In architecture and structural engineering, a space frame or space structure is a rigid, truss-like structure constructed from interlocking struts in a geometric pattern. Space frames can be used to span large areas with few interior supports. Like the truss, a space frame is strong because of the inherent rigidity of the triangle. Steel space frames provide great freedom of expression and composition as well as the possibility to evenly distribute loads along each rod and external constraints. With these features, steel space frames can be used to achieve complex geometries with a structural weight lower than any other solution; the inner hyper-static system provides an increased resistance to damages caused by fire, explosions and earthquakes. Space frames are modular and made of industrialized elements designed with a remarkable dimensional accuracy and precise surface finish. Alexander Graham Bell from 1898 to 1908 developed space frames based on tetrahedral geometry. Bell's interest was in using them to make rigid frames for nautical and aeronautical engineering, with the tetrahedral truss being one of his inventions.
Dr. Ing. Max Mengeringhausen developed the space grid system called MERO in 1943 in Germany, thus initiating the use of space trusses in architecture; the used method, still in use has individual tubular members connected at node joints and variations such as the space deck system, octet truss system and cubic system. Stéphane de Chateau in France invented Unibat system, Pyramitec. A method of tree supports was developed to replace the individual columns. Buckminster Fuller patented the octet truss in 1961 while focusing on architectural structures. Space frames are designed using a rigidity matrix; the special characteristic of the stiffness matrix in an architectural space frame is the independence of the angular factors. If the joints are sufficiently rigid, the angular deflections can be neglected, simplifying the calculations; the simplest form of space frame is a horizontal slab of interlocking square pyramids and tetrahedra built from aluminium or tubular steel struts. In many ways this looks like the horizontal jib of a tower crane repeated many times to make it wider.
A stronger form is composed of interlocking tetrahedra. More technically this is referred to as an isotropic vector matrix or in a single unit width an octet truss. More complex variations change the lengths of the struts to curve the overall structure or may incorporate other geometrical shapes. Within the meaning of space frame, we can find three systems different between them:Curvature classification Space plane covers; these spatial structures are composed of planar substructures. Their behavior is similar to that of a plate in which the deflections in the plane are channeled through the horizontal bars and the shear forces are supported by the diagonals. Barrel vaults; this type of vault has a cross section of a simple arch. This type of space frame does not need to use tetrahedral modules or pyramids as a part of its backing. Spherical domes and other compound curves require the use of tetrahedral modules or pyramids and additional support from a skin. Classification by the arrangement of its elements Single layer grid.
All elements are located on the surface to be approximated. Double layer grid; the elements are organized in two layers parallel to each other at a certain distance apart. Each of the layers form a lattice of triangles, squares or hexagons in which the projection of the nodes in a layer may overlap or be displaced relative to each other. Diagonal bars connect the nodes of both layers in different directions in space. In this type of meshes, the elements are associated into three groups: upper cordon and cordon lower diagonal. Triple layer grid. Elements are placed in three parallel layers, linked by the diagonals, they are always flat. Other examples classifiable. Emerged to try to solve the problems that formwork and pouring concrete had their counterparts. Run with welded joint, but may raise prefabricated joints, a fact which makes them space meshes. Hanging covers. Designs on the cable taut and the catenary arch antifunicular show their ability to channel forces theoretically better than any other alternative, have an infinite range of possibilities for composition and adaptability to any type of plant cover or ensure vain.
However, imprecisions in shape having the loaded strand and the risk of bending the arc to unexpected stresses are problems that require pre-compression and prestressing elements. Although in most cases tend to be the cheapest and the technical solution that best fits the acoustics and ventilation of the covered enclosure, are vulnerable to vibration. Pneumatic structures. Wherein the closure membrane is subjected to a pressurized state, may be considered within this group. Space frames are a common feature in modern building construction. Examples of buildings based on space frames include: Stansted airport, by Foster and Partners Bank of China Tower and the Louvre Pyramid, by I. M. Pei Rogers Centre by Rod Robbie and Michael Allan McCormick Place East in Chicago Eden Project in Cornwall, England Globen, Sweden - Dome with diameter of 110 m, Biosphere 2 by John P. Allen, Phil Hawes, Peter Jon Pearce in Oracle, Arizona Jacob K. Javits Convention Center, New
Peter Reyner Banham, FRIBA was an English architectural critic and writer best known for his theoretical treatise Theory and Design in the First Machine Age and for his 1971 book Los Angeles: The Architecture of Four Ecologies. In the latter he categorized the Los Angeles experience into four ecological models and explored the distinct architectural cultures of each. Banham worked in London, but lived in the United States from the late 1960s until the end of his life, he was born in Norwich, England to Percy Banham, a gas engineer, Violet Frances Maud Reyner. He was educated at Norwich School and gained an engineering scholarship with the Bristol Aeroplane Company, where he spent much of the Second World War. In Norwich he gave art lectures, wrote reviews for the local paper and was involved with the Maddermarket Theatre. In 1949 Banham entered the Courtauld Institute of Art in London where he studied under Anthony Blunt, Sigfried Giedion and Nikolaus Pevsner. Pevsner, his doctoral supervisor, invited Banham to study the history of modern architecture, following his own work Pioneers of the Modern Movement.
