The Mississippian culture was a mound-building Native American civilization archeologists date from about 800 CE to 1600 CE, varying regionally. It was composed of a series of urban settlements and satellite villages linked together by a loose trading network; the largest city was Cahokia, believed to be a major religious center. The civilization flourished from the southern shores of the Great Lakes at Western New York and Western Pennsylvania in what is now the Eastern Midwest, extending south-southwest into the lower Mississippi Valley and wrapping easterly around the southern foot of the Appalachians barrier range into what is now the Southeastern United States; the Mississippian way of life began to develop in the Mississippi River Valley. Cultures in the tributary Tennessee River Valley may have begun to develop Mississippian characteristics at this point. All dated Mississippian sites predate 1539–1540, with notable exceptions being Natchez communities that maintained Mississippian cultural practices into the 18th century.
A number of cultural traits are recognized as being characteristic of the Mississippians. Although not all Mississippian peoples practiced all of the following activities, they were distinct from their ancestors in adoption of some or all of these traits; the construction of large, truncated earthwork pyramid mounds, or platform mounds. Such mounds were square, rectangular, or circular. Structures were constructed atop such mounds. Maize-based agriculture. In most places, the development of Mississippian culture coincided with adoption of comparatively large-scale, intensive maize agriculture, which supported larger populations and craft specialization. Women ate more maize, whereas men ate more animal meat. Shell-tempered pottery; the adoption and use of riverine shells as tempering agents in ceramics. Widespread trade networks extending as far west as the Rockies, north to the Great Lakes, south to the Gulf of Mexico, east to the Atlantic Ocean; the development of the chiefdom or complex chiefdom level of social complexity.
The development of institutionalized social inequality. A centralization of control of combined political and religious power in the hands of few or one; the beginnings of a settlement hierarchy, in which one major center has clear influence or control over a number of lesser communities, which may or may not possess a smaller number of mounds. The adoption of the paraphernalia of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex called the Southern Cult; this is the belief system of the Mississippians. SECC items are found in Mississippian-culture sites from Wisconsin to the Gulf Coast, from Florida to Arkansas and Oklahoma; the SECC was tied into ritual game-playing, as with chunkey. The Mississippians had no writing stone architecture, they worked occurring metal deposits, such as hammering and annealing copper for ritual objects such as Mississippian copper plates and other decorations, but did not smelt iron or practice bronze metallurgy. The Mississippi stage is divided into three or more chronological periods.
Each period is an arbitrary historical distinction varying regionally. At a particular site, each period may be considered to begin earlier or depending on the speed of adoption or development of given Mississippian traits; the "Mississippi period" should not be confused with the "Mississippian culture". The Mississippi period is the chronological stage, while Mississippian culture refers to the cultural similarities that characterize this society; the Early Mississippi period had just transitioned from the Late Woodland period way of life. Different groups abandoned tribal lifeways for increasing complexity, sedentism and agriculture. Production of surplus corn and attractions of the regional chiefdoms led to rapid population concentrations in major centers; the Middle Mississippi period is the apex of the Mississippi era. The expansion of the great metropolis and ceremonial complex at Cahokia, the formation of other complex chiefdoms, the spread and development of SECC art and symbolism are characteristic changes of this period.
The Mississippian traits listed above came to be widespread throughout the region. The Late Mississippi period is characterized by increasing warfare, political turmoil, population movement; the population of Cahokia dispersed early in this period migrating to other rising political centers. More defensive structures are seen at sites, sometimes a decline in mound-building and large-scale, public ceremonialism. Although some areas continued an Middle Mississippian culture until the first significant contact with Europeans, the population of most areas had dispersed or were experiencing severe social stress by 1500. Along with the contemporaneous Ancestral Pueblo peoples, these cultural collapses coincide with the global climate change of the Little Ice Age. Scholars theorize drought and the reduction of maize agriculture, together with possible deforestation and overhunting by the concentrated populations, forced them to move away from major sites; this period ended with European contact in the 16th century.
