Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form and alignment that have arisen from the same cause an orogeny. Mountain ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain ranges are found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System and are a feature of most terrestrial planets. Mountain ranges are segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not have the same geologic structure or petrology, they may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, volcanic landforms resulting in a variety of rock types. Most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earth's land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt.
The Pacific Ring of Fire includes the Andes of South America, extends through the North American Cordillera along the Pacific Coast, the Aleutian Range, on through Kamchatka, Taiwan, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, to New Zealand. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the world's longest mountain system; the Alpide belt includes Indonesia and Southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, Caucasus Mountains, Balkan Mountains fold mountain range, the Alps, ends in the Spanish mountains and the Atlas Mountains. The belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges; the Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, 8,848 metres high and traverses the border between China and Nepal. Mountain ranges outside these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Great Dividing Range, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains. If the definition of a mountain range is stretched to include underwater mountains the Ocean Ridges form the longest continuous mountain system on Earth, with a length of 65,000 kilometres.
The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, where mountain ranges can contain sub-ranges. The sub-range relationship is expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains. Equivalently, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians; the parent-child expression extends to the sub-ranges themselves: the Sandwich Range and the Presidential Range are children of the White Mountains, while the Presidential Range is parent to the Northern Presidential Range and Southern Presidential Range. The position of mountains influences climate, such as snow; when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the leeward side, it warms again and is drier, having been stripped of much of its moisture.
A rain shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are subjected to erosional forces which work to tear them down; the basins adjacent to an eroding mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted until the mountains are reduced to low hills and plains; the early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example. As the uplift was occurring some 10,000 feet of Mesozoic sedimentary strata were removed by erosion over the core of the mountain range and spread as sand and clays across the Great Plains to the east; this mass of rock was removed as the range was undergoing uplift. The removal of such a mass from the core of the range most caused further uplift as the region adjusted isostatically in response to the removed weight. Rivers are traditionally believed to be the principal cause of mountain range erosion, by cutting into bedrock and transporting sediment.
Computer simulation has shown that as mountain belts change from tectonically active to inactive, the rate of erosion drops because there are fewer abrasive particles in the water and fewer landslides. Mountains on other planets and natural satellites of the Solar System are isolated and formed by processes such as impacts, though there are examples of mountain ranges somewhat similar to those on Earth. Saturn's moon Titan and Pluto, in particular exhibit large mountain ranges in chains composed of ices rather than rock. Examples include the Mithrim Montes and Doom Mons on Titan, Tenzing Montes and Hillary Montes on Pluto; some terrestrial planets other than Earth exhibit rocky mountain ranges, such as Maxwell Montes on Venus taller than any on Earth and Tartarus Montes on Mars, Jupiter's moon Io has mountain ranges formed from tectonic processes including Boösaule Montes, Dorian Montes, Hi'iaka Montes and Euboea Montes. Peakbagger Ranges Home Page Bivouac.com
The Pacific Ranges are the southernmost subdivision of the Coast Mountains portion of the Pacific Cordillera. Located within British Columbia, they run northwest from the lower stretches of the Fraser River to Bella Coola and Burke Channel, north of which are the Kitimat Ranges; the Coast Mountains lie between the Coast of British Columbia. The Pacific Ranges include four of the five major coastal icecaps in the southern Coast Mountains; these are the largest temperate-latitude icecaps in the world and fuel a number of major rivers. One of these contains Mount Waddington, the highest summit within British Columbia. Within this region is Hunlen Falls, among the highest in Canada, located in Tweedsmuir South Provincial Park. Other than logging and various hydroelectric developments, a large ski resort at Whistler, most of the land in the range is undeveloped. In the southern part of the range, mining was important at various times in the Lillooet, Bridge River and Squamish areas, large pulp and paper mills at Powell River, Port Mellon and Woodfibre.
The largest hydroelectric development in the Pacific Ranges is the Bridge River Power Project, though smaller hydro plants are on the Stave River-Alouette Lake system in Mission and Maple Ridge, the Daisy Lake-Squamish River division of the Cheakamus Powerhouse, another power dam and power plant at Clowhom. Although the range was extensively surveyed for possible rail routes, only that of the Pacific Great Eastern was built; the Pacific Ranges are part of the southern portion of the Coast Plutonic Complex and has been characterized by rapid rates of uplift over the past 4 million years, which has led to high rates of erosion. The Garibaldi Volcanic Belt is within the Pacific Ranges, a volcanic belt formed by the subduction of the Juan de Fuca Plate under the North American Plate along the Cascadia subduction zone; the belt is the northern extension of the Cascade Volcanic Arc in the United States and contains the most explosive young volcanoes in Canada. The eruption styles in the belt range from effusive to explosive, with compositions from basalt to rhyolite.