In 1952 Banham began working for the Architectural Review, having written regular exhibition reviews for ArtReview titled Art News and Review. Banham had connections with the Independent Group, the 1956 This Is Tomorrow art exhibition – considered by many to the birth of pop art – and the thinking of the Smithsons and of James Stirling, on the'New Brutalism', which he documented in his 1966 book The New Brutalism: Ethic or Aesthetic? But before this in Theory and Design in the First Machine Age, he cut across mentor Pevsner's main theories, linking modernism to build structures in which the'functionalism' was subject to formal structures, he wrote a Guide to Modern Architecture. Banham predicted a "second age" of the mass consumption; the Architecture of Well-Tempered Environment follows Giedion's Mechanization Takes Command, putting the development of technologies such as electricity and air conditioning ahead of the classic account of structures. In the 1960s, Cedric Price, Peter Cook, the Archigram group found this to be an absorbing arena of thought.
Green thinking and the oil shock of 1973 affected him. The'postmodern' was for him uneasy, he evolved into the conscience of postwar British architecture, he broke with technical formalism. Scenes in America Deserta talks of open spaces and his anticipation of a'modern' future. In A Concrete Atlantis: U. S. Industrial Building and European Modern Architecture, 1900–1925 Banham demonstrates the influence of American grain elevators and "Daylight" factories on the Bauhaus and other modernist projects in Europe; as a professor, Banham taught at the Bartlett School of Architecture, University College London and the State University of New York Buffalo, through the 1980s at the University of California, Santa Cruz. He had been appointed the Sheldon H. Solow Professor of the History of Architecture at the Institute of Fine Arts, New York University shortly before his death, but he never taught there, he was featured in the short documentary Reyner Banham Loves Los Angeles. In 1988 he was added to the College of Medallists.
In 2003, Nigel Whiteley published a critical biography of Banham, Reyner Banham: Historian of the Immediate Future, in which he gives an in-depth overview of Banham's work and ideas. Theory and Design in the First Machine Age. Praeger. 1960. Theory and Design in the First Machine Age: Second Edition. Praeger. 1967. Guide to Modern Architecture. Architectural Press. 1962. ISBN 978-0-85139-261-5; the New Brutalism. Architectural Press. 1966. Architecture of the Well-Tempered Environment. Architectural Press. 1969. ISBN 978-0-85139-073-4. Architecture of the Well-tempered Environment: Second, Revised Edition. Architectural Press. 1984. ISBN 978-0-85139-749-8. Los Angeles: The Architecture of Four Ecologies. Harper and Row. 1971. ISBN 978-0-7139-0209-9. Megastructure. Thames and Hudson Ltd. 1976. Scenes in America Deserta. Thames and Hudson. 1982. ISBN 978-0-500-01292-5. A Concrete Atlantis: US Industrial Building and European Modern Architecture. MIT Press. 1989. ISBN 978-0-262-52124-6. Julian Cooper, Malcolm Brown. Reyner Banham Loves Los Angeles.
