Mount Damavand

Mount Damavand, a active volcano, is a stratovolcano, the highest peak in Iran and the highest volcano in Asia. Damāvand has a special place in Persian folklore, it is in the middle of the Alborz range, adjacent to Varārū, Gol-e Zard, Mīānrūd. It is near the southern coast of the Caspian Sea, in Amol County, Mazandaran Province, 66 kilometres northeast of the city of Tehran. Mount Damāvand is the 12th most prominent peak in the world, the second most prominent in Asia after Mount Everest, it is part of the Volcanic Seven Summits mountaineering challenge. Damavand is a significant mountain in Persian mythology, it is the symbol of Iranian resistance against despotism and foreign rule in Persian poetry and literature. In Zoroastrian texts and mythology, the three-headed dragon Aži Dahāka was chained within Mount Damāvand, there to remain until the end of the world. In a version of the same legend, the tyrant Zahhāk was chained in a cave somewhere in Mount Damāvand after being defeated by Kāveh and Fereydūn.

Persian poet Ferdowsi depicts this event in his masterpiece, the Shahnameh: بیاورد ضحاک را چون نوندبه کوه دماوند کردش ببند biyâvarad Zahhâk râ čon navand be kuh-e Damâvand krdš beband He brought Zahhak like a horse to mount Damavand, And tied him at the peak tight and bound The mountain is said to hold magical powers in the Shahnameh. Damāvand has been named in the Iranian legend of Arash as the location from which the hero shot his magical arrow to mark the border of Iran, during the border dispute between Iran and Turan; the poem Damāvand by Mohammad Taqī Bahār is one fine example of the mountain's significance in Persian literature. The first verse of this poem reads: ای دیو سپید پای در بندای گنبد گیتی، ای دماوند Ey div-e sepid-e pâyi dar band, Ey gonbad-e giti, ey Damāvand O white giant with feet in chains O dome of the world, O Damāvand Mount Damavand is depicted on the reverse of the Iranian 10,000 rials banknote; the origins and meaning of the word "Damavand" is unclear, yet some prominent researchers have speculated that it means "The mountain from which smoke and ash arises", alluding to the volcanic nature of the mountain.

Mount Damavand first erupted in the Pleistocene 1.78 million years ago. After several known eruptions around 600,000 and 280,000 years ago, its last eruption was around 5300 BC in the Holocene, its steep cone is formed of ash and lava flows of trachyte and basalt. The Quaternary lavas are directly on the Jurassic sediments; the volcano is crowned by a small crater with sulfuric deposits. There are fumaroles, hot springs, mineral deposits of travertine. Mount Damavand could be considered as a active volcano, because there are fumaroles near the summit crater emitting sulfur, which were known to be active on July 6, 2007. Mineral hot springs are located on the volcano's flanks and at the base, giving evidence of volcanic heat comparatively near the surface of the earth. While no historic eruptions have been recorded, hot springs at the base and on the flanks, fumaroles and solfatara near the summit, indicate a hot or cooling magma body still present beneath the volcano; the most important of these hot springs are located in Abe Garm Larijan in a village by the name Larijan in the district of Larijan in Lar Valley.

The water from this spring is useful in the treatment of chronic wounds and skin diseases. Near these springs there are public baths with small pools for public use. A major settlement for mountain climbers is the new Iranian Mountain Federation Camp in the village of Polour, located on the south of the mountain. There are at least 16 known routes with varying levels of difficulty; some of them require rock climbing. The most popular route is the southern route which has steps and a camp midway called Bargah Sevom Camp/Shelter at 4,220 m; the longest route is the Northeastern and it takes two days to reach the summit starting from downhill village of Nāndal and a night stay at Takht-e Fereydoun (elevation 4,300 m, a two-story shelter. The western route is noted for its sunset view. Sīmorgh shelter in this route at 4,100 m is a newly constructed two story shelter. There is a frozen waterfall/icefall about 12 m tall and the elevation of 5,100 m is the highest fall in Iran and Middle East. Damavand rivers and slopes are famous for brown trout.

Armenian mouflon and wild goat live in the region of Damavand Mts. Persian leopard and Syrian brown bear live in this region; some smaller mammals are mouse-like hamster and Afghan pika. The attractive and unreachable Caspian snowcock lives at high altitudes. Golden eagle breeds in this area. Griffon vultures are common. Chukar partridge has nests between stone and shrubs. Red-fronted serin, snow finch, rock sparrow, rock bunting and horned lark are native. In spring wheatear, rock thrush, nightingale come from Africa for breeding. Grey-necked bunting, black-headed bunting and common rosefinch come from India. Marsh frogs live in Lar riversides. Meadow viper, blunt-nosed viper


Regelinda, a member of the Polish Piast dynasty, was Margravine of Meissen from 1009 until her death by her marriage with Margrave Herman I. She was the daughter of the Polish Duke Bolesław I Chrobry from his third marriage with Emnilda, daughter of Dobromir, a Slavic prince. Regelinda was married to Herman I shortly after his father Margrave Eckard I of Meissen was killed on April 30, 1002. While Duke Bolesław had occupied the March of Lusatia and the Milceni lands sparking a German–Polish War, the marriage brought the Polish Piasts and the Ekkardiner margraves closer; the new king Henry II of Germany named Herman's uncle Gunzelin Eckard's successor, however, in 1009, deposed him and installed Herman as Margrave of Meissen with Regelinda as his margravine consort. The alliance with the Polish dukes was renewed after the 1018 Peace of Bautzen, when Bolesław married Herman's sister Oda; the marriage of Herman and Regelinda proved to be childless. The margravine is better known for the 13th century statue erected in Naumburg Cathedral by the Naumburg Master, which shows a "smiling Polish woman".

It is part of a semicircle of twelve donor portraits in the west choir, among them Herman's brother Margrave Eckard II and his wife Uta, although there is some research which questions her identification. Her exact year of death is unknown, she died about 1014, but it is speculated that she could have lived until 1030. O. Balzer, Genealogia Piastów, Kraków 1895. K. Jasiński, Rodowód pierwszych Piastów, Wrocław-Warsaw

Jeff Moores

Jeff Moores was an Australian professional rugby league footballer who played in the 1920s and 1930s. He played at representative level for Queensland Firsts, Rugby League XIII and Dominion XIII, at club level for Western Suburbs and York, as a centre, or stand-off, i.e. number 3 or 4, or 6. Jeff Moores played right-centre, i.e. number 3, in Rugby League XIII's 25-18 victory over France at Headingley Rugby Stadium, Leeds on Wednesday 6 March 1935. Jeff Moores played right-centre, i.e. number 3, in Leeds' 11–8 victory over Swinton in the 1931–32 Challenge Cup Final during the 1931–32 season at Central Park, Wigan, on Saturday 7 May 1932, in front of a crowd of 29,000. Jeff Moores played, scored 2-tries in Leeds' 8–0 victory over Wakefield Trinity in the 1932–33 Yorkshire County Cup Final during the 1932–33 season at Fartown Ground, Huddersfield on Saturday 19 November 1932, played in York's 10–4 victory over Hull Kingston Rovers in the 1933–34 Yorkshire County Cup Final during the 1933–34 season at Headingley Rugby Stadium, Leeds on Saturday 25 November 1933, played in 0–3 defeat by Leeds in the 1935–36 Yorkshire County Cup Final during the 1935–36 season at Thrum Hall, Halifax on Saturday 19 October 1935.

Moores Accepts Leeds Moores' Wizardy Thrills League Crowd Photograph of Jeff Moores Jeff Moores Suspended