Mount Athos is a mountain and peninsula in northeastern Greece and an important centre of Eastern Orthodox monasticism. It is governed as an autonomous polity within the Greek Republic. Mount Athos is home to 20 monasteries under the direct jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople. Mount Athos is referred to in Greek as the Holy Mountain or Agion Oros, the entity as the "Athonite State". Other languages of Orthodox tradition use names translating to "Holy Mountain", including Bulgarian and Serbian Света гора, Sveta gora. In the classical era, while the mountain was called Athos, the peninsula was known as Acté or Akté. Mount Athos has been inhabited since ancient times and is known for its nearly 1,800-year continuous Christian presence and its long historical monastic traditions, which date back to at least 800 A. D. and the Byzantine era. Today, over 2,000 monks from Greece and many other countries, including Eastern Orthodox countries such as Romania, Georgia, Bulgaria and Russia, live an ascetic life in Athos, isolated from the rest of the world.
The Athonite monasteries feature a rich collection of well-preserved artifacts, rare books, ancient documents, artworks of immense historical value, Mount Athos has been listed as a World Heritage site since 1988. Although Mount Athos is part of the European Union like the rest of Greece, the Monastic State of the Holy Mountain and the Athonite institutions have a special jurisdiction, reaffirmed during the admission of Greece to the European Community; this empowers the Monastic State's authorities to regulate the free movement of people and goods in its territory. The peninsula, the easternmost "leg" of the larger Chalkidiki peninsula in central Macedonia, protrudes 50 kilometres into the Aegean Sea at a width of between 7 and 12 kilometres and covers an area of 335.6 square kilometres. The actual Mount Athos has steep, densely forested slopes reaching up to 2,033 metres; the surrounding seas at the end of the peninsula, can be dangerous. In ancient Greek history two fleet disasters in the area are recorded: In 492 BC Darius, the king of Persia, lost 300 ships under general Mardonius.
In 411 BC the Spartans lost a fleet of 50 ships under admiral Epicleas. Though land-linked, Mount Athos is accessible only by ferry; the Agios Panteleimon and Axion Estin travel daily between Ouranoupolis and Dafni, with stops at some monasteries on the western coast. There is a smaller speed boat, the Agia Anna, which travels the same route, but with no intermediate stops, it is possible to travel by ferry to and from Ierissos for direct access to monasteries along the eastern coast. The number of daily visitors to Mount Athos is restricted, all are required to obtain a special entrance permit valid for a limited period. Only men are permitted to visit the territory, called the "Garden of Virgin Mary" by the monks, with Orthodox Christians taking precedence in permit issuance procedures. Residents on the peninsula must be men aged 18 and over who are members of the Eastern Orthodox Church and either monks or workers. Athos in Greek mythology is the name of one of the Gigantes that challenged the Greek gods during the Gigantomachia.
Athos threw a massive rock against Poseidon which became Mount Athos. According to another version of the story, Poseidon used the mountain to bury the defeated giant. Homer mentions the mountain Athos in the Iliad. Herodotus writes that, during the Persian invasion of Thrace in 492 BC, the fleet of the Persian commander Mardonius was wrecked with losses of 300 ships and 20,000 men, by a strong North wind while attempting to round the coast near Mount Athos. Herodotus mentions the peninsula called Acte, telling us that Pelasgians from the island of Lemnos populated it and naming five cities thereon, Cleonae, Thyssos and Acrothoï. Strabo mentions the cities of Dion and Acrothoï. Eretria established colonies on Acte. At least one other city was established in the Classical period: Acanthus; some of these cities minted their own coins. The peninsula was on the invasion route of Xerxes I, who spent three years excavating the Xerxes Canal across the isthmus to allow the passage of his invasion fleet in 483 BC.
