The Sawatch Range is a high and extensive mountain range in central Colorado which includes eight of the twenty highest peaks in the Rocky Mountains, including Mount Elbert, at 14,440 feet elevation, the highest peak in the Rockies. The range is oriented along a northwest-southeast axis, extending 80 miles from 39°37′36″N 106°32′13″W in the north to 38°5′51″N 106°3′48″W in the south; the range contains 15 peaks topping 14,000 feet known as 14ers. The range forms a portion of the Continental Divide, its eastern flanks are drained by the headwaters of the Arkansas River; the western side of the range feeds the headwaters of the Roaring Fork River, the Eagle River, the Gunnison River, tributaries of the Colorado River. The Sawatch mountains in general are high and gentle in contour. While some peaks are rugged enough to require technical climbing, most can be climbed by a simple, yet arduous hike. Notable summits include Mount Elbert, Mount Massive, La Plata Peak, Mount of the Holy Cross, the Collegiate Peaks.
State Highway 82 traverses the range at Independence Pass. It is traversed by Cottonwood Pass, which connects the town of Buena Vista with Gunnison County. Both Independence Pass and Cottonwood Pass are over 12,000 feet, making them 2 of the highest passes in Colorado and are open only from late spring to mid autumn. Hagerman Pass is another pass to the north, connecting the Arkansas Headwaters near Leadville with the upper valley of the Fryingpan River. Hagerman pass is traversable with four-wheel drive vehicles and on foot during summer and early autumn months; the range contains numerous hiking trails within the San Isabel National Forest and White River National Forest. Southern Rocky Mountains Missouri Lakes Trail Mountain ranges of Colorado Collegiate Peaks Sawatch Range @ Peakbagger Sawatch Range @ 14ers.com Sawatch Range @ summitpost.org Mt. Aetna @ summitpost.org
Buena Vista, Colorado
The Town of Buena Vista is a Statutory Town in Chaffee County, United States. The town population was 2,617 at the 2010 United States Census; the Arkansas River Valley and the area of what would become Buena Vista was first settled in 1864 by settlers drawn to the area by the plentiful water which made the land suitable for agriculture. By 1880, the county seat had moved from Granite to Buena Vista, but by 1928 Salida had a larger population so the county seat was moved once again. By 1894, Buena Vista had electricity, telephone service, street lights, parks and schools. Travelers and miners traveling up the Arkansas Valley towards Leadville made Buena Vista a popular stagecoach stop, railroad depot following the 1890s. While experiencing economic ups and downs, the valley's agricultural economy has made the area more resistant to the'boom, bust' cycle of mining towns. Buena Vista is located in central Colorado midway between Salida and Leadville in the Upper Arkansas River Valley at an elevation of 7,965 feet.
The area between Buena Vista and Salida is referred to as the Denver & Rio Grande, South Park & Pacific, Colorado Midland railroads. Many of the existing buildings of Buena Vista date back to this era, were built in the 1880s and 1890s; the name "Buena Vista", Spanish for "Good View", can be heard pronounced locally as "Byoo-na Vista". This Americanized pronunciation was specified by Alsina Dearheimer, who chose this name for the town, selected over other names on the occasion of the town's incorporation. Alternate pronunciations include "Bwenna Veesta" and "Biewnie." Many residents refer to the town as "BV". There are hot springs in the area. Buena Vista has a Semi-arid climate, with warm, somewhat wetter summers. Altitude and dryness cause the diurnal temperature variation to be high year-round; as of the census of 2000, there were 2,195 people, 978 households, 622 families residing in the town. The population density was 638.6 people per square mile. There were 1,124 housing units at an average density of 327.0 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the town was 96.81% Caucasian, 0.09% African American, 0.64% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 0.73% from other races, 1.46% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.74% of the population. There were 978 households out of which 27.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.2% were married couples living together, 7.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.3% were non-families. 31.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.83. In the town, the population was spread out with 23.6% under the age of 18, 5.1% from 18 to 24, 26.7% from 25 to 44, 27.8% from 45 to 64, 16.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.8 males. The median income for a household in the town was $34,800, the median income for a family was $40,455.
