A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
A somma volcano is a volcanic caldera, filled by a new central cone. The name comes from Mount Somma, a stratovolcano in southern Italy with a summit caldera in which the upper cone of Mount Vesuvius has grown. A number of the world's best examples of somma volcanoes are found on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula and the Kuril Islands that stretch south from Kamchatka to Hokkaidō; some examples of somma volcanoes are the following: Oceania Mount Gharat Europe Mount Vesuvius Mount Pico, Portugal Africa Teide Pico do Fogo Asia Aira Caldera Ebeko Kolokol Group: Kolokol, Borzov, Trezubetz Krakatoa Group: a partially-submerged somma volcano Medvezhya Milna Pinatubo Tengger Caldera Tondano Caldera Tyatya Urataman Zarechny Americas Cosigüina Wizard Island
A caldera is a large cauldron-like hollow that forms following the evacuation of a magma chamber/reservoir. When large volumes of magma are erupted over a short time, structural support for the crust above the magma chamber is lost; the ground surface collapses downward into the emptied magma chamber, leaving a massive depression at the surface. Although sometimes described as a crater, the feature is a type of sinkhole, as it is formed through subsidence and collapse rather than an explosion or impact. Only seven known caldera-forming collapses have occurred since the start of the 20th century, most at Bárðarbunga volcano in Iceland; the word comes from Spanish caldera, Latin caldaria, meaning "cooking pot". In some texts the English term cauldron is used; the term caldera was introduced into the geological vocabulary by the German geologist Leopold von Buch when he published his memoirs of his 1815 visit to the Canary Islands, where he first saw the Las Cañadas caldera on Tenerife, with Montaña Teide dominating the landscape, the Caldera de Taburiente on La Palma.
A collapse is triggered by the emptying of the magma chamber beneath the volcano, sometimes as the result of a large explosive volcanic eruption, but during effusive eruptions on the flanks of a volcano or in a connected fissure system. If enough magma is ejected, the emptied chamber is unable to support the weight of the volcanic edifice above it. A circular fracture, the "ring fault", develops around the edge of the chamber. Ring fractures serve as feeders for fault intrusions which are known as ring dikes. Secondary volcanic vents may form above the ring fracture; as the magma chamber empties, the center of the volcano within the ring fracture begins to collapse. The collapse may occur as the result of a single cataclysmic eruption, or it may occur in stages as the result of a series of eruptions; the total area that collapses may be thousands of square kilometers. Some calderas are known to host rich ore deposits. One of the world's best-preserved mineralized calderas is the Sturgeon Lake Caldera in northwestern Ontario, which formed during the Neoarchean era about 2,700 million years ago.
If the magma is rich in silica, the caldera is filled in with ignimbrite, tuff and other igneous rocks. Silica-rich magma has a high viscosity, therefore does not flow like basalt; as a result, gases tend to become trapped at high pressure within the magma. When the magma approaches the surface of the Earth, the rapid off-loading of overlying material causes the trapped gases to decompress thus triggering explosive destruction of the magma and spreading volcanic ash over wide areas. Further lava flows may be erupted. If volcanic activity continues, the center of the caldera may be uplifted in the form of a resurgent dome such as is seen at Cerro Galán, Lake Toba, etc. by subsequent intrusion of magma. A silicic or rhyolitic caldera may erupt hundreds or thousands of cubic kilometers of material in a single event. Small caldera-forming eruptions, such as Krakatoa in 1883 or Mount Pinatubo in 1991, may result in significant local destruction and a noticeable drop in temperature around the world.
Large calderas may have greater effects. When Yellowstone Caldera last erupted some 650,000 years ago, it released about 1,000 km3 of material, covering a substantial part of North America in up to two metres of debris. By comparison, when Mount St. Helens erupted in 1980, it released ~1.2 km3 of ejecta. The ecological effects of the eruption of a large caldera can be seen in the record of the Lake Toba eruption in Indonesia. About 74,000 years ago, this Indonesian volcano released about 2,800 cubic kilometres dense-rock equivalent of ejecta; this was the largest known eruption during the ongoing Quaternary period and the largest known explosive eruption during the last 25 million years. In the late 1990s, anthropologist Stanley Ambrose proposed that a volcanic winter induced by this eruption reduced the human population to about 2,000–20,000 individuals, resulting in a population bottleneck. More Lynn Jorde and Henry Harpending proposed that the human species was reduced to 5,000-10,000 people.
