Rock climbing is a sport in which participants climb up, down or across natural rock formations or artificial rock walls. The goal is to reach the summit of a formation or the endpoint of a pre-defined route without falling. Professional rock climbing competitions have the objectives of either completing the route in the quickest possible time or attaining the farthest point on an difficult route. Due to the length of time and extended endurance required, because accidents are most to happen on the descent, rock climbers do not climb back down the route, or "downclimb" on the larger multiple pitch class III–IV, or multi-day grade IV–VI climbs. Rock climbing is a physically and mentally demanding sport, one that tests a climber's strength, endurance and balance along with mental control, it can be a dangerous activity and knowledge of proper climbing techniques and use of specialized climbing equipment is crucial for the safe completion of routes. Because of the wide range and variety of rock formations around the world, rock climbing has been separated into several different styles and sub-disciplines, such as scrambling, another activity involving the scaling of hills and similar formations, differentiated by rock climbing's sustained use of hands to support the climber's weight as well as to provide balance.
Paintings dating from 200 BC show Chinese men rock climbing. In early America, the cliff-dwelling Anasazi in the 12th century are thought to have been excellent climbers. Early European climbers used rock climbing techniques as a skill required to reach the summit in their mountaineering exploits. In the 1880s, European rock climbing became an independent pursuit outside of mountain climbing. Although rock climbing was an important component of Victorian mountaineering in the Alps, it is thought that the sport of rock climbing began in the last quarter of the nineteenth century in various parts of Europe. Rock climbing evolved from an alpine necessity to a distinct athletic activity. Aid climbing, climbing using equipment that acts as artificial handhold or footholds, became popular during the period 1920–1960, leading to ascents in the Alps and in Yosemite Valley that were considered impossible without such means. However, climbing techniques and ethical considerations have evolved steadily.
Today, free climbing, climbing using holds made of natural rock while using gear for protection and not for upward movement, is the most popular form of the sport. Free climbing has since been divided into several sub-styles of climbing dependent on belay configuration. Over time, grading systems have been created in order to compare more the relative difficulties of the rock climbs. In How to Rock Climb, John Long notes that for moderately skilled climbers getting to the top of a route is not enough. Within free climbing, there are distinctions given to ascents: on-sight and redpoint. To on-sight a route is to ascend the wall without aid or any foreknowledge, it is considered the way to climb with the most style. Flashing is similar to on-sighting, except that the climber has previous information about the route including talking about the beta with other climbers. Redpointing means to make a free ascent of the route after having first tried it. Style is up to each individual climber and among climbers the verbiage and definitions can differ.
Most of the climbing done in modern times is considered free climbing—climbing using one's own physical strength, with equipment used as protection and not as support—as opposed to aid climbing, the gear-dependent form of climbing, dominant in the sport's earlier days. Free climbing is divided into several styles that differ from one another depending on the choice of equipment used and the configurations of their belay and anchor systems; as routes get higher off the ground, the increased risk of life-threatening injuries necessitates additional safety measures. A variety of specialized climbing techniques and climbing equipment exists to provide that safety. Climbers will work in pairs and utilize a system of ropes and anchors designed to catch falls. Ropes and anchors can be configured in different ways to suit many styles of climbing, roped climbing are thus divided into further sub-types that vary based on how their belay systems are set up. Speaking, beginners will start with top roping and/or easy bouldering and work their way up to lead climbing and beyond.
Still the most popular method of climbing big walls, aid climbers make progress up a wall by placing and weighting gear, used directly to aid ascent and enhance safety. This form of climbing is used when ascent is too technically difficult or impossible for free climbing; the most used method to ascend climbs refers to climbs where the climber's own physical strength and skill are relied on to accomplish the climb. Free climbing may rely on top rope belay systems, or on lead climbing to establish protection and the belay stations. Anchors and protection are used to back up the climber and are passive as opposed to active ascending aids. Subtypes of free climbing are trad sport climbing. Free climbing is done as "clean lead" meaning no pitons or pins are used as protection. Climbing on short, low routes without the use of the safety rope, typical of most other styles. Protection, if used at all consists of a cushioned bouldering pad below the route and a spotter, a person who watches from below and directs the fall of the climber away from hazardous areas.
