæ, Linnaeus and Gmelin treated the argali as one species. Von Schreiber used the combination Ovis aries musimon as early as 1782. In 1792, Robert Kerr listed the "Corsican argali" as a separate variety of argali, writing I have introduced this variety on the authority of Mr Pennant, who distinguishes between the Argali of Corsica and the Siberian, though the difference seems chiefly in colour.

Pennsylvania Route 54

Pennsylvania Route 54 is a state highway which runs for 82 miles in eastern Pennsylvania. It runs from U. S. Route 15, three miles west of Montgomery, Lycoming County in the west, to US 209 in Nesquehoning, Carbon County in the east. PA 54 begins at an intersection with US 15 in Clinton Township, Lycoming County, heading east on a two-lane undivided road; the road passes through farmland and woodland with homes as it passes to the south of Bald Eagle Mountain. The route curves southeast before it runs past businesses. PA 54 becomes Main Street, passing homes; the route passes through the downtown area of Montgomery before it turns northeast onto Montgomery Street, running between residences and businesses to the northwest and Norfolk Southern's Buffalo Line to the southeast. PA 54 comes to an intersection with PA 405, which continues northeast on Montgomery Street, the two routes become concurrent and head southeast on 2nd Street, crossing the railroad tracks and running through residential areas.

The road crosses the West Branch Susquehanna River and leaves Montgomery for Muncy Creek Township, becoming unnamed and turning southwest into wooded areas. PA 54/PA 405 head into Delaware Township in Northumberland County and run through farmland before PA 405 splits to the southwest. PA 54 continues southeast through farm fields and woodland, passing through the community of Delaware Run; the road runs through more rural land with some development. The route reaches a diamond interchange with Interstate 180, with a park and ride lot located at the northwest corner of this interchange. Past here, PA 54 has an intersection with the Susquehanna Trail, at which point it crosses into Lewis Township; the road runs through agricultural areas with some woods and residences. The route heads into the borough of Turbotville and passes businesses, coming to an intersection with PA 44. At this point, PA 44 turns east for a concurrency with PA 54 and the road gains a center left-turn lane as it runs past more businesses.

The road becomes two lanes again and heads back into Lewis Township, running through a patch of woodland before heading through farmland with some development. PA 44/PA 54 head into Limestone Township in Montour County and the road becomes Continental Boulevard, passing through more rural areas. PA 44 splits from PA 54 near the community of Schuyler by turning northeast, PA 54 continues southeast into Anthony Township; the road runs through farmland with some wooded residences. The route crosses into Derry Township, turning south in the community of Dieffenbach and crossing Norfolk Southern's Watsontown Secondary before running through rural areas to the west of the Montour Power Plant. PA 54 crosses the Chillisquaque Creek before it enters the small borough of Washingtonville, where the name becomes Water Street and the route is lined with homes along with a few businesses; the road heads back into Derry Township and becomes Continental Boulevard again, running through woods before coming to a junction with PA 254.

The route continues south through farmland with some wooded areas and homes, heading into Valley Township. PA 54 heads into forested areas and gains a second eastbound lane as it climbs a hill, turning to the east into areas of fields with some homes; the road becomes two lanes again before it gains a second westbound lane as it descends the hill, heading into forests and turning to the south. The route becomes a four-lane divided highway and curves southeast, passing through rural areas with some homes. PA 54 heads past businesses; the road runs through wooded areas with some development prior to reaching an intersection with PA 642 near the community of Mausdale. A park and ride lot is located east of this intersection. Here, PA 642 heads southeast for a short concurrency with PA 54. PA 54 crosses into Mahoning Township and heads through a gap in forested Montour Ridge, passing near some development; the road enters the borough of Danville, running past businesses. The route heads south-southwest and comes to an intersection with US 11 before it crosses the North Shore Railroad.

PA 54 passes more commercial development before coming to an intersection with Mahoning Street. At this point, the route becomes two-lane undivided Factory Street and heads through a short tunnel as it passes through a residential neighborhood, coming to a bridge over the Susquehanna River and crossing back into Mahoning Township as it begins to head over the river. Upon crossing the Susquehanna River, PA 54 enters the borough of Riverside in Northumberland County and becomes Mill Street, crossing Norfolk Southern's Sunbury Line. After the railroad crossing, the route turns southeast onto Elysburg Road and runs between residential areas to the southwest and the Sunbury Line and the Susquehanna River to the northeast; the road leaves Riverside for Rush Township and heads through wooded areas alongside the railroad tracks and the river. The Sunbury Line and Susquehanna River curve east away from the road and the route continues southeast through farmland with some woods and development. PA 54 continues through rural land, curving back to the southeast.