BBC. OCLC 748594258. Retrieved 31 August 2013. 52 minute episode from the BBC series One pair of eyes. Banham narrates a video tour of Los Angeles. "Reyner Banham's Unwarranted Apology". Solarhousehistory.com. "Reyner Banham on Solar Heating". Solarhousehistory.com. Reyner Banham Papers at the Getty Research Institute
Giant Manufacturing Co. Ltd. is a Taiwanese bicycle manufacturer, recognized as the world's largest bicycle manufacturer. Giant has manufacturing facilities in Taiwan, the Netherlands, China. Giant was established in 1972 in Taichung County, by King Liu and several friends. A major breakthrough came in 1977 when Giant’s chief executive, Tony Lo, negotiated a deal with Schwinn to begin manufacturing bikes as an OEM, manufacturing bicycles to be sold under other brand names as a private label; as bike sales increased in the U. S. and after workers at the Schwinn plant in Chicago went on strike in 1980, Giant became a key supplier, making more than two-thirds of Schwinn bikes by the mid-1980s, representing 75% of Giant’s sales. When Schwinn decided to find a new source and in 1987 signed a contract with the China Bicycle Company to produce bikes in Shenzhen, under new president Bill Austin, established its own brand of bicycles to compete in the expanding $200-and-above price range. In 1984, Giant set up a joint venture, "Giant Europe," with Andries Gaastra of Dutch bicycle manufacturer Koga-Miyata.
In 1992, Gaastra sold his shares back, Giant became a full shareholder of Giant Europe. By 2018, Giant had sales in over 50 countries, in more than 12,000 retail stores, its total annual sales in 2017 reached 6.6 million bicycles with revenue of US$1.9 billion. In 2008 Giant launched the Liv/Giant sub-brand with products focused on the female cycling market. In 2014, the Liv/Giant sub-brand was re-branded to Liv; the re-branding was meant to further differentiate the Liv brand products with existing Giant product, communicating the concept of "designed by women for women". All Liv products are designed from the ground up including frame geometry, carbon layup and utilizes separate molds and designs that separate it from Giant branded products; as part of the rebranding, dedicated Liv stores and Liv zones within most Giant retailers were introduced. In 2015, Giant announced the global launch of its Momentum brand lifestyle bikes; the first two models, the iNeed Street and iWant Park, had an ARP of US$425 and were aimed at a younger, more urban demographic than Giant's more expensive performance road and mountain bikes.
In 1995, Giant designed the first road bicycle with a sloping top tube featuring a smaller rear triangle. The tighter chainstay-seatstay configuration is said to be inherently stiffer than a more conventional frame design, because less material is used, the Compact Road design is said to be lighter. With more responsive cornering and improved acceleration, as well as improved aerodynamics, the Giant design became imitated. By 1998, with Mike Burrows, Giant refined the design for racing by the professional ONCE team; this was only after initial resistance by the Union Cycliste Internationale and subsequent amendment to its regulations to allow for bicycles with a sloping top tube. Giant road frames were made of 6061 aluminium alloy and were characterised by bladed forks and seatposts to reduce air resistance. Frames came in three sizes, with riders fitted through the use of stems and seatposts of different lengths. By 2018, Giant road frames were available in up to six sizes. In 2003, the TCR frame was offered in carbon fibre construction and marketed as the TCR Composite range.
In 2006, Giant added a higher-grade carbon fibre frame marketed as the TCR Advanced frame, characterised by an integrated seatpost. These frames were most notably raced at the Tour de France by T-Mobile's professional team. Using this design, the seatpost on the new frame must be cut to fit the owner by a trained Giant dealer; the TCR Advanced SL frames with ISP continued to be raced internationally, most notably by the Rabobank team, Team Giant-Shimano, Giant-Alpecin and Team Sunweb. In terms of other innovations, Giant introduced its Maestro suspension in 2006. Maestro Suspension, according to Giant, is designed to deliver an efficient rear suspension power transfer. Maestro utilizes a setup of four pivot points and two linkages to create a floating pivot point, designed to reduce pedal bob and enables the rear wheel to travel vertically; as of 2018, Giant categorizes its bicycles by user: On-Road X-Road Off-Road E-bikes YouthWithin each Level are several Uses, such as Race, City, etc. In late 2016, Giant announced the Road-E+ e-Bike, which features: HCT drive system 500 watt 80Nm Yamaha mid drive motor 400Wh or 500Wh EnergyPack integrated frame battery PedalPlus 4-sensor technology, RideControl display & control pad with Bluetooth integration.