Bouldering may be an arena for intense and safe competition, resulting in exceptionally high diffic
Hume and Hovell expedition
The Hume and Hovell expedition was one of the most important journeys of explorations undertaken in eastern Australia. In 1824 the Governor of New South Wales, Sir Thomas Brisbane, commissioned Hamilton Hume and former Royal Navy Captain William Hovell to lead an expedition to find new grazing land in the south of the colony, to find an answer to the mystery of where New South Wales's western rivers flowed. Surveyor General John Oxley asserted that no river could fall into the sea between Cape Otway and Spencer's Gulf, that the country south of parallel of 34 degrees was' uninhabitable and useless for all purposes of civilised men,' and for the time exploration in this direction was discouraged. In 1824, newly appointed Sir Thomas Brisbane, who disbelieved this statement, offered to land a party of prisoners near Wilson's Promontory and grant them a free pardon, as well as a grant of land, to those who found their way overland to Sydney. Mr. Alexander Berry recommended the Governor to secure the services of Mr. Hume to lead the exploring party.
Mr. Hume declined to undertake that task but instead offered, if supplied with men and horses, to go from Lake George to Bass Straits; this was not carried out. But shortly afterwards Mr. Hume and Captain W. H. Hovell, of Minto, agreed together to undertake an expedition in that direction, they bullocks. The two leaders each possessing special qualifications, it was not unreasonably counted that their association would be advantageous. However, nothing could have been further from the truth; the two men regarded one another as rivals and quarrelled at the start, wrangled throughout the entire journey, maintained a bitter feud till death. Apart from Hume and Hovell, there were six members of the expedition; these men played their own valuable role in making the journey a successful one. Jeff Barrois, became one of Hume's men just before the expedition, he never married and died in the Sydney Convict Hospital in 1841. Henry Angel, was one of Hume's men. Granted ticket of leave in July 1825, he accompanied Sturt and Hume in 1828.
James Fitzpatrick, was one of Hume's men, who took up land between Cootamundra and Gundagai. William Bollard, was a free settler who on the ship Providence disembarking in Sydney on 7 January 1822, he was one of Hovell's assigned servants. He built and kept a hotel called the "Farriers Arms" in Upper Picton in the 1840s, he died on 21 August 1854, is buried in the Catholic Cemetery, Upper Picton. Thomas Smith, was Hovell's assigned servant, he married Sarah Dean, had two children and died at Eastern Creek, NSW in 1837. Thomas Boyd, was known to Hume as a well-respected horseman and swimmer, was at the time indentured to the Kennedy family and Hume arranged for Boyd to join the party as one of Hovell's men. Returned to Tumut district and settled on Gilmore Creek, he had 12 children and died at ` Windowie', near Tumut, on 27 June 1885, aged 86 years. He is buried in the Tumut Pioneer Cemetery; the expedition is considered to have been funded. The supplies were as follows: 7 pack saddles, 1 riding saddle, 8 stands of arms, 6 pounds of gunpowder, 60 rounds of ball cartridge, 6 blankets, 2 tarpaulins, 1 tent, 1200 lbs flour, 350 lbs pork, 170 lbs sugar, 38 lbs tea and coffee, 8 lbs tobacco, 16 lbs soap, 20 lbs salt, 8 gal rum, 1 false horizon, 1 sextant, 3 pocket compasses, 1 pram, cooking utensils.
On 2 October 1824, Hovell and Hume met at Mr. Hume's house in Appin, started upon their expedition; the party when complete, consisted of eight persons, Mr. Hume and his three men, Claude Bossowa, Henry Angel, James Fitzpatrick, and Mr. Hovell and his three men, Thomas Boyd, William Bollard, Thomas Smith, they reached Mr. Hume's station near Lake George on the 13th and started their journey on the 17th. On the 18th they camped Cooma Cottage. On the 19th they passed Yarrh --, their first great difficulty was in crossing the Murrumbidgee, in full flood at the time. The timber growing on the banks of this river was too heavy to float, so Mr. Hume resolved to make a raft of the body of one of their carts. Mr. Hume and Mr. Hovell's man Boyd, swam across the river first, with a small rope between their teeth, to, attached a line long enough to reach across the river, it was a work of peril. But they succeeded, with much labour, got the whole party, with baggage and cattle, safely over. On 24 October they came up to.
