In mountaineering, a first ascent is the first successful, documented attainment of the top of a mountain, or the first to follow a particular climbing route. First mountain ascents are notable because they entail genuine exploration, with greater risks and recognition than climbing a route pioneered by others; the person who performs the first ascent is called the first ascensionist. In free climbing, a first ascent of a climbing route is the first successful, documented climb of a route without using equipment such as anchors or ropes for aiding progression or resting; the details of the first ascents of many prominent mountains are scanty or unknown. Today, first ascents are carefully recorded and mentioned in guidebooks. Overwhelmingly, the idea of a "first ascent" is a modern one in places such as Africa and the Americas with a history of colonialism. There may be little or no physical evidence or documentation about the climbing activities of indigenous peoples living near the mountain.
For example, the volcano Llullaillaco on the border of Argentina and Chile is known to have been climbed in the prehistoric period due to the presence of Incan artifacts at the summit, yet credit for the first recorded ascent is given to Chilean climbers Bión González and Juan Harseim, who summited in 1952. The term is used when referring to ascents made using a specific technique or taking a specific route, such as via the North Face, without ropes or without oxygen. In rock climbing, some of the earlier first ascents for difficult routes, involved a mix of free and aid climbing; as a result, purist free climbers have developed the designation first free ascent to acknowledge ascents intentionally made more challenging by using equipment for protection only. Second ascents are noteworthy in climbing circles involving improving on a pioneering route through lessons learned from it, experience which may span from technical improvements to having a better understanding of how much gear and provisions to take.
Some other "first ascents" could be recorded for particular routes. One is the First Winter Ascent, which is, as the name suggests, the first ascent made during winter season; this is most important where the climate of winter is a factor in increasing the difficulty grade of the route. In the Northern Hemisphere conventional winter ascents are made between December 21 and March 21 and are not related to the conditions. In the Himalayan area, although Nepal and China's winter season permits start on December 1, the conventional winter ascents begin on December 21. Another is the First Solo Ascent, the first ascent made by a single climber; this is most important on high-level rock climbing, when the climber has to provide his own security or when climbing without any protection at all. Another type of ascent known as FFA is the first female ascent. While not considered as important, this designation remains significant on some difficult, limit-pushing climbs, where the first female ascent may not happen until well after the FA, due to possible difficulties encountered by female physicality.
The term last ascent has been used to refer to an ascent of a mountain or face that has subsequently changed to such an extent – because of rockfall – that the route no longer exists. It can be used facetiously to refer to a climb, so unpleasant or unaesthetic that no one would willingly repeat the first ascent party's ordeal. List of first ascents Notable first free ascents List of first ascents in the Alps List of first ascents in the Himalaya Glossary of climbing terms Alpinist Magazine – Peter Mortimer's First Ascent, Issue 17
A shield volcano is a type of volcano composed entirely of fluid lava flows. It is named for its low profile; this is caused by the fluid lava erupted, which travels farther than lava erupted from a stratovolcano, results in the steady accumulation of broad sheets of lava, building up the shield volcano's distinctive form. Shield volcanoes are built by effusive eruptions, which flow out in all directions to create a shield like that of a warrior; the word "shield" has a long history, is derived from the Old English scield or scild, in turn taken from the Proto-Germanic *skelduz, related to the Gothic skildus, meaning "to divide, split, or separate". Shield volcano. Shield volcanoes are distinguished from the three other major volcanic archetypes—stratovolcanoes, lava domes, cinder cones—by their structural form, a consequence of their unique magmatic composition. Of these four forms shield volcanoes erupt the least viscous lavas: whereas stratovolcanoes and lava domes are the product of immotile flows and cinder cones are constructed by explosively eruptive tephra, shield volcanoes are the product of gentle effusive eruptions of fluid lavas that produce, over time, a broad sloped eponymous "shield".