Males had a median income of $32,841 versus $25,486 for females. The per capita income for the town was $16,920. About 9.4% of families and 11.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.1% of those under age 18 and 5.7% of those age 65 or over. Then-Mayor Cara Russell wrote a column for the Chaffee County Times entitled "How big a payoff do you want?", about the pros and cons of a local land development, on October 29, 2008. Several town trustees believed the vote to annex the Cottonwood Meadows development was lost by a mere 21 votes because of the mayor's letter giving both the advantages and disadvantages of the real estate development; the column prompted five of the six town trustees to present her with a letter of dismissal on November 10, 2008. Russell requested a hearing over her dismissal. Two weeks after the trustees determined that this was not the best course of action, having been informed by the mayor's attorney that they could be in violation of the mayor's First Amendment rights and subject to criminal charges, they voted to withdraw the letter of dismissal.
Russell was re-elected April 6, 2010, resigned on April 20, 2010, to run for Chaffee County Clerk. On April 16, 2010, Russell filed a federal lawsuit against the town of Buena Vista and five town trustees for violation of her First Amendment rights. On July 9, 2010, The Mountain Mail newspaper reported that the trustees denied the allegations and contended that they were, under legal doctrines, immune from the lawsuit, they contended Russell's public statements opposing the annexation were not protected by the First Amendment. Russell and the town of Buena Vista settled the lawsuit with the town paying an undisclosed amount and issuing an apology for violating her First Amendment rights. U. S. Route 24 is an east-west highway running from Clarkston, Michigan, to its intersection with Interstate 70 near Minturn, Colorado, its western terminus is located just 64 miles north of Buena Vista. The short segment between US 50 at Poncha Springs and US 24 at Buena Vista was U. S. Route 650, designated in 1926.
US 285 was commissioned in 1936 along its present extent from Sanderson, Texas, to Denver replacing state-numbered highways. Chaffee County Road 306 travels west to the summit of Cottonwood Pass; this road is closed during the snowy months late October to April or May, but when open allows travelers a more direct route to Gunnison and Cres
The topographic isolation of a summit is the minimum great-circle distance to a point of equal elevation, representing a radius of dominance in which the peak is the highest point. It can be calculated for small hills and islands as well as for major mountain peaks, can be calculated for submarine summits; the following sortable table lists the Earth's 40 most topographically isolated summits. The nearest peak to Germany's highest mountain, the 2,962-metre-high Zugspitze, that has a 2962-metre-contour is the Zwölferkogel in Austria's Stubai Alps; the distance between the Zugspitze and this contour is 25.8 km. Its isolation is thus 25.8 km. Because there are no higher mountains than Mount Everest, it has no definitive isolation. Many sources list its isolation as the circumference of the earth over the poles or – questionably, because there is no agreed definition – as half the earth's circumference. After Mount Everest, the highest mountain of the American continents, has the greatest isolation of all mountains.
There is no higher land for 16,534 kilometres when its height is first exceeded by Tirich Mir in the Hindu Kush. Mont Blanc is the highest mountain of the Alps; the geographically nearest higher mountains are all in the Caucasus. Kukurtlu, which rises near Mount Elbrus, is the reference peak for Mont Blanc. Musala is the highest peak in Rila mountain, in Bulgaria and the Balkan Peninsula, standing at 2,925 m it is the 4th most topographically isolated peak in Continental Europe.. Rila is the 6th highest mountain in Europe. With a topographic prominence of 2473 m, Musala is the 6th highest peak by topographic prominence in mainland Europe. Table of the most isolated major summits of North America Table of the most isolated major summits of the United States Most isolated mountain peaks of Canada Most isolated mountain peaks of Mexico geodesy physical geography summit topographic elevation topographic prominence topography bivouac.com Canadian Mountain Encyclopedia peakbagger.com peaklist.org peakware.com World Mountain Encyclopedia summitpost.org^ ^ "Europe Ultra-Prominences".