There was an argument between the leaders concerning the best route to take which resulted in the party splitting up. The equipment was divided, they prepared to cut their one tent in halves. Hume and Hovell fought bitterly over the frying-pan. One of them taking the handle, the other the pan itself. However, Hovell rejoined Hume when he found he had made a mistake. Mr. Hume, with two men, following a chain of ponds, came to a chasm through which the whole party afterwards descended. On the 31st they found themselves on the western edge of the tableland; the descent was not accomplished without much difficulty. And here they proved the great superiority
A mycorrhiza is a symbiotic association between a fungus and a plant. The term mycorrhiza refers to the role of the fungus in its root system. Mycorrhizae play important roles in soil biology and soil chemistry. In a mycorrhizal association, the fungus colonizes the host plant's root tissues, either intracellularly as in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, or extracellularly as in ectomycorrhizal fungi; the association is mutualistic, but in particular species or in particular circumstances, mycorrhizae may be variously parasitic in the host plants. A mycorrhiza is a symbiotic association between a fungus; the plant makes organic molecules such as sugars by photosynthesis and supplies them to the fungus, the fungus supplies to the plant water and mineral nutrients, such as phosphorus, taken from the soil. Mycorrhizas are located in the roots of vascular plants, but mycorrhiza-like associations occur in bryophytes and there is fossil evidence that early land plants that lacked roots formed arbuscular mycorrhizal associations.
Most plant species form mycorrhizal associations, though some families like Brassicaceae and Chenopodiaceae cannot. Different forms for the association are detailed in the next section; the most common is the arbuscular type, present in 70% of plant species, including many crop plants such as wheat and rice. Mycorrhizas are divided into ectomycorrhizas and endomycorrhizas; the two types are differentiated by the fact that the hyphae of ectomycorrhizal fungi do not penetrate individual cells within the root, while the hyphae of endomycorrhizal fungi penetrate the cell wall and invaginate the cell membrane. Endomycorrhiza includes arbuscular and orchid mycorrhiza, while arbutoid mycorrhizas can be classified as ectoendomycorrhizas. Monotropoid mycorrhizas form a special category. Ectomycorrhizas, or EcM, are symbiotic associations between the roots of around 10% of plant families woody plants including the birch, eucalyptus, oak and rose families and fungi belonging to the Basidiomycota and Zygomycota.
Some EcM fungi, such as many Leccinum and Suillus, are symbiotic with only one particular genus of plant, while other fungi, such as the Amanita, are generalists that form mycorrhizas with many different plants. An individual tree may have 15 or more different fungal EcM partners at one time. Thousands of ectomycorrhizal fungal species hosted in over 200 genera. A recent study has conservatively estimated global ectomycorrhizal fungal species richness at 7750 species, although, on the basis of estimates of knowns and unknowns in macromycete diversity, a final estimate of ECM species richness would be between 20,000 and 25,000. Ectomycorrhizas consist of a hyphal sheath, or mantle, covering the root tip and a Hartig net of hyphae surrounding the plant cells within the root cortex. In some cases the hyphae may penetrate the plant cells, in which case the mycorrhiza is called an ectendomycorrhiza. Outside the root, ectomycorrhizal extramatrical mycelium forms an extensive network within the soil and leaf litter.
