Haifa is the third-largest city in Israel – after Jerusalem and Tel Aviv – with a population of 281,087 in 2017. The city of Haifa forms part of the Haifa metropolitan area, the second- or third-most populous metropolitan area in Israel, it is home to the Bahá'í World Centre, a UNESCO World Heritage Site and a destination for Bahá'í pilgrims. Built on the slopes of Mount Carmel, the settlement has a history spanning more than 3,000 years; the earliest known settlement in the vicinity was Tell Abu Hawam, a small port city established in the Late Bronze Age. In the 3rd century CE, Haifa was known as a dye-making center. Over the millennia, the Haifa area has changed hands: being conquered and ruled by the Canaanites, Phoenicians, Hasmoneans, Byzantines, Crusaders and the British. Since the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, the Haifa Municipality has governed the city; as of 2016, the city is a major seaport located on Israel's Mediterranean coastline in the Bay of Haifa covering 63.7 square kilometres.
It is the major regional center of northern Israel. According to researcher Jonathan Kis-Lev, Haifa is considered a relative haven for coexistence between Jews and Arabs. Two respected academic institutions, the University of Haifa and the Technion, are located in Haifa, in addition to the largest k-12 school in Israel, the Hebrew Reali School; the city plays an important role in Israel's economy. It is home to Matam, one of the largest high-tech parks in the country. Haifa Bay is a center of petroleum refining and chemical processing. Haifa functioned as the western terminus of an oil pipeline from Iraq via Jordan; the ultimate origin of the name Haifa remains unclear. One theory holds; some Christians believe. Another theory holds it could be derived from the Hebrew verb root חפה, meaning to cover or shield, i.e. Mount Carmel covers Haifa. Other spellings in English included Caipha, Caiffa and Khaifa; the earliest named settlement within the area of modern-day Haifa was a city known as Sycaminum.
The remains of the ancient town can be found in a coastal tell, or archaeological mound, known in Hebrew as Tel Shikmona, meaning "mound of the Ficus sycomorus", in Arabic as Tell el-Semak or Tell es-Samak, meaning "mound of the sumak trees", names that preserved and transformed the ancient name, by which the town is mentioned once in the Mishnah for the wild fruits that grow around it. The name Efa first appears during Roman rule, some time after the end of the 1st century, when a Roman fortress and small Jewish settlement were established not far from Tel Shikmona. Haifa is mentioned more than 100 times in the Talmud, a work central to Judaism. Hefa or Hepha in Eusebius of Caesarea's 4th-century work, Onomasticon, is said to be another name for Sycaminus; this synonymizing of the names is explained by Moshe Sharon, who writes that the twin ancient settlements, which he calls Haifa-Sycaminon expanded into one another, becoming a twin city known by the Greek names Sycaminon or Sycaminos Polis.
References to this city end with the Byzantine period. Around the 6th century, Porphyreon or Porphyrea is mentioned in the writings of William of Tyre, while it lies within the area covered by modern Haifa, it was a settlement situated south of Haifa-Sycaminon. Following the Arab conquest in the 7th century, Haifa was used to refer to a site established on Tel Shikmona upon what were the ruins of Sycaminon. Haifa is mentioned by the mid-11th-century Persian chronicler Nasir Khusraw, the 12th- and 13th-century Arab chroniclers, Muhammad al-Idrisi and Yaqut al-Hamawi; the Crusaders, who captured Haifa in the 12th century, call it Caiphas, believe its name related to Cephas, the Aramaic name of Simon Peter. Eusebius is said to have referred to Hefa as Caiaphas civitas, Benjamin of Tudela, the 12th-century Jewish traveller and chronicler, is said to have attributed the city's founding to Caiaphas, the Jewish high priest at the time of Jesus. Haifa al-'Atiqa is another name used by some locals to refer to Tell es-Samak, when it was the site of Haifa while a hamlet of 250 residents, before it was moved in 1764-5 to a new fortified site founded by Zahir al-Umar 1.5 miles to the east.