The term Middle Mississippian is used to describe the core of the classic Mississippian culture area. This area covers the central Mississippi River Valley, the lower Ohio River Valley, most of the Mid-South area, including western and central Kentucky, western Tennessee, northern Alabama and Mississippi. Sites in this area often
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Black Warrior River
The Black Warrior River is a waterway in west-central Alabama in the southeastern United States. The river rises in the extreme southern edges of the Appalachian Highlands and flows 178 miles to the Tombigbee River, of which the Black Warrior is the primary tributary; the river is named after the Mississippian paramount chief Tuskaloosa, whose name meant'Black Warrior' in Muskogean. The Black Warrior is impounded along nearly its entire course by a series of locks and dams to form a chain of reservoirs that not only provide a path for an inland waterway, but yield hydroelectric power, drinking water, industrial water; the river flows through the Black Warrior Basin, a region important for the extraction of coal and methane. The cities of Tuscaloosa and Northport grew at the historical head of navigation at the fall line between the Appalachian Highlands and the Gulf Coastal Plain. Birmingham, though not directly on the river, became a manufacturing hub and one of the largest cities in the South through use of the Black Warrior River in a small part for the transportation of goods.
Birmingham grew up around a major junction of north-south and east-west railroads, just as Atlanta, did. Overall, the watershed of the Black Warrior has an area of 6,275 square miles; the Black Warrior River is formed about 22 mi west of Birmingham by the confluence of the Mulberry Fork and the Locust Fork of the Warrior River, which join as arms of Bankhead Lake, a narrow reservoir on the upper river formed by the Bankhead Lock and Dam. Bankhead Lake drains directly into Holt Lake, formed by the Holt Lock and Dam, which itself drains into Oliver Lake, formed by the Oliver Lock and Dam; these three reservoirs encompass the entire course of the river for its upper 60 miles stretching southeast into central Tuscaloosa County and Tuscaloosa, the largest city on the river. Past Oliver Dam west of downtown Tuscaloosa, the Black Warrior flows south in a meandering course, joining the Tombigbee River from the northeast at Demopolis; the lower 30 miles of the river are part of the narrow Lake Demopolis.
The Black Warrior River receives its largest tributary, the North River, from the north about one mile northeast of Tuscaloosa. North River was dammed in 1968 to form Lake Tuscaloosa, is the main source for drinking water for the cities and unincorporated areas of Tuscaloosa County. Outside Tuscaloosa County, only three vehicular crossings of the Black Warrior River exist. Within Tuscaloosa County are seven. Variant names of the river used over time include Apotaka Hacha River, Bance River, Canebrake or Coinbrake River,Chocta River, Pafallaya River, Patagahatche River, Tascaloosa River, Tuskaloosa River, Warrior River; the river was called the Warrior River above Tuscaloosa and the Black Warrior River below Tuscaloosa. Though unofficial, this naming convention is still used by the public and by government agencies. However, the official name of the entire river from Bankhead Lake south is the Black Warrior River. To develop the coal industries of central Alabama, the US government in the 1880s began building a system of locks and dams that concluded in 17 impoundments.
The first 16 locks and dams were constructed of sandstone quarried from the banks of the river and the river bed. Huge blocks of stone were hand shaped with hammer and chisel to construct the locks and dams, a few of these dams were in service until the 1960s. One example of the craftsmanship of the stone locks is at University Park on Jack Warner Parkway in Tuscaloosa; the bank side wall of Lock 3 is the last remnant of the old dams made of this dressed stone from the 1880s-90s. A concrete dam completed in 1915, Lock 17 is the last and only existing of the original dams, has been modernized over the years with the addition of spillway gates, replacement of the two-stage lift with a larger single-lift lock. Lock 17 and Holt Lock and Dam have hydroelectric power plants owned by the Alabama Power Company supplying electricity for west-central Alabama areas; this lock and dam system made the Black Warrior River navigable along its entire course and it is one of the longest channelized waterways in the United States forming part of the extended system that link the Gulf of Mexico to Birmingham.
Birmingham became the "Pittsburgh of the South", shipping iron and steel products via the Black Warrior River through the Panama Canal to the West Coast of the United States and the world. High-grade coal is barged to Mobile and is shipped throughout the world, making Mobile the largest coal port in the Southeastern states. Coal mining and production in west-central Alabama is one of the larger employers and is to continue being important to the energy needs of the world. Today, a severe threat to the Black Warrior River is sedimentation, or siltation, the primary causes of which are development projects and mining operations, the building and maintaining of roads. List of Alabama rivers U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Black Warrior River Black Warrior River The Harnessing of the Black Warrior River by Kenneth Willis Honoree Fanonne Jeffers. "Tuscaloosa: Riversong" Southern Spaces Black Warrior Clean Water Partnership Black Warrior Riverkeeper
Walker Evans was an American photographer and photojournalist best known for his work for the Farm Security Administration documenting the effects of the Great Depression. Much of Evans's work from the FSA period uses 8 × 10-inch view camera, he said that his goal as a photographer was to make pictures that are "literate, transcendent". Many of his works are in the permanent collections of museums and have been the subject of retrospectives at such institutions as the Metropolitan Museum of Art or George Eastman Museum, he was born in Missouri, to Jessie and Walker Evans. His father was an advertising director. Walker was raised in an affluent environment, he attended The Loomis Institute and Mercersburg Academy before graduating from Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts, in 1922. He studied French literature for a year at Williams College, spending much of his time in the school's library, before dropping out, he worked as a night attendant in the map room of the Public Library. After spending a year in Paris in 1926, he returned to the United States to join a literary and art crowd in New York City.