Nutrients can be shown to move between different plants through the fungal network. Carbon has been shown to move from paper birch trees into Douglas-fir trees thereby promoting succession in ecosystems; the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor has been found to lure and kill springtails to obtain nitrogen, some of which may be transferred to the mycorrhizal host plant. In a study by Klironomos and Hart, Eastern White Pine inoculated with L. bicolor was able to derive up to 25% of its nitrogen from springtails. When compared to non-mycorrhizal fine roots, ectomycorrhizae may contain high concentrations of trace elements, including toxic metals or chlorine; the first genomic sequence for a representative of symbiotic fungi, the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete L. bicolor, has been published. An expansion of several multigene families occurred in this fungus, suggesting that adaptation to symbiosis proceeded by gene duplication. Within lineage-specific genes those coding for symbiosis-regulated secreted proteins showed an up-regulated expression in ectomycorrhizal root tips suggesting a role in the partner communication.
L. bicolor is lacking enzymes involved in the degradation of plant cell wall components, preventing the symbiont from degrading host cells during the root colonisation. By contrast, L. bicolor possesses expanded multigene families associated with hydrolysis of bacterial and microfauna polysaccharides and proteins. This genome analysis revealed the dual saprotrophic and biotrophic lifestyle of the mycorrhizal fungus that enables it to grow within both soil and living plant roots; this type of mycorrhiza involves plants of the Ericaceae subfamily Arbutoideae. It is however different from ericoid mycorrhiza and resembles ectomycorrhiza, both functionally and in terms of the fungi involved; the difference to ectomycorrhiza is that some hyphae penetrate into the root cells, making this type of mycorrhiza an ectendomycorrhiza. Endomycorrhizas are variable and have been further classified as arbuscular, arbutoid and orchid mycorrhizas. Arbuscular mycorrhizas, or AM, are mycorrhizas whose hyphae penetrate plant cells, producing structures that are either balloon-like or dichotomously branching invaginations as a means of nutrient exchange.
The fungal hyphae invaginate the cell membrane. The struct
Eucalyptus pauciflora known as snow gum or white sallee, is a species of flowering plant in the family Myrtaceae. It is a small tree or large shrub growing 4–8 m tall reaching 20 m, native to subalpine and lowland habitats in eastern Australia, it is amongst the hardiest of all eucalyptus species, surviving the severe winter temperatures of the Australian Alps. Other common names include weeping gum; the bark of Eucalyptus pauciflora is smooth and white to light grey or sometimes brown-red, shedding in patches or strips to give a mottled appearance. The grey-green adult leaves are lanceolate to broadly lanceolate with distinct parallel veins, but may be narrowly ovate; the tree is covered in a mass of white flowers in summer. The term pauciflora is a misnomer, may originate in an early collected specimen losing its buds in transit. Rather than losing its leaves in winter/autumn, the tree is evergreen, adapting to the weight of snow by progressively bending its branches so that the outermost branches extend vertically down and snow is shed from the leaves.
The specific epithet pauciflora is Latin for'few-flowered'. Six subspecies are treated as species by some botanists: E. pauciflora subsp.. Pauciflora, the nominate subspecies, with non-glaucous buds; this is by far the most widespread form. E. pauciflora subsp. Debeuzevillei, syn. E. debeuzevillei, the Jounama snow gum, with glaucous angular buds. This is found only in the far south-east of New South Wales. E. pauciflora subsp. Niphophila, syn. E. niphophila, with glaucous non-angular buds. This is found in the highest parts of the Australian Alps, straddling the Victoria - New South Wales border. In cultivation this tree has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. E. pauciflora subsp. Hedraia, with sessile glaucous buds. Restricted to the Falls Creek and Mount Bogong area, Victoria. E. pauciflora subsp. Parvifructa, with small adult leaves and small glaucous buds. Restricted to above 900m altitude on the Mount William Range, the Grampians, Victoria. E. pauciflora subsp. Acerina, with glossy adult leaves and non-glaucous buds.