The new village, the nucleus of modern Haifa, was first called al-imara al-jadida by some, but others residing there called it Haifa al-Jadida at first, simply Haifa. In the early 20th century, Haifa al'Atiqa was repopulated with many Arab Christians in an overall neighborhood in which many Middle Eastern Jews were established inhabitants, as Haifa expanded outward from its new location. A town known today, it was a fishing village. Mount Carmel and the Kishon River are mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. A grotto on the top of Mount Carmel is known as the "Cave of Elijah", traditionally linked to the Prophet Elijah and his apprentice, Elisha. In Arabic, the highest peak of the Carmel range is called the Muhraka, or "place of burning," harking back to the burnt offerings and sacrifices there in Canaanite and early Israelite times In the 6th c
Dorothy Annie Elizabeth Garrod, CBE, FBA was an English archaeologist who specialised in the Palaeolithic period. She held the position of Disney Professor of Archaeology at the University of Cambridge from 1938 to 1952, was the first woman to hold an Oxbridge chair. Garrod, the daughter of the physician Sir Archibald Garrod, was raised in Melton, Suffolk by a number of governesses. In 1913, she entered Newnham College, Cambridge where she was one of few women students at the university, she graduated in 1916 with a degree in history, undertook war work until she was demobilised in 1919. She went to Malta, where her father was working, began to take an interest in the local antiquities. On returning to England, Garrod decided to read for a Diploma in Anthropology at the Pitt Rivers Museum, University of Oxford, where she enrolled in 1921, she was taught by Robert Ranulph Marett and received a distinction on graduating in 1922. She studied for two years with the French prehistorian Abbé Breuil at the Institut de Paleontologie Humaine in Paris.
On completing her studies, Garrod began to excavate in Gibraltar. Following a recommendation from Breuil, she investigated Devil's Tower Cave, only 350 metres from Forbes' Quarry, where a Neanderthal skull had been found earlier. Garrod discovered in this cave in 1925 a second important Neanderthal skull now called Gibraltar 2. In 1926, Garrod published her first academic work, The Upper Paleolithic of Britain, for which she was awarded a B. Sc. degree by the University of Oxford. In 1928 she headed an expedition through South Kurdistan that led to the excavation of Hazar Merd Cave and Zarzi cave. In 1929, Garrod was appointed to direct excavations at Wadi el-Mughara at Mount Carmel in Palestine, as a joint project of the American School of Prehistoric Research and the British School of Anthropology in Jerusalem; the series of 12 extensive excavations was completed over 22 months. The results established a chronological framework that remains crucial to present understanding of that prehistoric period.
Working with Dorothea Bate, she demonstrated a long sequence of Lower Palaeolithic, Middle Palaeolithic and Epipalaeolithic occupations in the caves of Tabun, El Wad, Es Skhul and Kebara Cave. She coined the cultural label for the late Epipalaeolithic Natufian culture following her excavations at Es Skhul and El Wad, her excavations at the cave sites in the Levant were conducted with exclusively women workers recruited from local villages. One of these women, Yusra, is credited with the discovery of the Tabun 1 Neanderthal skull, her excavations were the first to use aerial photography. In 1937, Garrod published The Stone Age of Mount Carmel, considered a ground-breaking work in the field. In 1938, she excavated the Palaeolithic cave of Bacho Kiro. After holding a number of academic positions, including Newnham College's Director of Studies for Archaeology and Anthropology, she was made Disney Professor of Archaeology at Cambridge on 6 May 1939, a post she held until 1952, her appointment was greeted with excitement by women students and a "college feast" was held in her honour at Newnham, in which every dish was named after an archaeological item.
In addition, the Cambridge Review reported "The election of a woman to the Disney Professorship of Archaeology is an immense step forward towards complete equality between men and women in the University." Gender equality at the University of Cambridge at the time was still remote: as a woman, Garrod could not be a full member of the University, excluding her from speaking or voting on University matters. Women would not become full members of the University for another nine years, in 1948. From 1941 to 1945, Garrod took a leave of absence from the university and served in the Women's Auxiliary Air Force, she was based at the RAF Medmenham photographic interpretation unit as a section officer. After the war, Garrod returned to her position and made a number of changes to the department, including the introduction of a module of study on world prehistory. Where prehistory had been considered French or European, Garrod expanded the subject to a global scale. Garrod made changes to the structure of archaeology studies, as a result Cambridge became the first university in Britain to offer undergraduate courses in prehistoric archaeology.
