SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Mount Everest

Mount Everest is Earth's highest mountain above sea level, located in the Mahalangur Himal sub-range of the Himalayas. The international border between Nepal and China runs across its summit point; the current official elevation of 8,848 m, recognised by China and Nepal, was established by a 1955 Indian survey and subsequently confirmed by a Chinese survey in 1975. In 1865, Everest was given its official English name by the Royal Geographical Society, as recommended by Andrew Waugh, the British Surveyor General of India, who chose the name of his predecessor in the post, Sir George Everest, despite Everest's objections. Mount Everest attracts many climbers, some of them experienced mountaineers. There are two main climbing routes, one approaching the summit from the southeast in Nepal and the other from the north in Tibet. While not posing substantial technical climbing challenges on the standard route, Everest presents dangers such as altitude sickness and wind, as well as significant hazards from avalanches and the Khumbu Icefall.

As of 2019, over 300 people have died on Everest. The first recorded efforts to reach Everest's summit were made by British mountaineers; as Nepal did not allow foreigners to enter the country at the time, the British made several attempts on the north ridge route from the Tibetan side. After the first reconnaissance expedition by the British in 1921 reached 7,000 m on the North Col, the 1922 expedition pushed the north ridge route up to 8,320 m, marking the first time a human had climbed above 8,000 m. Seven porters were killed in an avalanche on the descent from the North Col; the 1924 expedition resulted in one of the greatest mysteries on Everest to this day: George Mallory and Andrew Irvine made a final summit attempt on 8 June but never returned, sparking debate as to whether or not they were the first to reach the top. They had been spotted high on the mountain that day but disappeared in the clouds, never to be seen again, until Mallory's body was found in 1999 at 8,155 m on the north face.

Tenzing Norgay and Edmund Hillary made the first official ascent of Everest in 1953, using the southeast ridge route. Norgay had reached 8,595 m the previous year as a member of the 1952 Swiss expedition; the Chinese mountaineering team of Wang Fuzhou, Qu Yinhua made the first reported ascent of the peak from the north ridge on 25 May 1960. The Tibetan name is Qomolangma; the name was first recorded with a Chinese transcription on the 1721 Kangxi Atlas, appeared as Tchoumour Lancma on a 1733 map published in Paris by the French geographer D'Anville based on the former map. It is popularly romanised as Chomolungma and as Jo-mo-glang-ma; the official Chinese transcription is 珠穆朗玛峰. It is infrequently translated into Chinese as Shèngmǔ Fēng. Many other local names exist, including "Deodungha" in DarjeelingIn the late 19th century, many European cartographers incorrectly believed that a native name for the mountain was Gaurishankar, a mountain between Kathmandu and Everest. In 1849, the British survey wanted to preserve local names if possible, Waugh argued that he could not find any used local name.

Waugh's search for a local name was hampered by Tibet's exclusion of foreigners. Waugh argued that because there were many local names, it would be difficult to favour one name over all others. Everest himself opposed the name suggested by Waugh and told the Royal Geographical Society in 1857 that "Everest" could not be written in Hindi nor pronounced by "the native of India". Waugh's proposed name prevailed despite the objections, in 1865, the Royal Geographical Society adopted Mount Everest as the name for the highest mountain in the world; the modern pronunciation of Everest is different from Sir George's pronunciation of his surname. In the early 1960s, the Nepalese government coined Sagar-Matha. In 1802, the British began the Great Trigonometric Survey of India to fix the locations and names of the world's highest mountains. Starting in southern India, the survey teams moved northward using giant theodolites, each weighing 500 kg and requiring 12 men to carry, to measure heights as as possible.