Restricted to above 1200m altitude in the vicinity of the Baw Baw Plateau, Victoria. Snow gums occur as woodlands and open woodlands at altitudes of 1,300–1,800 m in Victoria, New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory, where they form the altitudinal limit of the tree line; the distribution of the lowland form extends a short distance across the Queensland and South Australian borders. Because of land clearing, few stands of lowland snow gum remain, considerable efforts are being put into preserving the remnants. E. pauciflora regenerates from seed, by epicormic shoots below the bark, from lignotubers. It is the most cold-tolerant species of eucalyptus, with E. pauciflora subsp. Niphophila surviving temperatures down to − 23 year-round frosts, it has been introduced to Norway. In Tasmania the species hybridises with Eucalyptus coccifera and Eucalyptus amygdalina. Iglesias Trabado, Gustavo. Eucalyptus from Alpine Australia. Notes on taxonomy and cultivation in cold temperate climates, In: EUCALYPTOLOGICS Snow Gums: cold hardy Australian National Botanic Gardens Eucalypts for cold climates
Hang gliding is an air sport or recreational activity in which a pilot flies a light, non-motorised foot-launched heavier-than-air aircraft called a hang glider. Most modern hang gliders are made of an aluminium alloy or composite frame covered with synthetic sailcloth to form a wing; the pilot is in a harness suspended from the airframe, controls the aircraft by shifting body weight in opposition to a control frame. Early hang gliders had a low lift-to-drag ratio, so pilots were restricted to gliding down small hills. By the 1980s this ratio improved, since pilots can soar for hours, gain thousands of feet of altitude in thermal updrafts, perform aerobatics, glide cross-country for hundreds of kilometers; the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale and national airspace governing organisations control some regulatory aspects of hang gliding. Obtaining the safety benefits of being instructed is recommended. By the end of the sixth century A. D. the Chinese had managed to build kites large and aerodynamic enough to sustain the weight of an average-sized person.
It was only a matter of time before someone decided to remove the kite strings and see what happened. Most early glider designs did not ensure safe flight. Starting in the 1880s technical and scientific advancements were made that led to the first practical gliders, such as those developed in the United States by John Joseph Montgomery. Otto Lilienthal built controllable gliders in the 1890s, his rigorously documented work influenced designers, making Lilienthal one of the most influential early aviation pioneers. His aircraft is similar to a modern hang glider. Hang gliding saw a stiffened flexible wing hang glider in 1904, when Jan Lavezzari flew a double lateen sail hang glider off Berck Beach, France. In 1910 in Breslau, the triangle control frame with hang glider pilot hung behind the triangle in a hang glider, was evident in a gliding club's activity; the biplane hang glider was widely publicized in public magazines with plans for building. In April 1909, a how-to article by Carl S. Bates proved to be a seminal hang glider article that affected builders of contemporary times, as several builders would have their first hang glider made by following the plan in his article.
Volmer Jensen with a biplane hang glider in 1940 called VJ-11 allowed safe three-axis control of a foot-launched hang glider. On November 23, 1948, Francis Rogallo and Gertrude Rogallo applied for a kite patent for a flexible kited wing with approved claims for its stiffenings and gliding uses; the various stiffening formats and the wing's simplicity of design and ease of construction, along with its capability of slow flight and its gentle landing characteristics, did not go unnoticed by hang glider enthusiasts. In 1960–1962 Barry Hill Palmer adapted the flexible wing concept to make foot-launched hang gliders with four different control arrangements. In 1963 Mike Burns adapted the flexible wing to build a towable kite-hang glider. In 1963, John W. Dickenson adapted the flexible wing airfoil concept to make another water-ski kite glider. Since the Rogallo wing has been the most used airfoil of hang gliders. There are two types of sail materials used in hang glider sails: woven polyester fabrics, composite laminated fabrics made of some combinations.
Woven polyester sailcloth is a tight weave of small diameter polyester fibers, stabilized by the hot-press impregnation of a polyester resin. The resin impregnation is required to provide resistance to stretch; this resistance is important in maintaining the aerodynamic shape of the sail. Woven polyester provides the best combination of light weight and durability in a sail with the best overall handling qualities. Laminated sail materials using polyester film achieve superior performance by using a lower stretch material, better at maintaining sail shape but is still light in weight; the disadvantages of polyester film fabrics is that the reduced elasticity under load results in stiffer and less responsive handling, polyester laminated fabrics are not as durable or long lasting as the woven fabrics. In most hang gliders, the pilot is ensconced in a harness suspended from the airframe, exercises control by shifting body weight in opposition to a stationary control frame known as triangle control frame, control bar or base bar.