During the university summer vacations, Garrod travelled to France and excavated at two important sites: Fontéchevade cave, with Germaine Henri-Martin, Angles-sur-l'Anglin, with Suzanne de St. Mathurin. On her retirement in 1952, Garrod continued to research and excavate. In 1958, aged 66, she excavated on the Adlun headland in Lebanon, with the assistance of Diana Kirkbride; the following year she was asked to urgently excavate at Ras el-Kelb, as a significant cave had been disturbed by road and rail construction. Henri-Martin and de St. Mathurin assisted Garrod for seven weeks, with the remaining material being removed to the National Museum of Beirut for more detailed study, she returned to Adlun again in 1963, with a team of younger archaeologists, but her health began to fail and she was absent from the sites. In the summer of 1968, Garrod suffered a stroke while visiting relatives in Cambridge, she died in a nursing home there on 18 December, aged 76. In 1937, Garrod was awarded Honorary Doctorates from the University of Pennsylvania and Boston College and a DSc. from the University of Oxford.
She was elected a Fellow of the British Academy in 1952, in 1965 she was awarded the CBE. She felt it was important that archaeologists travel and therefore left money to found the Dorothy Garrod Travel Fund. In 1968 the Society of An
The Druze are an Arabic-speaking esoteric ethno-religious group originating in Western Asia who self-identify as Al-Muwaḥḥidūn. Jethro of Midian is considered an ancestor of all people from the Mountain of Druze region, who revere him as their spiritual founder and chief prophet, it is a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion based on the teachings of Hamza ibn-'Ali ibn-Ahmad and the sixth Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, Greek philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle. The Epistles of Wisdom is the foundational text of the Druze faith; the Druze faith incorporates elements of Isma'ilism, a branch of Shia Islam, Neoplatonism and other philosophies and beliefs, creating a distinct and secretive theology known to interpret esoterically religious scriptures, to highlight the role of the mind and truthfulness. The Druze follow theophany, believe in reincarnation or the transmigration of the soul. At the end of the cycle of rebirth, achieved through successive reincarnations, the soul is united with the Cosmic Mind.
Although dwarfed by other, larger communities, the Druze community played an important role in shaping the history of the Levant, where it continues to play a large political role. As a religious minority in every country, they have experienced persecution, except in Lebanon and Israel, where Druze judges, parliamentarians and doctors occupy the highest echelons of society. Though the faith developed out of Ismaili Islam, Druze are not considered Muslims, although Al Azhar of Egypt recognizes them as one of the Islamic sects, akin to Shia. Fatimid caliph Ali az-Zahir, whose father al-Hakim is a key figure in the Druze faith, was harsh, causing the death of many Druze in Antioch and northern Syria. Persecution flared up during the rule of the Ottomans. Most Druze were targeted by the ISIL and Al-Qaeda in order to cleanse Syria and neighboring countries of non-Islamic influence; the Druze faith is one of the major religious groups in the Levant, with between 800,000 and a million adherents. They are found in Syria and Israel, with small communities in Jordan.
The oldest and most densely-populated Druze communities exist in Mount Lebanon and in the south of Syria around Jabal al-Druze. The Druze's social customs differ markedly from those of Muslims or Christians, they are known to form close-knit, cohesive communities which do not allow non-Druze in, though they themselves integrate in their adopted homelands. Druze people reside in Syria, Lebanon and Jordan; the Institute of Druze Studies estimates that forty to fifty percent of Druze live in Syria, thirty to forty percent in Lebanon, six to seven percent in Israel, one or two percent in Jordan. About two percent of the Druze population are scattered within other countries in the Middle East. Large communities of Druze live outside the Middle East, in Australia, Europe, Latin America, the United States, West Africa, they use the Arabic language and follow a social pattern similar to those of the other peoples of the Levant. The number of Druze people worldwide is between 800,000 and one million, with the vast majority residing in the Levant.
The name Druze is derived from the name of Muhammad bin Ismail Nashtakin ad-Darazī, an early preacher. Although the Druze consider ad-Darazī a heretic, the name has been used to identify them. Before becoming public, the movement was secretive and held closed meetings in what was known as Sessions of Wisdom. During this stage a dispute occurred between ad-Darazi and Hamza bin Ali concerning ad-Darazi's ghuluww, which refers to the belief that God was incarnated in human beings and to ad-Darazi naming himself "The Sword of the Faith", which led Hamza to write an epistle refuting the need for the sword to spread the faith and several epistles refuting the beliefs of the ghulat. In 1016 ad-Darazi and his followers proclaimed their beliefs and called people to join them, causing riots in Cairo against the Unitarian movement including Hamza bin Ali and his followers; this led to the suspension of the movement for one year and the expulsion of ad-Darazi and his supporters. Although the Druze religious books describe ad-Darazi as the "insolent one" and as the "calf", narrow-minded and hasty, the name "Druze" is still used for identification and for historical reasons.