Giant's first foray into professional road cycling was with now defunct Spanish Team ONCE directed by Manolo Sainz using Giant TCR frames in custom sizes for each individual rider, Laurent_Jalabert was one of the most notable cyclists in the ONCE TeamGiant sponsors a number of cycling teams as well as individual athletes. In road cycling, Giant celebrated multiple achievements as the bike supplier of UCI WorldTeam Team Sunweb, which competes in the highest level of road cycling, they are most noted for when both men and women teams won the Team Time Trial event at the 2017 UCI World Championships in Bergen, Norway. Notable riders include winner of the pink jersey in the 2017 Giro d'Italia. In 2019, Giant switched sponsorship from Team Sunweb to CCC Pro
Strida is a portable belt-driven folding bicycle with a distinctive'A'-shaped collapsible frame, designed by UK engineer and designer Mark Sanders. The first model, Strida 1, was released in 1987 and the latest, Strida 5.2, in 2009. The Strida folds into a "wheeled walking-stick" that can be pushed along, much like a folded pram/baby-buggy whose folding concept provided the inspiration for the design. Other notable characteristics include: a greaseless kevlar belt that replaces the traditional chain drive to avoid mess minimalist design low-maintenance brakes 16-inch wheels, upgradable to 18-inch wheels; the single sided wheel mountings and belt drive make fitting gears more difficult than on chain driven bikes with conventional forks. The use of front mounted. Hobbyists in Japan have fitted 7 speed gears; the Strida was the major project for Mark Sanders's master's degree 1983 to 1985 at Imperial College London, Royal College of Art. The course, IDE, was a joint course by both institutions for engineering graduates to specialise in combining creative engineering with creative industrial design.
The project is recorded in detail in the master's degree thesis. The aim of the project was to simplify bicycles and folding bicycles, it was inspired by the Maclaren baby buggy which folds into a thin form, with its wheels together at the end, so that can be rolled instead of being carried. In 1985, Industrial Property Rights Ltd, licensed the design; the name'Strida' was suggested by the 8-year-old son of one of the company directors. Production of the Strida 1 started in 1986 in Springburn, Glasgow; the Strida was launched in Harrods, London in 1987. 3,000 Strida 1s were made in Glasgow - these can be recognised by a welded steel rack replaced by a nylon injection moulded rack, which latter remains in production. In 1988, production moved to Long Eaton in Nottingham. Sturmey-Archer developed a 2-speed, front-mounted gear, prototyped and tested but never made in production; the Strida won all three UK Cyclex Bicycle Innovation Awards in 1988. 17,000 Strida 1s were made in Nottingham. Most were sold with smaller quantities in USA, Australia and Germany.
In 1991, production moved to a Portuguese Manufacturer. At this time Strida Ltd. was developing a baby buggy as a second product. By 1992, 25,000 Strida 1s had been produced. In 1993, the British Technology Group BTG, a company that licenses and commercializes medical innovations and other UK technology, controlled the rights to Strida until 1995. In 1997, Roland Plastics, a UK firm, purchased the rights to produce Strida and moved production back to Wickham market in the UK, it released the Strida 2 a year later. In 2000, the Strida won I. D. Magazine’s Annual Design Award, Sail Magazine’s Pittman Award for Innovation and Safety, the British Design Council Millennium product Award. Steedman Bass, of Boston USA, purchased the rights to produce the Strida. With Mark Sanders, Bass began development of the Strida 3 as described by The Open University course'Design and designing'. In 2002, in order to meet increased demand, Bass moved production to Taiwanese manufacturer Ming Cycle. Strida 3 was launched, with an inaugural shipment of 2000 units to Italy.
Ming began to establish distributorships in Korea, Netherlands and the U. S. A. Development of the Strida 5 started. In May 2003, The Daily Mail newspaper ran an article that pictured Viscount Linley riding a Strida 3. In March 2006, Ming Cycle took over ownership of Strida rights. In November 2006, a Strida 3 was featured on the UK television programme The Gadget Show, alongside the Sinclair A-Bike. In 2007 the Strida 5 won a design award at the Taipei International Bike Show. A 2-speed gear option was added in 2009, based on the cableless, Schlumpf front crank operated epicyclic gearbox; the Strida 5 includes an upgrade kit of the Strida 3, adds disc brakes, eccentric belt tensioner, metal spoked wheels and high pressure tyres. The Strida is made by Ming Cycle in Taiwan. There was a key patent; the U. S. version of this patent was filed in 1986 and expired in 2006, which means only the mechanism used in Strida 1 and 2 of the product is now in the public domain. Several other aspects of the latest Strida 3 to 5.x versions are covered by patents in various countries, including the folding handle bar system US7243573, hub and locking system US7367632, front joint system US7681900, with other patents pending.