This bar is pulled to allow for greater speed. Either end of the control bar is attached to an upright pipe, where both extend and are connected to the main body of the glider; this creates the shape of a triangle or'A-frame'. In many of these configurations additional wheels or other equipment can be suspended from the bottom bar or rod ends. Images showing a triangle control frame on Otto Lilienthal's 1892 hang glider shows that the technology of such frames has existed since the early design of gliders, but he did not mention it in his patents. A control frame for body weight shift was shown in Octave Chanute's designs, it was a major part of the now commo
Victoria is a state in south-eastern Australia. Victoria is Australia's smallest mainland state and its second-most populous state overall, thus making it the most densely populated state overall. Most of its population lives concentrated in the area surrounding Port Phillip Bay, which includes the metropolitan area of its state capital and largest city, Australia's second-largest city. Victoria is bordered by Bass Strait and Tasmania to the south,New South Wales to the north, the Tasman Sea to the east, South Australia to the west; the area, now known as Victoria is the home of many Aboriginal people groups, including the Boon wurrung, the Bratauolung, the Djadjawurrung, the Gunai/Kurnai, the Gunditjmara, the Taungurong, the Wathaurong, the Wurundjeri, the Yorta Yorta. There were more than 30 Aboriginal languages spoken in the area prior to the European settlement of Australia; the Kulin nation is an alliance of five Aboriginal nations which makes up much of the central part of the state. With Great Britain having claimed the half of the Australian continent, east of the 135th meridian east in 1788, Victoria formed part of the wider colony of New South Wales.
The first European settlement in the area occurred in 1803 at Sullivan Bay, much of what is now Victoria was included in 1836 in the Port Phillip District, an administrative division of New South Wales. Named in honour of Queen Victoria, who signed the division's separation from New South Wales, the colony was established in 1851 and achieved self government in 1855; the Victorian gold rush in the 1850s and 1860s increased both the population and wealth of the colony, by the time of the Federation of Australia in 1901, Melbourne had become the largest city and leading financial centre in Australasia. Melbourne served as federal capital of Australia until the construction of Canberra in 1927, with the Federal Parliament meeting in Melbourne's Parliament House and all principal offices of the federal government being based in Melbourne. Politically, Victoria has 37 seats in the Australian House of Representatives and 12 seats in the Australian Senate. At state level, the Parliament of Victoria consists of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council.
The Labor Party led Daniel Andrews as premier has governed Victoria since 2014. The personal representative of the Queen of Australia in the state is the Governor of Victoria Linda Dessau. Victoria is divided into 79 municipal districts, including 33 cities, although a number of unincorporated areas still exist, which the state administers directly; the economy of Victoria is diversified, with service sectors including financial and property services, education, retail and manufacturing constitute the majority of employment. Victoria's total gross state product ranks second in Australia, although Victoria ranks fourth in terms of GSP per capita because of its limited mining activity. Culturally, Melbourne hosts a number of museums, art galleries, theatres, is described as the world's sporting capital; the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the largest stadium in Australia and the Southern Hemisphere, hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. The ground is considered the "spiritual home" of Australian cricket and Australian rules football, hosts the grand final of the Australian Football League each year, drawing crowds of 100,000.
Nearby Melbourne Park has hosted the Australian Open, one of tennis' four Grand Slam events, annually since 1988. Victoria has eight public universities, with the oldest, the University of Melbourne, dating from 1853. Victoria, like Queensland, was named after Queen Victoria, on the British throne for 14 years when the colony was established in 1851. After the founding of the colony of New South Wales in 1788, Australia was divided into an eastern half named New South Wales and a western half named New Holland, under the administration of the colonial government in Sydney; the first British settlement in the area known as Victoria was established in October 1803 under Lieutenant-Governor David Collins at Sullivan Bay on Port Phillip. It consisted of 402 people, they had been sent from England in HMS Calcutta under the command of Captain Daniel Woodriff, principally out of fear that the French, exploring the area, might establish their own settlement and thereby challenge British rights to the continent.