In 1018, ad-Darazi was assassinated for his teachings. Some authorities see in the name "Druze" a descriptive epithet, derived from Arabic dārisah. Others have speculated that the word comes from the Persian word Darazo or from Shaykh Hussayn ad-Darazī, one of the early converts to the faith. In the early stages of the movement, the word "Druze" is mentioned by historians, in Druze religious texts only the word Muwaḥḥidūn appears; the only early Arab historian who mentions the Druze is the eleventh century Christian scholar Yahya of Antioch, who refers to the heretical group created by ad-Darazī, rather than the followers of Hamza ibn'Alī. As for Western sources, Benjamin of Tudela, the Jewish traveler who passed through Lebanon in or around 1165, was one of the first European writers to refer to the Druzes by name; the word Dogziyin occurs in an early H
Daliyat El Karmel is a Druze town in the Haifa District of Israel, located around 20 km southeast of Haifa. In 2017 its population was 17,201. Daliyat al-Karmel, situated on Mount Carmel, is the country’s largest and southernmost Druze town. In 1283 both Daliyat al-Karmel and Kh. Doubel were mentioned as part of the domain of the Crusaders, according to the hudna between the Crusaders in Acre and the Mamluk sultan Qalawun. In 1870 a local guide showed French explorer Victor Guérin extensive ruins located south of Daliyat al-Karmel, called Khirbet Doubel; the ruins were the most extensive on Mt. Carmel. Guérin thought. Conder and Kitchener surveyed the area and noted "traces of ruins" at a place SE of the village centre called Dubil. Excavations have found remains there from Iron Age I, Early Roman and Byzantine periods, together with pottery from first century to the second–third centuries CE. In the 17th century, during the Ottoman period, Druze came from the hill country near Aleppo, Syria to Daliyat al-Karmel, in 1859 they were numbered by the English Consul Rogers to be 300 souls, who tilled twenty feddans.
In 1870, the French explorer Victor Guérin visited the village. He found all Druze; the houses were built of adobe, with only a few stone houses. The locals worshipped inside a cave. In 1881, the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine described the village as a "stone village of moderate size on a knoll of one of the spurs running out of the main watershed of Carmel. On the south there is a well, fine springs on the west, near Umm esh Shukf. On the north is a little plain or open valley cultivated with corn; the inhabitants are all Druses." A population list from about 1887 showed. In the 1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Daliyat al-Karmel had a population of 993. In the 1945 statistics the population of Daliyat al-Karmel consisted of 2,060 Arabs, the land area was 31,730 dunams, according to an official land and population survey. Of this, 1,506 dunams were designated for plantations and irrigable land, 18,174 for cereals, while 60 dunams were built-up areas.
An Israeli census conducted in November 1948 found 2,932 residents. At the end of 1951 the figure dropped to 2,769; the town was granted local council status in 1951. In 2003, Dalyat was merged with nearby Isfiya to create Carmel City. In 2008, the communities became separate once again; the town is famous for its colorful market. In 2010, El Al, Israel's national airline, named one of its Boeing 767 airplanes Daliyat al-Karmel. Sheikh Muafak Tarif, leader of the Druze community, was presented with a miniature model of the plane at a special ceremony; the shrine of Abu Ibrahim, whom the Druze consider a prophet, is in the oldest part of the town. Close by, is the home of Sir Laurence Oliphant, who spent his summers there in the 1880s with his wife Alice, his secretary Naftali Herz Imber; the Muharka Monastery located 2 kilometer southeast to Dalyat al-Karmel and marks the battle between prophet Elijah and the prophets of the Ba'al, it is belonging to the Carmelite Order. The Carmel Center for Druze Heritage is a hands-on museum of the history and culture of the Druze.