There is no direct evidence, that either theory is correct, there is no evidence for any other animal decline or extinction in environmentally sensitive species. There is evidence. Eruptions forming larger calderas are known La Garita Caldera in the San Juan Mountains of Colorado, where the 5,000 cubic kilometres Fish Canyon Tuff was blasted out in eruptions about 27.8 million years ago. At some points in geological time, rhyolitic calderas have appeared in distinct clusters; the remnants of such clusters may be found in places such as the San Juan Mountains of Colorado or the Saint Francois Mountain Range of Missouri. Some volcanoes, such as the large shield volcanoes Kīlauea and Mauna Loa on the island of Hawaii, form calderas in a different fashion; the magma feeding these volcanoes is basalt, silica poor. As a result, the magma is much less viscous than the magma of a rhyolitic volcano, the magma chamber is drained by large lava flows rather than by explosive events; the resulting calderas are known as subsidence calderas and can form more than explosive calderas.
For instance, the caldera atop Fernandina Island collapsed
A pura is a Balinese Hindu temple. And the place of worship for the adherents of Balinese Hinduism in Indonesia. Puras are built in accordance to rules, style and rituals found in Balinese architecture. Most of the puras are found on the island of Bali. Mother Temple of Besakih is the most important, the holiest temple in Bali. A large number of puras have been built in Bali, leading it to be titled "the Island of a Thousand Puras"; the term pura originates from the Sanskrit word, meaning "city", "walled city", "towered city", or "palace". During the development of the Balinese language the term pura came to refer to a religious temple complex, while the term puri came to refer to palace, the residence of kings and nobles, similar to Javanese kratons. Unlike the common towering indoor Hindu temples of the Indian Subcontinent, puras are designed as an open air place of worship within enclosed walls, connected with a series of intricately decorated gates between its compounds; these walled compounds contain several shrines and bale.
The design and layout of the pura follows the trimandala concept of Balinese space allocation. Three mandala zones arranged according to a sacred hierarchy: Nista mandala: the outer zone, which directly connects the pura compound with the outer realm, the entrance to the temple; this zone takes the form of an open field or a garden that can be used for religious dance performances, or act as an additional space for preparations during religious festivals. Madya mandala: the middle zone of the temple, where the activity of adherents takes place, the location for supporting facilities of the temple. In this zone several pavilions are built, such as the bale kulkul, bale gong, bale pesandekan, bale perantenan, the temple's kitchen. Utama mandala: the holiest and the most sacred zone within the pura; this enclosed and highest of the compounds contains a padmasana, the towering lotus throne of the highest god, the pelinggih meru, several pavilions, such as bale pawedan, bale piyasan, bale pepelik, bale panggungan, bale murda, gedong penyimpenan.
However, the layout rules for arrangements the facilities of the two outer zones, nista mandala and madya mandala, are somewhat flexible. Several structures, such as the bale kulkul, could be built as outer corner tower. There are two types of gates within Balinese architecture: the split gate, known as candi bentar, the roofed tower gate known as paduraksa or kori agung. Both types of gates have specific roles in Balinese architectural design. Candi bentar is the gate used in the nista mandala, while the kori agung is employed as the gate between the madya mandala and Utama mandala inner compounds; the rules for gate types are valid for non-religious compounds such as puri, nobles' and kings' residences. There are several types of pura, each serving certain functions of Balinese rituals throughout the Balinese calendar; the Balinese temples are arranged according to the physical and spiritual realm of Balinese people, which corresponds to kaja-kelod sacred axis, from mountain tops the realms of gods, hyang spirits, the middle fertile plain the realm of humans and other beings, all the way to the beach and ocean, the many realms in Indonesia.