Morphologically, centers include calderas, cinder cones and small isolated lava masses. Due to repeated continental and alpine glaciations, many of the volcanic deposits in the belt reflect complex interactions between magma composition and changing ice configurations; the most recent major catastrophic eruption in the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt was from the Mount Meager massif 2,350 BP, Canada's most recent major catastrophic eruption. The Garibaldi Volcanic Belt contains 2 extra volcanic fields, the Franklin Glacier Complex and the Silverthrone Caldera, which lie 140 and 190 km northwest of the main volcanic belt; the Cascadia subduction zone is a 680 mi long fault, running 50 mi off the west-coast of the Pacific Northwest from northern California to Vancouver Island. The plates move at a relative rate of over 0.4 inches per year at a somewhat oblique angle to the subduction zone. Unlike most subduction zones worldwide, there is no oceanic trench present along the continental margin in Cascadia.
Instead and the accretionary wedge have been uplifted to form a series of coast ranges and exotic mountains. A high rate of sedimentation from the outflow of the three major rivers which cross the Cascade Range contributes to further obscuring the presence of a trench. However, in common with most other subduction zones, the outer margin is being compressed, similar to a giant spring; when the stored energy is released by slippage across the fault at irregular intervals, the Cascadia subduction zone can create large earthquakes, such as the 8.7–9.2 Mw Cascadia earthquake of 1700. Niut Range Pantheon Range Waddington Range Whitemantle Range Chilcotin Ranges Shulaps Range Dickson Range Camelsfoot Range Bendor Range Lillooet Ranges Cayoosh Range Cantilever Range Douglas Ranges Garibaldi Ranges North Shore Mountains Tantalus Range Clendinning Range the Camelsfoot Range running north along the west bank of the Fraser from Lillooet is sometimes considered to be part of the Chilcotin Ranges, but in other definitions is part of the Interior PlateauMany smaller ranges and subranges are not listed at present..
Monarch Icefield Ha-Iltzuk Icefield Waddington Range Homathko Icefield Lillooet Icecap Pemberton Icecap Mount Waddington Monarch Mountain Mount Tiedemann Mount Munday Mount Queen Bess Mount Good Hope Mount Raleigh Monmouth Mountain Mount Tatlow Taseko Mountain Mount Silverthrone Mount Meager massif Mount Cayley massif Mount Garibaldi Wedge Mountain Garibaldi Provincial Park Golden Ears Provincial Park Cypress Provincial Park Mount Seymour Provincial Park Sasquatch Provincial Park Stein Valley Nlaka'pamux Heritage Park Birkenhead Lake Provincial Park Big Creek Provincial Park Spruce Lake Protected Area Ts'il?os Provincial Park Tweedsmuir North Provincial Park and Protected Area Tweedsmuir South Provincial ParkList is incomplete Some Protected areas, recreation areas and other non-park preservation areas are not listed. Fraser River Chilcotin River Bridge River Lillooet River Squamish River Homathko River Klinaklini River Bella Coola RiverMany unknown river
A normal route or normal way is the most used route for ascending and descending a mountain peak. It is the simplest route. In the Alps, routes are classed in the following ways, based on their waymarking and upkeep: Footpaths Hiking trails Mountain trails Alpine routes Climbing routes and High Alpine routes in combined rock and ice terrain, graded by difficultySometimes the normal route is not the easiest ascent to the summit, but just the one, most used. There may be technically easier variations; this is the case on the Watzmannfrau, the Hochkalter and Mount Everest. There may be many reasons these easier options are less well-used: the simplest route is less well known than the normal route; the technically easiest route is more arduous than another and is therefore used on the descent. The technically easiest route carries a much higher risk of e.g. rockfalls or avalanche and is therefore avoided in favour of a more difficult route. The technically easier route requires a complicated or long approach march, or all access may be banned via one country.
The term tourist route may sometimes be applied by those wishing to suggest that other routes up a mountain are somehow more "worthy". This belittling of the "normal route" therefore maintains a distinction between those perceiving themselves as serious mountaineers who disparage the incursion of tourist climbers into their domain
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
Mount Meager massif
The Mount Meager massif is a group of volcanic peaks in the Pacific Ranges of the Coast Mountains in southwestern British Columbia, Canada. Part of the Cascade Volcanic Arc of western North America, it is located 150 km north of Vancouver at the northern end of the Pemberton Valley and reaches a maximum elevation of 2,680 m; the massif is capped by several eroded volcanic edifices, including lava domes, volcanic plugs and overlapping piles of lava flows. The Garibaldi Volcanic Belt has a long history of eruptions and poses a threat to the surrounding region. Any volcanic hazard ranging from landslides to eruptions could pose a significant risk to humans and wildlife. Although the massif has not erupted for more than 2,000 years, it could produce a major eruption. Teams such as the Interagency Volcanic Event Notification Plan are prepared to notify people threatened by volcanic eruptions in Canada; the Mount Meager massif produced the largest volcanic eruption in Canada in the last 10,000 years.