Although the term is ascribed to basaltic shields it has at times been appended to rarer scutiform volcanoes of differing magmatic composition—principally pyroclastic shields, formed by the accumulation of fragmental material from powerful explosive eruptions, rarer felsic lava shields formed by unusually fluid felsic magmas. Examples of pyroclastic shields include Billy Mitchell volcano in Papua New Guinea and the Purico complex in Chile. Shield volcanoes are related in origination to vast lava plateaus and flood basalts present in various parts of the world, generalized eruptive features which occur along linear fissure vents and are distinguished from shield volcanoes proper by the lack of an identifiable primary eruptive center. Active shield volcanoes experience near-continuous eruptive activity over long periods of time, resulting in the gradual build-up of edifices that can reach large dimensions. With the exclusion of flood basalts, mature shields are the largest volcanic features on Earth: the summit of the largest subaerial volcano in the world, Mauna Loa, lies 4,169 m above sea level, the volcano, over 60 mi wide at its base, is estimated to contain about 80,000 km3 of basalt.
The mass of the volcano is so great. Mount Everest, by comparison, is 8,848 m in height. In September 2013 a team led by the University of Houston's William Sager announced the singular origination of Tamu Massif, an enormous extinct submarine shield volcano of unknown origin which 450 by 650 km in area, dwarfs all known volcanoes on the planet; the research has not yet been confirmed. Shield volcanoes feature a gentle slope that steepens with elevation before flattening near the summit, forming an overall upwardly convex shape. In height they are about one twentieth their width. Although the general form of a "typical" shield volcano varies little worldwide regional differences exist in their size and morphological characteristics. Typical shield volcanoes present in California and Oregon measure 3 to 4 mi in diameter and 1,500 to 2,000 ft in height. Rift zones are a prevalent feature on shield volcanoes, rare on other volcanic types; the large, decentralized shape of Hawaiian volcanoes as compared to their smaller, symmetrical Icelandic cousins can be attributed to rift eruptions.
Fissure venting is common in Hawaiʻi. This accounts for their asymmetrical shape, whereas Icelandic volcanoes follow a pattern of central eruptions dominated by summit calderas, causing the lava to be more evenly distributed or symmetrical. Most of what is known about shield volcanic eruptive character has been gleaned from studies done on the volcanoes of Hawaiʻi island, by far the most intensively studied of all shields due to their scientific accessibility; these eruptions, the calmest of volcanic events, are characterized by the effusive emission of fluid basaltic lavas with low gaseous content. These lavas travel a far greater distance than those of other eruptive types before solidifying, forming wide but thin magmatic sheets less than 1 m thick. Low volumes of such lavas layered over long periods of time are what constructs the characteristically low, broad profile of a mature shield volcano. Unlike other eruptive types, Hawaiian eruptions occur at decentralized fissure vents, beginning with large "curtains of fire" that die down and concentrate at specific locations on the volcano's r
A normal route or normal way is the most used route for ascending and descending a mountain peak. It is the simplest route. In the Alps, routes are classed in the following ways, based on their waymarking and upkeep: Footpaths Hiking trails Mountain trails Alpine routes Climbing routes and High Alpine routes in combined rock and ice terrain, graded by difficultySometimes the normal route is not the easiest ascent to the summit, but just the one, most used. There may be technically easier variations; this is the case on the Watzmannfrau, the Hochkalter and Mount Everest. There may be many reasons these easier options are less well-used: the simplest route is less well known than the normal route; the technically easiest route is more arduous than another and is therefore used on the descent. The technically easiest route carries a much higher risk of e.g. rockfalls or avalanche and is therefore avoided in favour of a more difficult route. The technically easier route requires a complicated or long approach march, or all access may be banned via one country.