After the death of Alexander the Great, the architect Dinocrates proposed carving the entire mountain into a statue of Alexander. The history of the peninsula during latter ages is shrouded by the lack of historical accounts. Archaeologists have not been able to determine the exact location of the cities reported by Strabo, it is believed that they must have been deserted when Athos' new inhabitants, the monks, started arriving some time before the ninth century AD. According to the Athonite tradition, the Blessed Virgin Mary was sailing accompanied by St John the Evangelist from Joppa to Cyprus to visit Lazarus; when the ship was blown off course to then-pagan Athos, it was forced to anchor near the port of Klement, close to the present monastery of Iviron. The Virgin walked ashore and, overwhelmed by the wonderful and wild natural beauty of the mountain, she blessed it and asked her Son for it to be her garden. A voice was heard saying "Ἔστω ὁ τόπος οὗτος κλῆρος σὸς καὶ περιβόλαιον σὸν καὶ παράδεισος, ἔτι δὲ καὶ λιμὴν σωτήριος τῶν θελόντων σωθῆναι" (Translation: "Let this place be your inheritance and your garden, a paradise and a haven of salvation for those
Genghis Khan Airlines is a start-up airline headquartered at Hohhot Baita International Airport in Hohhot, the capital of Inner Mongolia, China. The airline is a venture of Inner Mongolia Communications Investment Group with support from the government of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China. On October 17, 2018, the airline confirmed an order for 25 Comac ARJ21 airplanes; the airplanes are scheduled for delivery in early 2019. The airlines launched its first flights in July 2019 from Hohhot to Ulanhot; as of July 2019, Genghis Khan Airlines serves the following destinations: As of September 2019, Genghis Khan Airlines fleet consists of the following aircraft. The airline has firm orders for 25 Comac options for a further 25 aircraft; the first aircraft was delivered on February 22, 2019
Insurance law is the practice of law surrounding insurance, including insurance policies and claims. It can be broadly broken into three categories - regulation of the business of insurance; the earliest form of insurance is marine insurance, although forms of mutuality existed before that. Marine insurance originated with the merchants of the Hanseatic league and the financiers of Lombardy in the 12th and 13th centuries, recorded in the name of Lombard Street in the City of London, the oldest trading insurance market. In those early days, insurance was intrinsically coupled with the expansion of mercantilism, exploration of new sources of gold, spices and other precious goods - including slaves - from the New World. For these merchant adventurers, insurance was the "means whereof it comes to pass that upon the loss or perishing of any ship there followed not the undoing of any man, but the loss lighteth rather upon many than upon a few... whereby all merchants those of the younger sort, are allured to venture more willingly and more freely."The expansion of English maritime trade made London the centre of an insurance market that, by the 18th century, was the largest in the world.
Underwriters sat in bars, or newly fashionable coffee-shops such as that run by Edward Lloyd on Lombard Street, considering the details of proposed mercantile "adventures" and indicating the extent to which they would share upon the risks entailed by writing their "scratch" or signature upon the documents shown to them. At the same time, eighteenth-century judge William Murray, Lord Mansfield, was developing the substantive law of insurance to an extent where it has remained unchanged to the present day - at least insofar as concerns commercial, non-consumer business - in the common-law jurisdictions. Mansfield drew from "foreign authorities" and "intelligent merchants" "Those leading principles which may be considered the common law of the sea, the common law of merchants, which he found prevailing across the commercial world, to which every question of insurance was referrable. Hence the great celebrity of his judgments, hence the respect they command in foreign countries". By the 19th century membership of Lloyd's was regulated and in 1871, the Lloyd's Act was passed, establishing the corporation of Lloyd's to act as a market place for members, or "Names".
And in the early part of the twentieth century, the collective body of general insurance law was codified in 1904 into the Marine Insurance Act 1906, with the result that, since that date and non-marine insurance law have diverged, although fundamentally based on the same original principles. Common law jurisdictions in former members of the British empire, including the United States, India, South Africa, Australia originate with the law of England and Wales. What distinguishes common law jurisdictions from their civil law counterparts is the concept of judge-made law and the principle of stare decisis - the idea, at its simplest, that courts are bound by the previous decisions of courts of the same or higher status. In the insurance law context, this meant that the decisions of early commercial judges such as Mansfield, Lord Eldon and Buller bound, or, outside England and Wales, were at the least persuasive to, their successors considering similar questions of law. At common law, the defining concept of a contract of commercial insurance is of a transfer of risk negotiated between counterparties of similar bargaining power deserving of the courts' protection.
The underwriter has the advantage, by dint of drafting the policy terms, of delineating the precise boundaries of cover. The prospective insured has the equal and opposite advantage of knowing the precise risk proposed to be insured in better detail than the underwriter can achieve. Central to English commercial insurance decisions, are the linked principles that the underwriter is bound to the terms of his policy. In civil law countries insurance has been more linked to the protection of the vulnerable, rather than as a device to encourage entrepreneurialism by the spreading of risk. Civil law jurisdictions - in general terms - tend to regulate the content of the insurance agreement more and more in the favour of the insured, than in common law jurisdictions, where the insurer is rather better protected from the possibility that the risk for which it has accepted a premium may be greater than that for which it had bargained; as a result, most legal systems worldwide apply common-law principles to the adjudication of commercial insurance disputes, whereby it is accepted that the insurer and the insured are more-or-less equal partners in the division of the economic burden of risk.
Most, until 2005 all, common law jurisdictions require the insured to have an insurable interest in the subject matter of the insurance. An insurable interest is that legal or equitable relationship between the insured and the subject matter of the insurance, separate from the existence of the insurance relationship, by which the insured would be prejudiced by the occurrence of the event insured against, or conversely would take a benefit from its non-occurrence. Insurable interest was long held to be morally necessary in insurance contracts to distinguish them, as enforceable contracts, from unenforceable gambling agreements and to quell the practice, in the seventeenth and eig