John Cheever, Hart Crane, Lincoln Kirstein were among his friends. He was a clerk for a stockbroker firm in Wall street from 1927 to 1929. Evans took up photography in 1928 around the time he was living in New York, his influences included August Sander. In 1930, he published three photographs in the poetry book The Bridge by Hart Crane. In 1931, he made a photo series of Victorian houses in the Boston vicinity sponsored by Lincoln Kirstein. In May and June 1933, Evans took photographs in Cuba on assignment for Lippincott, the publisher of Carleton Beals' The Crime of Cuba, a "strident account" of the dictatorship of Gerardo Machado. There Evans drank nightly with Ernest Hemingway, who loaned him money to extend his two-week stay an additional week, his photographs documented street life, the presence of police and dockworkers in rags, other waterfront scenes. He helped Hemingway acquire photos from newspaper archives that documented some of the political violence Hemingway described in To Have and Have Not.
Fearing that his photographs might be deemed critical of the government and confiscated by Cuban authorities, he left 46 prints with Hemingway. He had no difficulties when returning to the United States, 31 of his photos appeared in Beals' book; the cache of prints left with Hemingway was discovered in Havana in 2002 and exhibited at an exhibition in Key West. In 1935, Evans spent two months at first on a fixed-term photographic campaign for the Resettlement Administration in West Virginia and Pennsylvania. From October on, he continued to do photographic work for the RA and the Farm Security Administration in the Southern United States. In the summer of 1936, while on leave from the FSA, he and writer James Agee were sent by Fortune magazine on assignment to Hale County, for a story the magazine subsequently opted not to run. In 1941, Evans's photographs and Agee's text detailing the duo's stay with three white tenant families in southern Alabama during the Great Depression were published as the groundbreaking book Let Us Now Praise Famous Men.
Its detailed account of three farming families paints a moving portrait of rural poverty. The critic Janet Malcolm notes that there was a contradiction between a kind of anguished dissonance in Agee's prose and the quiet, magisterial beauty of Evans's photographs of sharecroppers; the three families headed by Bud Fields, Floyd Burroughs and Frank Tingle, lived in the Hale County town of Akron and the owners of the land on which the families worked told them that Evans and Agee were "Soviet agents," although Allie Mae Burroughs, Floyd's wife, recalled during interviews her discounting that information. Evans's photographs of the families made them icons of Depression-Era poverty. In September 2005, Fortune revisited Hale County and the descendants of the three families for its 75th anniversary issue. Charles Burroughs, four years old when Evans and Agee visited the family, was "still angry" at them for not sending the family a copy of the book. Evans continued to work for the FSA until 1938; that year, an exhibition, Walker Evans: American Photographs, was held at The Museum of Modern Art, New York.
This was the first exhibition in the museum devoted to the work of a single photographer. The catalogue included an accompanying essay by Lincoln Kirstein, whom Evans had befriended in his early days in New York. In 1938, Evans took his first photographs in the New York City Subway with a camera hidden in his coat; these would be collected in book form. In 1938 and 1939, Evans mentored Helen Levitt. Evans, like such other photographers as Henri Cartier-Bresson spent time in the darkroom making prints from his own negatives, he only loosely supervised the making of prints of most of his photographs, sometimes only attaching handwritten notes to negatives with instructions on some aspect of the printing procedure. Evans was a passionate reader and writer, in 1945 became a staff writer at Time magazine. Shortly afterward he became an editor at Fortune magazine through 1965; that year, he became a professor of photography on the faculty for Graphic Design at the Yale University School of Art. In one of his last photographic projects, Evans completed a black and
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
Tuscaloosa County, Alabama
Tuscaloosa County is a county in the west central portion of the U. S. state of Alabama. As of the 2010 census, its population was 194,656, its county seat and largest city is Tuscaloosa, the former state capital from 1826 to 1845. The county is named in honor of Tuskaloosa, a paramount chief of the Mississippian culture, who are considered ancestors of the historic Choctaw people of the region. Tuscaloosa County is included in AL Metropolitan Statistical Area; the county is the home of the University of Alabama, Shelton State Community College, Stillman College. Tuscaloosa County was established on February 6, 1818. During the antebellum years, the principal crop was cotton and processed by African-American slaves. By 1860, shortly before the state seceded from the Union, the county had a total of 12,971 whites, 84 "free" African Americans, 10,145 African-American slaves; the war brought significant changes, including migration out of the county by some African Americans. Some freedmen moved to nearby counties and larger cities for more opportunities and to join with other freedmen in communities less subject to white supervision and intimidation.