The road gains a second eastbound lane and passes through the community of Union Corner as it ascends a hill. The route reaches the top of the hill and is four lanes before it descends the hill with one eastbound lane and two westbound lanes. PA 54 continues southeast through farms and woods with some homes and descends a hill as it gains a second westbound lane; the road enters Mayberry Township in Montour County before it enters Ralpho Township in North

Timpanogos

The Timpanogos were a tribe of Native Americans who inhabited a large part of central Utah—particularly, the area from Utah Lake eastward to the Uinta Mountains and south into present-day Sanpete County. In some accounts they were called the Timpiavat, Timpanogotzi, Timpannah and other names. During the mid-19th century, when Mormon pioneers entered the territory, the Timpanogos were one of the principal tribes in Utah based on population, area occupied and influence. Scholars have had difficulty identifying their language; the Timpanogos have been classified as Ute people. They may have been a Shoshone band. Nineteenth-century historian Hubert Howe Bancroft wrote in 1882 that the Timpanogos were one of four sub-bands of the Shoshone. Chief Walkara known as Chief Walker, was a noted mid-19th-century chief who led his people against Mormon settlers in the Walker War; the Shoshone and Ute shared a common genetic and linguistic heritage as part of the Numic branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family.

Most Timpanogos live on the Uintah Valley Reservation, established by executive order in 1861 and affirmed by congressional legislation in 1864, where they are counted with the Ute Indian Tribe of the Uintah and Ouray Reservation. In 2002, the Timpanogos won a federal case against the state in the Court of Appeals upholding their traditional rights to hunt and gather on the reservation; the court concluded that their relationship with the federal government was well-established, although they are not listed by the Department of the Interior as a federally-recognized tribe. They have submitted an application and documentation to the Department of the Interior seeking federal recognition as an independent tribe; the Timpanogos entered Utah as part of the southern Numic expansion around 1000 CE or in the subsequent central Numic Shoshonean expansion north and west from their Numic homelands in the Sierra Nevada. They were hunter-gatherers, living on fish and wild game caught by the men and cooked and processed by the women and on the seeds and roots of wild plants gathered and prepared by the women.

As part of their religion, in the mornings they gathered together and greeted the morning with song to express gratitude to the Creator. They were divided into each with its headman, spiritual leader and warrior; the clans would band together for specific purposes, such as hunting. There was no division of the land, people were free to travel to different villages, they developed an extensive trading network. The Timpanogos lived in the Wasatch Range around Mount Timpanogos, along the southern and eastern shores of Utah Lake of the Utah Valley and in Heber Valley, Uinta Basin and Sanpete Valley; the band around Utah Lake became dominant due to the area's food supply. During the spring spawning season at Utah Lake, the tribes hosted an annual fish festival. Timpanogos and Shoshone bands would come from 200 miles away to gather fish. At the festival there was dancing, trading, horse races and feasting, it was an opportunity for young people to find a mate from another clan, since exogamous marriage was required.

The shores of Utah Lake became a sacred meeting place for the Timpanogos and Shoshone tribes. The first known Europeans to enter this area were a Spanish expedition of Franciscan missionaries led by Father Silvestre Vélez de Escalante; the Dominguez–Escalante Expedition of 1776 was trying to find a land route from Santa Fe, New Mexico to Monterey, California. Two or three Timpanogos from the Utah Valley were guides for the party. On September 23, 1776, they entered the Utah Valley. Escalante documented the expedition in his journal, describing the people who lived around Utah Lake: Round about it are these Indians, who live on the abundant fish of the lake, for which reason the Yutas Sabuaganas call them Come Pescados. Besides this, they gather in the plain grass seeds from which they make atole, which they supplement by hunting hares and fowl of which there is great abundance here; the explorers named many geographic features in central Utah for the Timpanog tribe, who were led by Turunianchi.

The next recorded European visitor was Étienne Provost, a French-Canadian trapper who visited the Timpanog in October 1824. In 1826, American mountain man Jedediah Smith visited a camp along the Spanish Fork River with 35 lodges and about 175 people. By the time Mormon pioneers arrived in the Salt Lake Valley in 1847, the Timpanogos were guided by Turunianchi's grandson, Walkara. Walkara led the tribe with a number of sub-chiefs, most of whom were his brothers: Chief Arapeen, Chief San-Pitch, Chief Kanosh, Chief Sowiette, Chief Tabby-To-Kwanah, Chief Grospean and Chief Amman. Brigham Young once called them a "royal line" of Indian chiefs, they had hereditary leadership through their clan. Parley P. Pratt explored the Utah Utah Lake; the first battle between settlers and Indians, known by the Americans as the Battle Creek massacre, occurred in early March 1849 at present-day Pleasant Grove, Utah. A company of 40 Mormon men went to the Utah Valley to persuade the Timpanogos to stop stealing cattle from the Salt Lake Valley.

Brigham Young ordered the Mormons "to take such measures as would put a final end to their depredations in future". The company went to the village of Little Chief