About 2,400 years ago, an explosive eruption formed a volcanic crater on its northeastern flank and sent avalanches of hot ash, rock fragments and volcanic gases down the northern flank of the volcano. Evidence for more recent volcanic activity has been documented at the volcano, such as hot springs and earthquakes; the Mount Meager massif has been the source of several large landslides in the past, including a massive debris flow in 2010 that swept down Meager Creek and the Lillooet River. The Mount Meager massif lies in the Coast Mountains, which extend from Vancouver to the Alaskan Panhandle for 1,600 km, it is about 300 cut by fjords, narrow inlets with steep cliffs created by glacial erosion. The Coast Mountains have a profound effect on British Columbia's climate. Lying just east of the Pacific Ocean, they shear off moisture-laden air coming off the ocean, causing heavy rainfall on their western slopes; this precipitation is among the most extreme in North America, feeding lush forests on the mountain range's western slopes.
Valleys surrounding the massif contain old-growth forests. The area features wetland habitats, plants of the cottonwood-willow-thimbleberry association and glaucous willowherbs. Wildlife such as wolves, moose, black-tailed deer, mountain goats and waterfowl inhabit the area as well as grizzly and black bears; the Mount Meager massif is part of the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt, the northernmost segment of the Cascade Volcanic Arc. This volcanic belt includes cinder cones, calderas and subglacial volcanoes that have been active in the last 10,000 years; the latest explosive eruption in the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt occurred at a crater on the northeastern slope of the massif about 2,400 years ago, which forms a defined depression. The GVB extends north from the Watts Point volcano to at least as far as the Meager massif; because little is known about the volcanoes north of the massif, such as the Silverthrone and Franklin Glacier volcanic complexes, experts disagree about their nature. Some scientists regard the Silverthrone Caldera as the northernmost volcano of the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt, while others contend that the geology of the massif more matches that of the GVB.
It is unclear whether the Milbanke Sound Cones are part of the Garibaldi Belt or formed by different tectonic processes. However, there is evidence the Silverthrone and Franklin Glacier complexes are related to activity at the Cascadia subduction zone. Geologically these two volcanoes contain the same rock types as those found elsewhere in the Cascade Arc, including rhyolites, dacites and basaltic andesites; such rock types are produced by subduction zone volcanism indicating volcanism at Silverthrone and Franklin Glacier is related to subduction. If these two volcanoes are true Cascade Arc volcanoes, the Mount Meager massif is not the northernmost volcano of the Garibaldi Belt or the Cascade Arc. Volcanism in the Cascade Volcanic Arc is caused by subduction of the Juan de Fuca Plate under the North American Plate at the Cascadia subduction zone; this is a 1,094 km long fault zone lying 80 km off the Pacific Northwest from Northern California to southwestern British Columbia. The plates move at a relative rate of more than 10 mm per year at an oblique angle to the subduction zone.
Because of the huge fault area, the Cascadia subduction zone can produce large earthquakes of magnitude 7.0 or greater. The interface between the Juan de Fuca and North American plates remains locked for periods of 500 years. During these periods, stress builds up on the interface between the plates and causes tectonic uplift of the North American margin; when the plate slips, it releases 500 years of stored energy in a massive earthquake. Unlike most subduction zones worldwide, there is no deep oceanic trench present along the continental margin in Cascadia; the mouth of the Columbia River empties directly into the subduction zone and deposits silt at the bottom of the Pacific Ocean, burying this large depression, or area of sunken land. Massive floods from prehistoric Glacial Lake Missoula during the Late Pleistocene deposited large amounts of sediment into the trench. However, as with other subduction zones the outer margin is being compressed like a giant spring; when the stored energy is released by slippage across the fault at irregular intervals, the Cascadia subduction zone can create enormous earthquakes such as the magnitude 9.0 Cascadia earthquake on January 26, 1700.