Following Reconstruction, there was violence as whites struggled to regain control of the state legislature. It reached a height in the late early 20th centuries. Tuscaloosa County had a total of 10 documented lynchings of African Americans, according to a 2015 study by the Equal Justice Initiative. Following passage by Alabama of the 1901 constitution that disenfranchised most African Americans and tens of thousands of poor whites, the state legislature passed laws to impose Jim Crow and racial segregation. Due to this oppression and problems of continued violence by lynchings, many African Americans left Alabama in two waves of the Great Migration in the first half of the 20th century, they went to Midwestern industrial cities. Their mass departure from Tuscaloosa County is reflected in the lower rates of county population growth from 1910 to 1930, from 1950 to 1970. Blacks by 1960 represented 28.7% of the county population and they were still disenfranchised throughout the state. African Americans were active in demonstrations and other civil rights activities in the city of Tuscaloosa in the 1960s, seeking desegregation of public facilities, including the county courthouse.
After passage of the federal Voting Rights Act of 1965, African Americans in the state regained their ability to exercise their constitutional right to vote and participate in the political system. Politics in the state have shifted, they have supported the Democratic Party, which on the national level had supported the civil rights movement. While the county population has increased since 1960, African Americans still comprise less than one third of the total. In 2015, one of the four elected. Since the late 20th century, by contrast, white conservatives in Alabama and other southern states have shifted to supporting Republican Party candidates for statewide and national offices. In the 21st century, the principal agricultural products have included hay, cotton, soybeans and snapdragons. Major companies in the county have included JVC, Mercedes-Benz U. S. International, Uniroyal-Goodrich, Phifer Inc. On March 21, 1932, a F4 tornado hit the Tuscaloosa–Northport area in Tuscaloosa County; this storm was part of a massive tornado outbreak over March 21–22, 1932, spawning at least 36 tornadoes which killed more than 330 people and injuring 2,141.
Alabama was hardest hit, with 268 fatalities. On April 8, 1998, an F3 tornado struck northeast of Tuscaloosa; this windstorm destroyed five homes and 11 mobile homes. It rotated seventeen miles from Holman to north of Northport. Thirty-seven homes were damaged. Moments a separate F5 tornado struck northeastern Tuscaloosa near the Black Warrior River before entering western Jefferson County, where it caused 32 deaths. On December 16, 2000, an F4 rated tornado hit communities south and east of Tuscaloosa, centering in the Bear Creek and Hillcrest Meadows areas; the tornado caused the deaths of 11 people while injuring over 125 others. It was the strongest tornado to hit Alabama in the month of December since 1950 and the strongest of a moderate tornado outbreak that took place across the Southeastern corner of the United States from Mississippi to North Carolina. Damage was estimated at over $12 million. More than 40 houses and 70 mobile homes were destroyed, with hundreds more damaged. On April 27, 2011, Tuscaloosa was hit by a half-mile wide tornado, part of the 2011 Super Outbreak.
It resulted in at least 44 deaths in the city, over 1000 injuries, massive devastation. Officials at DCH Hospital in Tuscaloosa reported treating more than 1000 injured people in the first several days of the tornado aftermath. Mayor Maddox was quoted saying that "We have neighborhoods that have been removed from the map."On April 29, President Barack Obama, upon touring the tornado damage in Tuscaloosa, said "I have never seen devastation like this". According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,351 square miles, of which 1,322 square miles is land and 30 square miles is water, it third-largest by total area. It is located in the west central part of the state, in the region known as West Alabama; the county straddles the boundary between the Appalachian Highl