They reached the Himalayan foothills by the 1830s, but Nepal was unwilling to allow the British to enter the country due to suspicions of political aggression and possible annexation. Several requests by the surveyors to enter Nepal were turned down; the British were forced to continue their observations from Terai, a region south of Nepal, parallel to the Himalayas. Conditions in Terai were difficult because of malaria. Three survey officers died from malaria. Nonetheless, in 1847, the British continued the survey and began detailed observations of the Himalayan peaks from observation stations up to 240 km distant. Weather restricted work to the last three months of the year. In November 1847, Andrew Waugh, the British Surveyor General of India made several observations from the Sawajpore station at the east end of the Himalayas. Kangchenjunga was considered the highest peak in the world, wit

Nuri Saryal

Nuri Saryal was rector of Middle East Technical University from 1977 to 1979. He was born in Azerbaijan as the son of Ismail and Helena Seyitzade, he has been a Turkish citizen since 1931, with the family name changed to Saryal. 1929 Sept. 2. Born in Baku, Azerbaijan as son of Dipl. Ing. Ismail and Helena Seyitzade. 1931 Turkish citizen, family name changed to Saryal 1947 Graduation from Atatürk Gymnasium in Ankara. 1947–1948 One year prep school in English. 1948–1952 Graduation from Robert College Engineering School B. Sc. Mechanical Engineering. 1952–1953 Graduation from Purdue Univ. Lafayette, Indiana, US, MSc. Mechanical Engineering. 1953–1956 Graduation from Technical University Berlin Charlottenburg, W. Germany, Dr.-Ing. Mechanical Engineering. Subject: "Unsteady State Temperature Distribution in Steam Turbine Rotors Using Electrical Analogy" Patented by AEG Comp. which financed the PhD research work. 1956–1957 Military service as reserve officer at the General Staff, Technical Research and Development Center.

1958–1962 Chief engineer at a private company, responsible for the construction of electrical and electronic utilities on 5 NATO Airbases. 1962 Starting as an assistant professor in the Mechanical Engineering Department of the Middle East Technical University in Ankara. 1963–1965 Chairman of the Mechanical Engineering Dep’t, METU*. 1964–1969 Assistant to the President METU. 1966 Associate professor. Habilitation subject: "Determination of Thermal Stresses Through Electrical Analogy". 1970–1972 A.v. Humboldt Fellow at the Munich Technical University, visiting professor, giving lectures and doing research. Lectures with the title "Elektrische Analogiemethoden für Wärmeübertragungs- und Wärme- spannungsprobleme" were published. 1975 Professor in Mechanical Engineering at METU. 1977–1979 President of the University 1979 Stuttgart University, giving lectures on Electrical Analogy. 1979–1980 Invited by the Munich Tech. Univ. to give lectures on Electrical Analogy.of Heat Mechanical Systems. 1980–1996 Professor at METU.

1992 Verleihung: “Das Grosse Verdienstkreuz des Verdienstordens der Bundesrepublik Deutschland.” 1996 Emeritus Professor, giving lectures and doing research. 1999-Now Doing research on "Electrical Simulation of Compressible Fluid Flow",developed a drift free stable analog integrator, suitable for analog-digital hybrid computation of scientific phenomena. Social Activities 1962–2004 Turkisch-Deutscher Kulturbeirat und President des Vorsandes. 1981–1993 President of the Turkish Soc. Heat & Mass Transfer. 1982 Gründungs Mitglied des A. von Humboldt-Club's Ankara. 2000- President des A. von Humboldt-Club's Ankara. Http://www.metu.edu.tr/~saryal/cv.html

Bobbe Bridge

Bobbe Bridge former Associate Justice of the Washington Supreme Court. After serving 10 years as a King County Superior Court Judge, she was appointed to the Washington State Supreme Court by Governor Gary Locke in 1999, she was elected in 2000 and again in 2002. She resigned her judgeship in 2007. On February 23, 2003, Justice Bridge was arrested for hit and run and for drunk driving after she hit a parked car near her home and attempted to flee the scene, while intoxicated, her blood alcohol level tested at.219 and.227. She retired from the Supreme Court at the end of 2007 to assume the role of Founding President/CEO of the Seattle-based Center for Children & Youth Justice, a private not-for-profit agency advocating juvenile justice, child welfare and related systems reform. Washington Governor Christine Gregoire appointed Debra L. Stephens to replace her in January 2008, she received the "Advocacy Spirit Award" from National Network for Youth in January 2010 for "relentlessly defending the rights and dignity of homeless children in our country."