Pura kahyangan jagad Pura that are located in the mountainous region of the island, built upon mountain or volcano slopes. The mountains are considered as the abode of gods or hyang; the most important pura kahyangan in Bali is Mother Temple of Besakih complex on the slopes of Mount Agung. Another example is Pura Parahyangan Agung Jagatkarta on slopes of West Java. Pura tirta "Water temples", a type of pura that other than religious function have water management function as part of Subak irrigation system; the priests in these temples have authority to manage the water allocation among rice paddies in the villages surrounds the temple. Some tirta temples are noted for its sacred water and having petirtaan or sacred bathing pool for cleansing ritual. Other water temple are built within lakes, such as Pura Ulun Danu Bratan; the best example of this type of temple is Pura Tirta Empul. Pura desa A type of pura dedicated to the worship of Brahma the Gods and deities, that are located within villages or cities, serving as the center of Balinese people's religious activities.
Pura puseh A type of pura dedicated to the worship of Vishnu. Pura dalem A type of pura dedicated to the worship of Shiva, Mother nature, Sang Bhuta Diyu, Sang Bhuta Garwa, other deities, Usually Shiva's shakti, Durga, is venerated in this temple. In human life cycle, the temple is connected to rituals concerning death, it is common for a pura dalem to have a big tree like a banyan tree or a kepuh, also used as a shrine. The Pura Dalem is located next to the graveyard of the deceased prior to ngaben ceremony. Pura mrajapati A type of pura to the cosmic might. Most in this temple Shiva is worshipped in his form as prajapati. Pura segara "Sea temples", a pura that are located by the sea to appease the sea Gods and deities, it is important during the Mela
Jakarta the Special Capital Region of Jakarta, is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. Located on the northwest coast of the world's most populous island, Java, it is the centre of economics and politics of Indonesia, with a population of 10,075,310 as of 2014. Jakarta metropolitan area has an area of 6,392 square kilometers, known as Jabodetabek, it is the world's second largest urban agglomeration with a population of 30,214,303 as of 2010. Jakarta is predicted to reach 35.6 million people by 2030 to become the world's biggest megacity. Jakarta's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from across the Indonesian archipelago, combining many communities and cultures. Established in the 4th century as Sunda Kelapa, the city became an important trading port for the Sunda Kingdom, it was the de facto capital of the Dutch East Indies. Jakarta is a province with special capital region status, but is referred to as a city; the Jakarta provincial government consists of five administrative cities and one administrative regency.
Jakarta is nicknamed the Big Durian, the thorny strongly-odored fruit native to the region, as the city is seen as the Indonesian equivalent of New York. Jakarta is an alpha world city and is the seat of the ASEAN secretariat, making it an important city for international diplomacy. Important financial institutions such as Bank of Indonesia, Indonesia Stock Exchange, corporate headquarters of numerous Indonesian companies and multinational corporations are located in the city; as of 2017, the city is home for two Fortune 500 and four Unicorn companies. In 2017, the city's GRP PPP was estimated at US$483.4 billion. Jakarta has grown more than Kuala Lumpur and Beijing. Jakarta's major challenges include rapid urban growth, ecological breakdown, gridlock traffic and congestion and inequality, potential crimes and flooding. Jakarta is sinking up to 17 cm per year, coupled with the rising of sea level, has made the city more prone to flooding. Jakarta has been home to multiple settlements: Sunda Kelapa, Batavia, Jakarta.