The term tourist route may sometimes be applied by those wishing to suggest that other routes up a mountain are somehow more "worthy". This belittling of the "normal route" therefore maintains a distinction between those perceiving themselves as serious mountaineers who disparage the incursion of tourist climbers into their domain
Kennicott Glacier is a glacier in the U. S. state of Alaska. It trends southeast 43 km from Mount Blackburn to its terminus at the head of the Kennicott River in the Wrangell Mountains, it is located in Wrangell-St. Elias National Park near the small town of McCarthy and the historic ghost town of Kennecott, Alaska, it was named in 1899 by geologist Oscar Rohn of the United States Geological Survey for Robert Kennicott, pioneer Alaska explorer and director of the scientific corps of the Western Union Telegraph Expedition in 1865. Packsaddle Island is a nunatak located within the glacier near the base of Mount Blackburn; the glacier is the namesake of the Alaska Marine Highway vessel M/V Kennicott. Packsaddle Island List of glaciers Wrangell-St. Elias National Park information
American Alpine Journal
The American Alpine Journal is an annual magazine published by the American Alpine Club. Its mission is "to document and communicate mountain exploration." The headquarters is in Colorado. Subtitled as a compilation of "The World's Most Significant Climbs," the magazine contains feature stories about notable new routes and ascents, written by the climbers, as well as a large "Climbs and Expeditions" section containing short notes by climbers about new and noteworthy achievements; some general articles about mountaineering, mountain medicine, the mountain environment, or other topics are sometimes included. Each issue includes book reviews, memorials of deceased members, club activities; the journal was established in 1929. In 1957 and 1958, the editor was Francis P. Farquhar. From 1960 to 1995, the editor was H. Adams Carter, who brought the journal to international pre-eminence. From 1996 to 2001, the editor was Christian Beckwith. Since 2002, the editor has been John Harlin III; the overall format of the journal has changed little since at least the 1970s, but current plans include more complete worldwide coverage and electronic/online access.
Other journals of record for climbing include the Alpine Journal published by the UK Alpine Club, the Canadian Alpine Journal published by the Alpine Club of Canada, the Himalayan Journal, Iwa To Yuki, a Japanese magazine. All of these magazines are used by climbers planning expeditions those who wish to verify that a proposed route would be a new one. Entries in these journals concerning major Himalayan peaks are indexed in the Himalayan Index. In March 2007, the American Alpine Journal inaugurated free, searchable online access for its issues dating back to 1966. All earlier issues will be added. A complete index is available for free download. A complete set of the journal on DVD may be available for purchase. National Geographic Adventure Outside Official website Searchable online access Himalayan Index
The Wrangell Mountains are a high mountain range of eastern Alaska in the United States. Much of the range is included in Preserve; the Wrangell Mountains are entirely volcanic in origin, they include the second and third highest volcanoes in the United States, Mount Blackburn and Mount Sanford. The range takes its name from Mount Wrangell, one of the largest andesite shield volcanoes in the world, the only presently active volcano in the range; the Wrangell Mountains comprise most of the Wrangell Volcanic Field, which extends into the neighboring Saint Elias Mountains and the Yukon Territory in Canada. The Wrangell Mountains are just to the northwest of the Saint Elias Mountains and northeast of the Chugach Mountains, which are along the coast of the Gulf of Alaska; these ranges have the combined effect of blocking the inland areas from warmer moist air over the Pacific Ocean. The inland areas to the north of the Wrangell Mountains are therefore among the coldest areas of North America during the winter.
The Wrangell Mountains include 12 of the 40+ Alaskan peaks over 13,000 feet: Mount Blackburn, 16,390 feet, East Summit, 16,286 ft Mount Sanford, 16,237 feet, South Peak, 13,654 ft Mount Wrangell, 14,163 feet, West Summit, 14,013 ft Atna Peaks, 13,860 ft Regal Mountain, 13,845 ft Mount Jarvis, 13,421 feet, North Peak, 13,025 ft Parka Peak, 13,280 ft Mount Zanetti, 13,009 ft Other prominent mountains include: Mount Drum, 12,010 ft The mountains are named after explorer, president of Russian-American Company, admiral Ferdinand von Wrangel. American folk singer John Denver wrote a song, "The Wrangell Mountain Song", in reference to the range. Wrangellia Terrane Wrangell-St. Elias National Park & Preserve Wrangell Mountains Center
Kennecott known as Kennicott and Kennecott Mines, is an abandoned mining camp in the Valdez-Cordova Census Area in the U. S. state of Alaska, the center of activity for several copper mines. It is located beside the Kennicott Glacier, northeast of Valdez, inside Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve; the camp and mines are now a National Historic Landmark District administered by the National Park Service. It was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1986. In the summer of 1900, two prospectors, "Tarantula" Jack Smith and Clarence L. Warner, a group of prospectors associated with the McClellan party, spotted "a green patch far above them in an improbable location for a grass-green meadow." The green turned out to be malachite, located with chalcocite, the location of the Bonanza claim. A few days Arthur Coe Spencer, U. S. Geological Survey geologist independently found chalcocite at the same location. Stephen Birch, a mining engineer just out of school, was in Alaska looking for investment opportunities in minerals.