In 1826, Colonel Stewart, Captain Samuel Wright, Lieutenant Burchell were sent in HMS Fly and the brigs Dragon and Amity, took a number of convicts and a small force composed of detachments of the 3rd and 93rd regiments. The expedition landed at Settlement Point, on the eastern side of Western Port Bay, the headquarters until the abandonment of Western Port at the insistence of Governor Darling about 12 months afterwards. Victoria's next settlement was on the south west coast of what is now Victoria. Edward Henty settled Portland Bay in 1834. Melbourne was founded in 1835 by John Batman, who set up a base in Indented Head, John Pascoe Fawkner. From settlement, the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, a separately administered part of New South Wales. Shortly after, the site now known as Geelong was surveyed by Assistant Surveyor W. H. Smythe, three weeks after Melbourne, and in 1838, Geelong was declared a town, despite earlier European settlements dating back to 1826
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,992.5 km2, comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, is the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley, it has a population of 4.9 million, its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians". The city was founded on 30 August 1835, in the then-British colony of New South Wales, by free settlers from the colony of Van Diemen’s Land, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837 and named in honour of the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. In 1851, four years after Queen Victoria declared it a city, Melbourne became the capital of the new colony of Victoria. In the wake of the 1850s Victorian gold rush, the city entered a lengthy boom period that, by the late 1880s, had transformed it into one of the world's largest and wealthiest metropolises.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as interim seat of government of the new nation until Canberra became the permanent capital in 1927. Today, it is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region and ranks 15th in the Global Financial Centres Index; the city is home to many of the best-known cultural institutions in the nation, such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria and the World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building. It is the birthplace of Australian impressionism, Australian rules football, the Australian film and television industries and Australian contemporary dance. More it has been recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a global centre for street art, live music and theatre, it is the host city of annual international events such as the Australian Grand Prix, the Australian Open and the Melbourne Cup, has hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Due to it rating in entertainment and sport, as well as education, health care and development, the EIU ranks it the second most liveable city in the world.
The main airport serving the city is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia, Australia's busiest seaport the Port of Melbourne. Its main metropolitan rail terminus is Flinders Street station and its main regional rail and road coach terminus is Southern Cross station, it has the most extensive freeway network in Australia and the largest urban tram network in the world. Indigenous Australians have lived in the Melbourne area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years; when European settlers arrived in the 19th-century, under 2,000 hunter-gatherers from three regional tribes—the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong—inhabited the area. It was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and a vital source of food and water; the first British settlement in Victoria part of the penal colony of New South Wales, was established by Colonel David Collins in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay, near present-day Sorrento. The following year, due to a perceived lack of resources, these settlers relocated to Van Diemen's Land and founded the city of Hobart.
It would be 30 years. In May and June 1835, John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association in Van Diemen's Land, explored the Melbourne area, claimed to have negotiated a purchase of 600,000 acres with eight Wurundjeri elders. Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village" before returning to Van Diemen's Land. In August 1835, another group of Vandemonian settlers arrived in the area and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne Immigration Museum. Batman and his group arrived the following month and the two groups agreed to share the settlement known by the native name of Dootigala. Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by Richard Bourke, the Governor of New South Wales, with compensation paid to members of the association. In 1836, Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, commissioned the first plan for its urban layout, the Hoddle Grid, in 1837.
Known as Batmania, the settlement was named Melbourne in 1837 after the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose seat was Melbourne Hall in the market town of Melbourne, Derbyshire. That year, the settlement's general post office opened with that name. Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were dispossessed of their land by European settlers. By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne; the British Colonial Office appointed five Aboriginal Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however their work was nullified by a land policy that favoured squatters who took possession of Aboriginal lands. By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences issued in Victoria and became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for generations to come. Letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847, declared Melbourne a city. On 1 July 1851, the Port Phillip District separated from New South Wales to become the Colony of Victoria, with Melbourne as its capital.
The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 sparked a