Its current name "Jakarta" derives from the word Jayakarta, derived from Sanskrit language. It was named after troops of Fatahillah defeated and drove away Portuguese invaders from the city in 1527. Before it was named "Jayakarta", the city was known as "Sunda Kelapa". In the colonial era, the city was known as Koningin van het Oosten in the 17th century for the urban beauty of downtown Batavia's canals and ordered city layout. After expanding to the south in the 19th century, this nickname came to be more associated with the suburbs, with their wide lanes, green spaces and villas. During Japanese occupation the city was renamed as Jakarta Tokubetsu Shi; the north coast area of western Java including Jakarta, was the location of prehistoric Buni culture that flourished from 400 BC to 100 AD. The area in and around modern Jakarta was part of the 4th century Sundanese kingdom of Tarumanagara, one of the oldest Hindu kingdoms in Indonesia; the area of North Jakarta around Tugu became a populated settlement at least in the early 5th century.
The Tugu inscription discovered in Batutumbuh hamlet, Tugu village, North Jakarta, mentions that King Purnawarman of Tarumanagara undertook hydraulic projects. Following the decline of Tarumanagara, its territories, including the Jakarta area, became part of the Hindu Kingdom of Sunda. From the 7th to the early 13th century, the port of Sunda was under the Srivijaya maritime empire. According to the Chinese source, Chu-fan-chi, written circa 1225, Chou Ju-kua reported in the early 13th century Srivijaya still ruled Sumatra, the Malay peninsula and western Java; the source reports the port of Sunda as strategic and thriving, mentioning pepper from Sunda as among the best in quality. The people worked in agriculture and their houses were built on wooden piles; the harbour area became known as Sunda Kelapa and by the 14th century, it was a major trading port for the Sunda kingdom. The first European fleet, four Portuguese ships from Malacca, arrived in 1513, while looking for a route for spices.
The Sunda Kingdom made an alliance treaty with the Portuguese by allowing them to build a port in 1522 to defend against the rising power of Demak Sultanate from central Java. In 1527, Fatahillah, a Javanese general from Demak attacked and conquered Sunda Kelapa, driving out the Portuguese. Sunda Kelapa was renamed Jayakarta, became a fiefdom of the Banten Sultanate, which became a major Southeast Asia trading centre. Through the relationship with Prince Jayawikarta of Banten Sultanate, Dutch ships arrived in 1596. In 1602, the English East India Company's first voyage, commanded by Sir James Lancaster, arrived in Aceh and sailed on to Banten where they were allowed to build a trading post; this site became the centre of English trade in Indonesia until 1682. Jayawikarta is thought to have made trading connections with
Hindus are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism. The term has been used as a geographical and religious identifier for people indigenous to the Indian subcontinent; the historical meaning of the term Hindu has evolved with time. Starting with the Persian and Greek references to the land of the Indus in the 1st millennium BCE through the texts of the medieval era, the term Hindu implied a geographic, ethnic or cultural identifier for people living in the Indian subcontinent around or beyond the Sindhu river. By the 16th century, the term began to refer to residents of the subcontinent who were not Turkic or Muslims; the historical development of Hindu self-identity within the local South Asian population, in a religious or cultural sense, is unclear. Competing theories state that Hindu identity developed in the British colonial era, or that it developed post-8th century CE after the Islamic invasion and medieval Hindu-Muslim wars.
A sense of Hindu identity and the term Hindu appears in some texts dated between the 13th and 18th century in Sanskrit and regional languages. The 14th- and 18th-century Indian poets such as Vidyapati and Eknath used the phrase Hindu dharma and contrasted it with Turaka dharma; the Christian friar Sebastiao Manrique used the term'Hindu' in religious context in 1649. In the 18th century, the European merchants and colonists began to refer to the followers of Indian religions collectively as Hindus, in contrast to Mohamedans for Mughals and Arabs following Islam. By the mid-19th century, colonial orientalist texts further distinguished Hindus from Buddhists and Jains, but the colonial laws continued to consider all of them to be within the scope of the term Hindu until about mid-20th century. Scholars state that the custom of distinguishing between Hindus, Buddhists and Sikhs is a modern phenomenon. Hindoo is an archaic spelling variant. At more than 1.03 billion, Hindus are the world's third largest group after Muslims.