The Patents, Trademark and other IP are owned by Ming Cycle, Taiwan. Some components of the Series 3 to Series 5 machines are interchangeable but other significant components and sub-assemblies are not. Series 5 and Series 4 machines have a freewheel mounted in the conventional position on the rear wheel and a metal bottom bracket shell which incorporates an eccentric housing to adjust belt tension. Alternative folding handlebars which give more knee clearance for the taller rider are available for the Series 5.
The Swinging Sixties was a youth-driven cultural revolution that took place in the United Kingdom during the mid-to-late 1960s, emphasising modernity and fun-loving hedonism, with Swinging London as its centre. It saw a flourishing in art and fashion, was symbolised by the city's "pop and fashion exports". Among its key elements were the Beatles, as leaders of the British Invasion of musical acts. Music was a big part of the scene, with "the London sound" including the Who, the Kinks, the Small Faces and the Rolling Stones, bands that were the mainstay of pirate radio stations like Radio Caroline and Swinging Radio England. Swinging London reached British cinema, according to the British Film Institute, "saw a surge in formal experimentation, freedom of expression and comedy". During this period, "creative types of all kinds gravitated to the capital, from artists and writers to magazine publishers, advertisers, film-makers and product designers". During the 1960s, London underwent a "metamorphosis from a gloomy, grimy post-war capital into a bright, shining epicentre of style".
The phenomenon was caused by the large number of young people in the city and the postwar economic boom. Following the abolition of the national service for men in 1960, these young people enjoyed greater freedom and fewer responsibilities than their parents' generation, " changes to social and sexual politics". Despite shaping the popular consciousness of Britain in the 1960s, Swinging London was a West End-centred phenomenon that only happened among young, middle class people, was considered "simply a diversion" by some of them; the swinging scene served as a consumerist counterpart to the countercultural British underground of the same period. Simon Rycroft writes: "Whilst it is important to acknowledge the exclusivity and the dissenting voices, it does not lessen the importance of Swinging London as a powerful moment of image making with real material effect." The Swinging Sixties was a youth movement emphasising the modern. It was a period of optimism and hedonism, a cultural revolution.
One catalyst was the recovery of the British economy after post-Second World War austerity, which lasted through much of the 1950s. "The Swinging City" was defined by Time magazine on the cover of its issue of 15 April 1966. In a Piri Halasz article'Great Britain: You Can Walk Across It On the Grass', the magazine pronounced London the global hub of youthful creativity and excitement: “In a decade dominated by youth, London has burst into bloom, it swings. The term "swinging" in the sense of hip or fashionable had been used since the early 1960s, including by Norman Vaughan in his "swinging/dodgy" patter on Sunday Night at the London Palladium. In 1965, Diana Vreeland, editor of Vogue magazine, said that "London is the most swinging city in the world at the moment." That year, the American singer Roger Miller had a hit record with "England Swings", which steps around the progressive youth culture. The release in 1967 of Peter Whitehead's cult documentary film Tonite Lets All Make Love in London, which summed up both the culture of Swinging London through celebrity interviews, the music, with its accompanying soundtrack release featuring Pink Floyd.
Heralded by Colin MacInnes' 1959 novel Absolute Beginners, Swinging London was underway by the mid-1960s and included music by The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, The Kinks, The Who, Small Faces, The Animals, Dusty Springfield, Cilla Black, Sandie Shaw and other artists from what was known in the US as the "British Invasion". Psychedelic rock from artists such as Pink Floyd, Procol Harum, the Jimi Hendrix Experience and Traffic grew in popularity; this sort of music was heard in the United Kingdom on TV shows such as Six-Five Special and Ready Steady Go!, on commercial radio stations such as Radio Luxembourg, Radio Caroline and Radio London, from 1967 on BBC Radio One. During the Swinging Sixties and photography were featured in Queen magazine, which drew attention to fashion designer Mary Quant. Mod-related fashions such as the miniskirt stimulated fashionable London shopping areas such as Carnaby Street and King's Road, Chelsea; the model Jean Shrimpton was another one of the world's first supermodels.