In 2011, the Garden of the Mothers was inaugurated in Daliyat al-Karmel, symbolizing the sisterhood of Christian, Druze and Muslim women who work together in northern Israel. Forty-four trees were planted in memory of the 44 Israel Prison Services personnel who died in the Mount Carmel forest fire in 2010. In 2012, a tennis school financed by the Freddie Krivine Foundation opened in Daliyat al-Karmel and 12 youngsters take part in a weekly co-existence program with children at the Israel Tennis Center in Yokneam. Daliyat al-Karmel and Isfiya joined Yokneam Illit and the Megiddo Regional Council to develop the Mevo Carmel Jewish-Arab Industrial Park to benefit from the existing high-tech ecosystem. In 2007, Daliyat al-Karmel signed a partnership agreement with Moldova. In 2008, the Ambassador of Moldova, Larisa Miculet visited Daliyat al-Karmel at the invitation of the mayor, Akram Hasson. Majdi Halabi, Israeli missing soldier Ayoob Kara, Likud MK Gadeer Mreeh, MK Amal Nasser el-Din, former Likud MK Arab localities in Israel Druze in Israel Welcome To Daliyat al-Carmel Israel tourist board: Daliyat al-Carmel Survey of Western Palestine, Map 5: IAA, Wikimedia commons
The olive, known by the botanical name Olea europaea, meaning "European olive", is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, found in the Mediterranean Basin from Portugal to the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, southern Asia as far east as China, as well as the Canary Islands and Réunion. The species is cultivated in many places and considered naturalized in all the countries of the Mediterranean coast, as well as in Argentina, Saudi Arabia, Norfolk Island and Bermuda. Olea europaea is the type species for the genus Olea; the olive's fruit called the olive, is of major agricultural importance in the Mediterranean region as the source of olive oil. The tree and its fruit give their name to the plant family, which includes species such as lilacs, jasmine and the true ash trees; the word "olive" derives from Latin ŏlīva through Etruscan from the archaic Proto-Greek form *ἐλαίϝα. The word "oil" meant "olive oil", from ŏlĕum, ἔλαιον. In multiple other languages the word for "oil" derives from the name of this tree and its fruit.
The oldest attested forms of the Greek words are the Mycenaean, e-ra-wa, and, e-ra-wo or, e-rai-wo, written in the Linear B syllabic script. The olive tree, Olea europaea, is an evergreen tree or shrub native to the Mediterranean and Africa, it is short and squat, exceeds 8–15 m in height.'Pisciottana', a unique variety comprising 40,000 trees found only in the area around Pisciotta in the Campania region of southern Italy exceeds this, with correspondingly large trunk diameters. The silvery green leaves are oblong, measuring 4 -- 1 -- 3 cm wide; the trunk is gnarled and twisted. The small, feathery flowers, with ten-cleft calyx and corolla, two stamens, bifid stigma, are borne on the previous year's wood, in racemes springing from the axils of the leaves; the fruit is a small drupe 1–2.5 cm long, thinner-fleshed and smaller in wild plants than in orchard cultivars. Olives are harvested in the green to purple stage. Canned black olives have been artificially blackened and may contain the chemical ferrous gluconate to improve the appearance.
Olea europaea contains a seed referred to in American English as a pit or a rock, in British English as a stone. The six natural subspecies of Olea europaea are distributed over a wide range: Olea europaea subsp. Europaea Olea europaea subsp. Europaea var. sylvestris, considered the "wild" olive of the Mediterranean, is a variety characterized by a smaller tree bearing noticeably smaller fruit. O. e. subsp. Cuspidata O. e. subsp. Guanchica O. e. subsp. Cerasiformis O. e. subsp. Maroccana O. e. subsp. Laperrinei The subspecies O. e. maroccana and O. e. cerasiformis are hexaploid and tetraploid. Wild growing forms of the olive are sometimes treated as the species Olea oleaster; the trees referred to as white and black olives in Southeast Asia are not olives, but species of Canarium. Hundreds of cultivars of the olive tree are known. An olive's cultivar has a significant impact on its colour, size and growth characteristics, as well as the qualities of olive oil. Olive cultivars may be used for oil, eating, or both.