The vast majority of Hindus 966 million, live in India, according to India's 2011 census. After India, the next 9 countries with the largest Hindu populations are, in decreasing order: Nepal, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, United States, United Kingdom and Myanmar; these together accounted for 99% of the world's Hindu population, the remaining nations of the world together had about 6 million Hindus in 2010. The word Hindu is derived from the Indo-Aryan and Sanskrit word Sindhu, which means "a large body of water", covering "river, ocean", it was used as the name of the Indus river and referred to its tributaries. The actual term'hindu' first occurs, states Gavin Flood, as "a Persian geographical term for the people who lived beyond the river Indus", more in the 6th-century BCE inscription of Darius I; the Punjab region, called Sapta Sindhu in the Vedas, is called Hapta Hindu in Zend Avesta. The 6th-century BCE inscription of Darius I mentions the province of Hidush, referring to northwestern India; the people of India were referred to as Hinduvān and hindavī was used as the adjective for Indian in the 8th century text Chachnama.
The term'Hindu' in these ancient records is an ethno-geographical term and did not refer to a religion. The Arabic equivalent Al-Hind referred to the country of India. Among the earliest known records of'Hindu' with connotations of religion may be in the 7th-century CE Chinese text Record of the Western Regions by the Buddhist scholar Xuanzang. Xuanzang uses the transliterated term In-tu whose "connotation overflows in the religious" according to Arvind Sharma. While Xuanzang suggested that the term refers to the country named after the moon, another Buddhist scholar I-tsing contradicted the conclusion saying that In-tu was not a common name for the country. Al-Biruni's 11th-century text Tarikh Al-Hind, the texts of the Delhi Sultanate period use the term'Hindu', where it includes all non-Islamic people such as Buddhists, retains the ambiguity of being "a region or a religion". The'Hindu' community occurs as the amorphous'Other' of the Muslim community in the court chronicles, according to Romila Thapar.
Wilfred Cantwell Smith notes that'Hindu' retained its geographical reference initially:'Indian','indigenous, local', virtually'native'. The Indian groups themselves started using the term, differentiating themselves and their "traditional ways" from those of the invaders; the text Prithviraj Raso, by Chanda Baradai, about the 1192 CE defeat of Prithviraj Chauhan at the hands of Muhammad Ghori, is full of references to "Hindus" and "Turks", at one stage, says "both the religions have drawn their curved swords. In Islamic literature,'Abd al-Malik Isami's Persian work, Futuhu's-salatin, composed in the Deccan in 1350, uses the word'hindi' to mean Indian in the ethno-geographical sense and the word'hindu' to mean'Hindu' in the sense of a follower of the Hindu religion"; the poet Vidyapati's poem Kirtilata contrasts the cultures of Hindus and Turks in a city and concludes "The Hindus and the Turks live close together. One of the earliest uses of word'Hindu' in religious context in a European language, was the publication in 1649 by Sebastiao Manrique.
Other prominent mentions of'Hindu' include the epigraphical inscriptions from Andhra Pradesh kingdoms who battled military expansion of Muslim dynasties in the 14th century, where the word'Hindu' implies a religious identity in contrast to'Turks' or Islam
Surabaya is the capital of East Java province, the second-largest city in Indonesia. The city has a population of over 3 million within the city proper and over 10 million in the Greater Surabaya metropolitan area, known as Gerbangkertosusila. Located on northeastern Java on the Madura Strait, it is one of the earliest port cities in Southeast Asia; the city was settled in 10th century by Kingdom of Janggala, one of the two Javanese kingdoms, formed in 1045 when Airlangga abdicated his throne in favour of his two sons. But City Government of Surabaya took 31 May 1293, the date of failed Mongol or Tar-tar invasion to Java, as well as victory of Raden Wijaya on northeast coast of Java. In the late 15th and 16th centuries, Surabaya grew to be a duchy, a major political and military power as well as a port in eastern Java under Majapahit empire. At that time, Surabaya was a major trading port, owing to its location on the River Brantas delta and on the trade route between Malacca and the Spice Islands via the Java Sea.