She was the world's most photographed model during this time. Shrimpton was called "The Face of the'60s", in which she has been considered by many as "the symbol of Swinging London" and the "embodiment of the 1960s". Like Pattie Boyd, the wife of Beatles guitarist George Harrison, Shrimpton gained international fame for her embodiment of the "British female'look' – mini-skirt, straight hair and wide-eyed loveliness", characteristics that defined Western fashion following the arrival of the Beatles and other British Invasion acts in 1964. Other popular models of the era included Peggy Moffitt and Penelope Tree; the model Twiggy has been called "the face of 1966" and "the Queen of Mod", a label she shared with, among others, Cathy McGowan, the host of the television rock show Ready Steady Go! from 1964 to 1966. The British flag, the Union Jack, became a symbol, assisted by events such as England's home victory in the 1966 World Cup; the Jaguar E-Type sports car was a British icon of the 1960s.
In late 1965, photo
The Swift Folder is a folding bicycle, designed by Peter Reich of Design Mobility Inc. of Brooklyn, New York, in collaboration with Jan VanderTuin of the Center for Appropriate Transport in Eugene, Oregon. The Swift Folder is available from Design Mobility as a bare frame for customers to build up themselves, or assembled into a complete bicycle to the customer's requirements. From 2004 to the end of 2016, a mass-market version of the bicycle was sold under license by Xootr as the Xootr Swift assembled to a standard specification, in single and 8-speed models; the Swift Folder design employs a vertical folding method, using the seat-post and a split seat-tube as the locking mechanism. To fold, the seat-post is released from the two parts of the seat-tube by their respective quick release clamps pulled up into the upper part of the seat-tube to unlock the frame. A pivot in the main frame tube allows the rear triangle and rear wheel to swing down and forward under the main tube; the seat-post is slid back down through the upper part of the seat-tube to lock the rear wheel in the folded position.
To unfold, the seat-post is again pulled up to allow the rear triangle to swing back and up into the normal riding position. The seat-post is slid down through the upper and lower parts of the seat-tube, locking the rear triangle and wheel into place; the Swift frame is simple and robust, allows a quick fold, but when folded is not as compact as some other folding bicycle designs. The bottom bracket forms part of the folding rear triangle, as a result the bottom bracket to rear fork-end distance remains constant throughout the fold; this keeps the chain tension constant, an advantage when the Swift frame is used in a fixed-gear, single speed, or hub gear bicycle. There are two Swift Folder frames, one is low-volume Chromoly manufacturing by Human Powered Machines of Eugene, which makes work bikes and trailers; the frame is built to common "industry-standard" sizes and threads, can accommodate a wide variety of gear systems and other components. The rear fork spacing can accommodate most standard mountain bike wheel-hubs.
The Swift Folder is fitted with "20 inch" wheels. The standard ISO 5775 wheel size is the same size used on most BMX bicycles. A wide variety of wheels and tires are available in this size; the Swift Folder is designed to work with 20 inch 451mm wheels. The linear pull brakes that come standard with the Swift will not work with 451s; the frame is designed to work with Caliper brakes with the larger wheels. Reviews of the Swift have been positive; the Swift has been praised for its responsive, comfortable ride, its stiff frame, its light weight, its low step-through height, its use of standard as opposed to proprietary parts for the components. This includes the wheels, handlebars, shifter, brakes and cogset, all of which can be replaced. Reviews call out the large folded size and cumbersome folded shape as a disadvantage, it is sometimes pointed out that the Swift doesn't stand when folded. There was some disagreement as to whether its price was high for the range, though commentary on that point tended to be muted as the price for the Xootr Swift was in line with mass market folding bikes.
Given the positive reviews and the competitive price, it is that the large folded size was the sticky point for many buyers, as many more bicycles with higher pricetags and smaller sizes have been sold. A to B Magazine Feb/Mar 2001 New York Magazine July 28, 1997 Swift Folder home page. Human Powered Machines CroMoly Swift Folder page Xootr Swift Component Specifications
Montague Corporation is an American company that designs and sells full-size folding bicycles. It is headquartered in Massachusetts. Montague Corporation was formed in 1987 by Harry Montague. Prior to the foundation of Montague Bikes, Washington-based architect Harry Montague began making plans to build a full-size folding bicycle that could accommodate his 6'2" frame, he started sketching designs for the bike in the early 1980s and had a prototype by 1984. The BiFrame used the "Concentrus" system, which unites the two parts of the frame with concentric seat tubes, one nested inside the other. Montague obtained a patent for the bike design and the Concentrus system by 1987; that year, his son David Montague, used his father's folding bike as a potential business model for an entrepreneurship project while attending Massachusetts Institute of Technology. With $300,000 in capital, the two launched and incorporated their folding bicycle company as Montague Corporation in Massachusetts in 1987; the company began selling in the U.