However earthquakes along the Cascadia
Air Canada is the flag carrier and the largest airline of Canada by fleet size and passengers carried. The airline, founded in 1937, provides scheduled and charter air transport for passengers and cargo to 207 destinations worldwide, it is a founding member of the Star Alliance. Air Canada's corporate headquarters are in Montreal, while its largest hub is at Toronto Pearson International Airport; the airline's regional service is Air Canada Express. Canada's national airline originated from the Canadian federal government's 1936 creation of Trans-Canada Airlines, which began operating its first transcontinental flight routes in 1938. In 1965, TCA was renamed Air Canada following government approval. After the deregulation of the Canadian airline market in the 1980s, the airline was privatized in 1988. On 4 January 2000, Air Canada acquired Canadian Airlines. In 2003, the airline filed for bankruptcy protection and in the following year emerged and reorganized under the holding company ACE Aviation Holdings Inc.
In 2017, Air Canada flew 48 million passengers. Air Canada has a fleet of Airbus A330, Boeing 767, Boeing 777, Boeing 787 Dreamliner wide-body aircraft on long-haul routes and uses the Airbus A320 family aircraft, Boeing 737 MAX 8, Embraer E190 family aircraft on short-haul routes; the carrier's operating divisions include Air Canada Cargo, Air Canada Express, Air Canada Jetz, Air Canada Rouge. Its subsidiary, Air Canada Vacations, provides vacation packages to over 90 destinations. Together with its regional partners, the airline operates on average more than 1,602 scheduled flights daily. Air Canada's predecessor, Trans-Canada Air Lines, was created by federal legislation as a subsidiary of Canadian National Railway on 11 April 1937; the newly created Department of Transport under Minister C. D. Howe desired an airline under government control to link cities on the Atlantic coast to those on the Pacific coast. Using $5 million in Crown seed money, two Lockheed Model 10 Electras and one Boeing Stearman biplane were purchased from Canadian Airways and experienced airline executives from United Airlines and Delta Airlines were brought in.
Passenger flights began on 1 September 1937, with an Electra carrying two passengers and mail from Vancouver to Seattle, a $14.20 round trip, and, on 1 July 1938, TCA hired its first flight attendants. Transcontinental routes from Montreal to Vancouver began on 1 April 1939, using 12 Lockheed Model 14 Super Electras and six Lockheed Model 18 Lodestars. By January 1940, the airline had grown to about 579 employees. Canadian Pacific Airlines suggested in 1942 a merger with TCA. Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King rejected the proposal and introduced legislation regulating TCA as the only airline in Canada allowed to provide transcontinental flights. With the increase in air travel after World War II, CP Air was granted one coast-to-coast flight and a few international routes. Headquartered in Winnipeg, the site of the national maintenance base, the federal government moved TCA's headquarters to Montreal in 1949. With the development of the ReserVec in 1953, TCA became the first airline in the world to use a computer reservation system with remote terminals.
By 1964, TCA had grown to become Canada's national airline and, in 1964, Jean Chrétien submitted a private member's bill to change the name of the airline from Trans-Canada Airlines to Air Canada, which TCA had long used as its French-language name. This bill failed but it was resubmitted and passed, with the name change taking effect on 1 January 1965. Elizabeth II, the reigning Queen of Canada, flew on the first aircraft to bear the name and livery of Air Canada when she departed for the United Kingdom at the end of her 1964 tour of Prince Edward Island and Ontario in 1964. During the 1970s government regulations ensured Air Canada's dominance over domestic regional carriers and rival CP Air. Short-haul carriers were each restricted to one of five regions, could not compete directly with Air Canada and CP Air. CP Air was subject to capacity limits on intercontinental flights, restricted from domestic operations. Air Canada's fares were subject to regulation by the government. In 1976, with reorganization at CNR, Air Canada became an independent Crown corporation.
The Air Canada Act of 1978 ensured that the carrier would compete on a more equal footing with rival regional airlines and CP Air, ended the government's direct regulatory control over Air Canada's routings and services. The act transferred ownership from Canadian National Railway to a subsidiary of the national government. Deregulation of the Canadian airline market, under the new National Transportation Act, 1987 opened the airline market in Canada to equal competition; the carrier's fleet expansion saw the acquisition of Boeing 727, Boeing 747, Lockheed Tristar jetliners. In 1978 Judy Cameron became the first female pilot hired to fly for any major Canadian carrier when she was hired to fly by Air Canada. With new fleet expenditures outpacing earnings, Air Canada officials indicated that the carrier would need additional sources of capital to fund its modernization. By 1985 the Canadian government was indicating a willingness to privatize both Canadian National Railways and Air Canada. In 1988 Air Canada was privatized, 43% of shares were sold on the public market, with the initial public offering completed in October of that year.
By this time, long-haul rival CP Air had become Canadian Airlines International following its acquisition by Pacific Western Airlines. On 7 December 1987, Air Canada became