He had the financial backing of the Havemeyer Family, another investor named James Ralph, from his days in New York. Birch spent the winter of 1901-1902 acquiring the "McClellan group's interests" for the Alaska Copper Company of Birch, Havemeyer and Schultz to become the Alaska Copper and Coal Company. In the summer of 1901, he visited the property and "spent months mapping and sampling." He confirmed. By 1905, Birch had defended the legal challenges to his property and he began the search for capital to develop the area. On 28 June 1906, he entered into "an amalgamation" with the Daniel Guggenheim and J. P. Morgan & Co. known as the Alaska Syndicate securing over $30 million. The capital was to be used for constructing a railway, a steamship line, development of the mines. In Nov. 1906, the Alaska Syndicate bought a 40 percent interest in the Bonanza Mine from the Alaska Copper and Coal Company and a 46.2 percent interest in the railroad plans of John Rosene's Northwestern Commercial Company.
Political battles over the mining and subsequent railroad were fought in the office of U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt between conservationists and those having a financial interest in the copper; the Alaska Syndicate's traded its Wrangell Mountains Mines assets for shares in the Kennecott Copper Corporation, a "new public company" formed on 29 April 1915. A similar transaction followed with the Alaska Steamship Company. Birch was the managing partner for the Alaska operation. Kennecott Mines was named after the Kennicott Glacier in the valley below; the geologist Oscar Rohn named the glacier after Robert Kennicott during the 1899 US Army Abercrombie Survey. A "clerical error" resulted in the substitution of an "e" for the "i" by Stephen Birch himself. Kennecott had five mines: Bonanza, Mother Lode and Glacier. Glacier, an ore extension of the Bonanza, was an open-pit mine and was only mined during the summer. Bonanza and Jumbo were on Bonanza Ridge about 3 mi from Kennecott; the Mother Lode mine was located on the east side of the ridge from Kennecott.
The Bonanza, Mother Lode and Erie mines were connected by tunnels. The Erie mine was perched on the northwest end of Bonanza Ridge overlooking Root Glacier about 3.7 mi up a glacial trail from Kennecott. Ore was hoisted to Kennecott via the trams which head-ended at Jumbo. From Kennecott the ore was hauled in 140-pound sacks on steel flat cars to Cordova, 196 rail miles away on the Copper River and Northwestern Railway. In 1911 the first shipment of ore by train transpired. Before completion, the steamship Chittyna carried ore to the Abercrombie landing by Miles Glacier. Initial ore shipments contained "72 percent copper and 18 oz. of silver per ton."In 1916, the peak year for production, the mines produced copper ore valued at $32.4 million. In 1925 a Kennecott geologist predicted; the highest grades of ore were depleted by the early 1930s. The Glacier Mine closed in 1929; the Mother Lode was next, closing at the end of July 1938. The final three, Erie and Bonanza, closed that September; the last train left Kennecott on November 1938, leaving it a ghost town.
From 1909 until 1938, except when it closed temporarily in 1932, Kennecott mines "produced over 4.6 million tons of ore that contained 1.183 billion pounds of copper from three ore bodies: Bonanza and Mother Lode." The Kennecott operations reported gross revenues above $200 million and a net profit greater than $100 million. In 1938, Ernest Gruening proposed Kennecott be preserved as a National Park. A recommendation to President Franklin D. Roosevelt on 18 Jan. 1940 for the establishment of the Kennecott National Monument went nowhere. However, 2 Dec. 1980 saw the establishment of the Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve. From 1939 until the mid-1950s, Kennecott was deserted except for a family of three who served as the watchmen until about 1952. In the late 1960s, an attempt was made to reprocess the tailings and to transport the ore in aircraft; the cost of doing so made the idea unprofitable. Around the same time, the company with land rights ordered the destruction of the town to rid them of liability for potential accidents.
A few structures were destroyed, but the job was never finished and most of the town was left standing. Visitors and nearby residents have stripped many of the small artifacts; some are held in various archives. KCC sent a field party under the geologist Les Moon in 1955, they agreed with the 1938 concl