S. market in 1988. It sold bikes in Canada, Japan, in Great Britain through a joint marketing deal with the Raleigh Bicycle Company. In 1989, Montague sold around 2,200 BiFrames worldwide. While producing the BiFrame design, Montague worked with the Schwinn Bicycle Company, in 1991 the Schwinn Montague M1000 was first marketed and sold through Schwinn dealers. Beginning in 1992, Montague began producing a line of folding mountain bikes in a partnership with the car company BMW; the bikes were sold in Germany and came to American BMW dealerships in 1994. The Montague BMW BiFrame was chosen as the official mountain bike of the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta and was featured in the closing ceremonies. Popular Mechanics honored the company with a Design & Engineering Award for its design of the special BMW Olympics Games mountain bike. Other folding bike models Montague developed in the 1990s included the TriFrame tandem bicycle and the Montague Backcountry mountain bike. In 1997, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency gave Montague a two-year grant to develop an all-terrain, heavy-duty, folding electric mountain bike that could be utilized by paratroopers.
With this grant, the company created the Tactical Electric No Signature mountain bike, equipped with a battery-powered motor, undetectable by ear, radar, or infrared devices. The bikes, which had a new "X-Frame" design, were used by U. S. military members in conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. The first civilian bikes using the new X-Frame design were introduced in the late 1990s and early 2000s; the first two bikes in the X-Series were the Montague CX 21-speed Comfort Bike and the Montague MX 24-speed Mountain Bike. In 2001, the company released the Paratrooper military mountain bike, a commercial, non-electric version of the TENS bike it had developed for DARPA. In the early 2000s, Montague developed a promotional bicycle, dubbed the "Hummer Tactical Mountain Bike," for General Motors' Hummer line of vehicles. Promotional distribution of Montague-designed Hummer bicycles took place through GM dealerships. In 2008, Montague introduced the SwissBike line which featured the company's first mountain bikes designed for road use, including the SwissBike LX and SwissBike TX Commuter.
By 2009, Montague bikes were being sold in 18 countries with 400 dealers in the United States. The company continued developing pavement-specific bikes into 2010 and beyond; the pavement versions were the first Montague bikes to feature 700c road wheels and a new double top tube design. In 2011, Montague added to its Pavement bike line with the Boston 8, the first folding bike to incorporate the Shimano Nexus 8 speed internal-gear hub. Montague continued releasing new iterations of their Paratrooper line with the Paratrooper Pro in 2012; the following year, the company started selling framesets as standalone products, allowing manufacturers and hobbyists to incorporate Montague folding frames into their models. In 2015, Montague helped institute the "Pedal" program in the Boston area; the program encourages commuters to drive part of the way to work, park in one of several designated lots outside the city center, ride their bikes for the remainder of the commute. It was devised by founder David Montague and was implemented in conjunction with the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation and the Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs.
The program was expanded to more locales in the Greater Boston area in 2016. Montague introduced a new folding system called "DirectConnect" in 2016, it allows a bike to be folded using one release on one lever on the bike's frame. The company partnered with Shapeways to 3D print its aluminum bicycles for the first time, it launched several new models in 2016 including the Urban, Paratrooper Elite, FIT, Allston, the first to employ a belt drive in place of a traditional bicycle chain. Montague bike models use the patented DirectConnect folding system, are equipped with full-size 26", 27.5", or 700c wheels. When folded, the bikes measure 36" x 28" x 12". Montague has pavement-specific models that utilize 700c wheels, including: Boston, Crosstown, Navigator, FIT; some pavement models are equipped with Montague's "RackStand" which serves as both a rear rack and a potential kick stand when released from the seat tube. Montague produces the Paratrooper line of folding mountain bikes that utilize either 26" or 27.5" wheels.
Included in the Paratrooper line are the Paratrooper, Paratrooper Highline, Paratrooper Express, and