Olives cultivated for consumption are referred to as table olives. Since many olive cultivars are self-sterile or nearly so, they are planted in pairs with a single primary cultivar and a secondary cultivar selected for its ability to fertilize the primary one. In recent times, efforts have been directed at producing hybrid cultivars with qualities useful to farmers, such as resistance to disease, quick growth, larger or more consistent crops. Fossil evidence indicates the olive tree had its origins some 20–40 million years ago in the Oligocene, in what is now corresponding to Italy and the eastern Mediterranean Basin; the olive plant was first cultivated some 7,000 years ago in Mediterranean regions. The edible olive seems to have coexisted with humans for about 5,000 to 6,000 years, going back to the early Bronze Age, its origin can be traced to the Levant based on written tablets, olive pits, wood fragments found in ancient tombs. The immediate ancestry of the cultivated olive is unknown. Fossil Olea pollen has been found in Macedonia and other places around the Mediterranean, indicating that this genus is an original element of the Mediterranean flora.
Fossilized leaves of Olea were found in the palaeosols of the volcanic Greek island of Santorini and were dated about 37,000 BP. Imprints of larvae of olive whitefly Aleurolobus olivinus were found on the leaves; the same insect is found today on olive leaves, showing that the plant-animal co-evolutionary relations have not changed since that time. Other leaves found on the same island are dated back to 60,000 BP, making them the oldest known olives from the Mediterranean; as far back as 3000 BC, olives were grown commercially in Crete. Olives are not native to the Americas. Spanish colonists brought the olive to the New World, where its cultivation prospered in present-day Peru and Chile; the first seedlings from Spain were planted in Lima by Antonio de Rivera in 1560. Olive tree cultivation spread along the valleys of South America's dry Pacific coast where the climate was
Yokneam Illit known as Yoqne'am Illit and Jokneam Illit, or as the city of Yokneam, is a city in northern Israel. It is located in a hilly region of the lower Galilee at the base of the Carmel Mountains and overlooks the Jezreel Valley, 21 kilometres from Haifa and 80 kilometres from Tel Aviv. Yokneam is known as Israel's "Startup Village" because its high-tech hub is surrounded by forest and small communities. Yokneam Illit was founded in 1950 and became a local authority in 1967, a city in 2007; the city is located alongside the country’s major highways – Highway 70 and Highway 6. In 2017 it had a population of 22,746. Starting in 1989 when a new mayor, Simon Alfassi, was elected, the economic structure of Yokneam Illit changed from a centralized dependence on two large factories to a dispersed base of many small high-tech companies; as the number and size of the companies grew and the small communities around it began to attract young entrepreneurs and developers who were looking for a less urban alternative to the Tel Aviv area.
It now has over 160 high-tech companies and exports of 6 billion US dollars annually. The policy of the municipality is to build low-density, spacious homes to preserve the landscape and views from every home. Although real estate prices are low relative to the Tel-Aviv area, its high rate of growth in recent years has pushed prices up faster than in similar sized cities. Ancient Yokneam appears in the list of 119 cities conquered by the Egyptian Pharaoh Thutmose III following the victory in the battle of Megiddo. Yokneam is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible as a city of Levites within the territory of the Israelite tribe of Zebulun, it is located near Megiddo. The Crusaders called Yokneam "Cain Mons", or "Mountain of Cain" in keeping with the tradition that Cain, son of Adam, was murdered at this site. Yokneam was populated throughout the Persian, Roman/Byzantine, Crusaders and Ottoman periods. Yokneam was the site of a Palestinian Arab village named Qira, depopulated in the lead up to the 1948 Arab–Israeli war.
The Yokneam Moshava was established in 1935. In July 1950, a tent camp was set up to absorb 250 new immigrant families and remained part of Yokneam Moshava until 1967. By the start of 1952, another 400 families were housed in the tent camp. Toward the end of 1951, the first 285 families moved from the tent camp to permanent housing on the hill above the Yokneam Moshava. In 1952, Yokneam was considered unusual in that it had a single school for all regardless of whether they were religious or secular, or from the moshava or the tent camp. In 1964, Yokneam was occupied by 4,300 residents, with 160 of the families living in the moshava. In 1967, Yokneam was split into two local councils. In the 1980s there were two factories in Yokneam, employing 90% of its residents. One collapsed and unemployment soared creating a challenging situation for residents. In the 1990s, Yokneam absorbed a large wave of immigrants from the former Soviet Union. During that time, Yokneam's industrial parks became a magnet for high-tech firms.