During the decline of Majapahit, the lord of Surabaya resisted the rise of the Demak Sultanate, only submitted to its rule in 1530. Surabaya became independent after the death of Sultan Trenggana of Demak in 1546. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Surabaya was the largest city in the Dutch East Indies, larger than Batavia and the centre of trading in the nation, a competitor of Shanghai and Hong Kong; the city is known as Kota Pahlawan due to the importance of the Battle of Surabaya in galvanizing Indonesian and international support for Indonesian independence during the Indonesian National Revolution. Today the city remains one of the important entertainment, industrial and commercial hubs of the Indonesian archipelago, arguably second only to Jakarta, the Port of Tanjung Perak is Indonesia's second-busiest seaport located on northern Surabaya. In 2016, Surabaya received seven consecutive times Adipura Kencana Award from 2010 as number one among 20 cities in Indonesia. Surabaya awarded by a Singaporean Lee Kuan Yew World City Prize as city's special mention.
Surabaya alludes to a prophecy of Jayabaya, a 12th-century psychic king of Kediri Kingdom, foreseeing a fight between a giant white shark and a giant white crocodile taking place in the area, sometimes interpreted as foretelling the Mongol invasion of Java, a major conflict between the forces of Kublai Khan, Mongol ruler of China, those of Raden Wijaya's Majapahit in 1293. The two animals are now used as the city's symbol, with the two facing and circling each other, as depicted in a statue appropriately located near the entrance to the city zoo. Alternate derivations proliferate: from the Javanese sura ing baya, meaning "bravely facing danger"; some people consider Jayabaya's prophecy as being about the great war between native Surabayan people and foreign invaders at the start of the war of independence in 1945. Another story tells of two heroes; the two heroes were named Baya. These folk etymologies, though embraced enthusiastically by its people and city leaders, are unverifiable; the Kingdom of Janggala was one of the two Javanese kingdoms, formed in 1045 when Airlangga abdicated his throne in favour of his two sons.
The earliest historical record of Surabaya was in the 1225 book Zhu fan zhi written by Zhao Rugua, in which it was called Jung-ya-lu. The name Janggala was originated from the name "Hujung Galuh", or "Jung-ya-lu" according to Chinese source. Hujung Galuh was located on the estuarine of Brantas River and today is the part of modern Surabaya city and Sidoarjo Regency; the earliest historical record of Surabaya was in the 1225 book Zhu fan zhi written by Zhao Rugua, in which it was called Jung-ya-lu. The name Janggala was originated from the name "Hujung Galuh", or "Jung-ya-lu" according to Chinese source. Hujung Galuh was located on the estuarine of Mas River, one of tributaries of Brantas River and today is the part of modern Surabaya and Sidoarjo. By the 14th to 15th centuries, Surabaya seems to be one of Majapahit ports or coastal settlements, together with Tuban and Hujung Galuh. Ma Huan documented the early 15th-century visit of Zheng He's treasure ships in his 1433 book Yingya Shenglan: "after traveling south for more than 20 li, the ship reached Sulumayi, whose foreign name is Surabaya.
At the estuary, the outflowing water is fresh". Tomé Pires mentioned that a Muslim lord was in power in Surabaya in 1513, though still a vassal of the Majapahit. Ma Huan visited Java during Zheng He's fourth expedition in the 1413, during the reign of Majapahit king Wikramawardhana, he describes his travel to Majapahit capital, first he arrived to the port of Tu-pan where he saw large numbers of Chinese settlers migrated from Guangdong and Chou Chang. He sailed east to thriving new trading town of Ko-erh-hsi, Su-pa-erh-ya, sailing inland into the river by smaller boat to southwest until reached the Brantas river port of Chang-ku. Continuing to travel by land to the southwest, he arrived in Man-che-po-I, where the Javanese king stayed. By late 15th century, Islam began to take its root in Surabaya; the settlement of Ampel Denta, located around Ampel Mosque in today Ampel subdistrict, Semampir district, north Surabaya, was established by a charismatic Islamic proselytizer Sunan Ampel. In the late 15th and 16th centurie