Yokneam Illit was formally declared a city in 2006. In 2009, Yokneam was linked to Highway 6 and received recognition as Israel's first "Green City" in the Cleantech competition; these two events boosted Yokneam's attraction as a center for companies involved in medical and product development. In 2011, some 16,000 workers entered the industrial parks every day. Of these, only 4,000 were local residents. On Dec. 31, 2014, Yokneam had a population of 21,100 residents, with a population density of 2,576.5. The rate of unemployment is lower than the national average; the median age in the Yokneam region is 32. 76 % of Yokneam Illit's residents are under. Eighty percent of high-school students in Yokneam graduate with a bagrut matriculation certificate, one of the highest rates in Israel. 40% of Yokneam's population are college graduates. Since the 1950s when Yokneam Moshava and Yokneam Illit shared a single school, social integration and coexistence has been an integral part of the local culture; the first wave of immigrants to settle in the Maabara had major contingents from at least 6 different Jewish communities, all of whom were absorbed by the Moshava, settled in 1935 by Jews from Germany and the Netherlands.
The next wave of new immigrants came in the 1960s from North Africa, followed by immigrants from the Soviet Union in the 1970s. In the 1990s, Yokneam Illit absorbed large numbers of immigrants from Ethiopia and the former Soviet Union. Starting in the 1990s, the growth of high-tech companies in Yokneam Illit brought an influx of Israeli-born residents along with an increasing number of immigrants from Western Europe, South Africa, North America and South America. During this period, the economic problems of the Kibbutz and Moshav movements led many of the young families in the Megiddo Regional Council to move to nearby Yokneam Illit. Yokneam Illit's accelerated demand for day care and Kindergartens led to a shortage of space in local day care and Kindergartens at the same time that there was a shortage of children at some of the Kibbutzim. In order to avoid sending their children to other small communities in the area, Kibbutz children's houses and Kindergartens began accepting children from nearby Yokneam Illit, in some cases the number of children from Yokneam Illit outnumbered the Kibbutz children.
This phenomenon extended to the elementary and secondary schools until the building of new schools in Yokneam Illit was able to catch up with
Beit Oren is a kibbutz in northern Israel. It falls under the jurisdiction of Hof HaCarmel Regional Council. In 2017 its population was 470. Beit Oren is located in the heart of Carmel mountain range, right next to the Carmel Nature Reserve national park, an area called "little Switzerland". In 1934 a single Arab house stood on the site of, it was purchased with the surrounding lands, settled by a group of 15 Jewish workers, served as a watch tower and camp. The workers intended to build a city and name it Ya'arot HaCarmel, but a number were killed when the site was attacked during the 1936 Arab Revolt; the kibbutz was founded in 1939 by immigrants from Poland and Russia, part of the Hebrew Socialist Youth movement. Over time these were joined by other groups from Dror and Aliyat HaNoar, as well as by a group from Kibbutz Ma'agan Michael. During the Mandate era the kibbutz served as a Palmach base for underground activities against the British. On 9 October 1945, a Palmach unit set out from Beit Oren to free 208 illegal immigrants detained at the Atlit detainee camp.
After overcoming the guards, the freed immigrants were led past Beit Oren to Kibbutz Yagur, where they were hidden from the British. The attack was the first anti-British action undertaken by the Palmach. During the 1980s Beit Oren suffered severe financial problems and many of the middle aged members left, leaving the senior members with debts and no income or means of subsistence; the kibbutz movement stopped financial support to the kibbutz,and a group of young individuals were brought in to make fundamental changes. In 1999, eight members of Beit Oren petitioned the High Court of Justice to abolish the classification of Beit Oren as a kibbutz and classify it as a community village. Beit Oren suffered extensive damage in the 2010 Israel forest fire, which claimed the lives of 41 people and burnt thousands of acres of forestland. In 1942, Beit Oren opened a guest house which became popular among Europeans seeking respite from the summer heat in other parts of the country; the Beit Oren Hotel, still in operation, has a yoga center and a swimming pool.
Khirbet Oren is an ancient city in the center of Mount Carmel, on a steep hill overlooking Oren valley. There are few remains at the site indicating that the city flourished during Hellenistic and Roman times. Canaanite findings have been found in the area. Solomon Wasser, a professor from Haifa University has found six strains of mushroom unknown to science while hunting through the Beit Oren Forest behind the university. Wasser's research found that Cyathus striatus, one of the strains, was effective in treating pancreatic cancer in animal trials