Peaklist. Retrieved 26 February 2015
Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university in Ithaca, New York. Founded in 1865 by Ezra Cornell and Andrew Dickson White, the university was intended to teach and make contributions in all fields of knowledge—from the classics to the sciences, from the theoretical to the applied; these ideals, unconventional for the time, are captured in Cornell's founding principle, a popular 1868 Ezra Cornell quotation: "I would found an institution where any person can find instruction in any study."The university is broadly organized into seven undergraduate colleges and seven graduate divisions at its main Ithaca campus, with each college and division defining its own admission standards and academic programs in near autonomy. The university administers two satellite medical campuses, one in New York City and one in Education City and Cornell Tech, a graduate program that incorporates technology and creative thinking; the program moved from Google's Chelsea Building in New York City to its permanent campus on Roosevelt Island in September 2017.
Cornell is one of ten private land grant universities in the United States and the only one in New York. Of its seven undergraduate colleges, three are state-supported statutory or contract colleges through the State University of New York system, including its agricultural and human ecology colleges as well as its industrial labor relations school. Of Cornell's graduate schools, only the veterinary college is state-supported; as a land grant college, Cornell operates a cooperative extension outreach program in every county of New York and receives annual funding from the State of New York for certain educational missions. The Cornell University Ithaca Campus comprises 745 acres, but is much larger when the Cornell Botanic Gardens and the numerous university-owned lands in New York City are considered; as of October 2018, 58 Nobel laureates, four Turing Award winners and one Fields Medalist have been affiliated with Cornell University. Since its founding, Cornell has been a co-educational, non-sectarian institution where admission has not been restricted by religion or race.
Cornell counts more than 245,000 living alumni, its former and present faculty and alumni include 34 Marshall Scholars, 30 Rhodes Scholars, 29 Truman Scholars, 7 Gates Scholars, 55 Olympic Medalists, 14 living billionaires. The student body consists of more than 14,000 undergraduate and 8,000 graduate students from all 50 American states and 116 countries. Cornell University was founded on April 27, 1865. Senator Ezra Cornell offered his farm in Ithaca, New York, as a site and $500,000 of his personal fortune as an initial endowment. Fellow senator and educator Andrew Dickson White agreed to be the first president. During the next three years, White oversaw the construction of the first two buildings and traveled to attract students and faculty; the university was inaugurated on October 7, 1868, 412 men were enrolled the next day. Cornell developed as a technologically innovative institution, applying its research to its own campus and to outreach efforts. For example, in 1883 it was one of the first university campuses to use electricity from a water-powered dynamo to light the grounds.
Since 1894, Cornell fulfill statutory requirements. Cornell has had active alumni since its earliest classes, it was one of the first universities to include alumni-elected representatives on its Board of Trustees. Cornell was among the Ivies that had heightened student activism during the 1960s related to cultural issues, civil rights, opposition to the Vietnam War. Today the university has more than 4,000 courses. Cornell is known for the Residential Club Fire of 1967, a fire in the Residential Club building that killed eight students and one professor. Since 2000, Cornell has been expanding its international programs. In 2004, the university opened the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar, it has partnerships with institutions in India and the People's Republic of China. Former president Jeffrey S. Lehman described the university, with its high international profile, a "transnational university". On March 9, 2004, Cornell and Stanford University laid the cornerstone for a new'Bridging the Rift Center' to be built and jointly operated for education on the Israel–Jordan border.
Cornell's main campus is on East Hill in Ithaca, New York, overlooking Cayuga Lake. Since the university was founded, it has expanded to about 2,300 acres, encompassing both the hill and much of the surrounding areas. Central Campus has laboratories, administrative buildings, all of the campus' academic buildings, athletic facilities and museums. North Campus is composed of ten residence halls that house first-year students, although the Townhouse Community houses transfer students; the five main residence halls on West Campus make up the West Campus House System, along with several Gothic-style buildings, referred to as "the Gothics". Collegetown contains two upper-level residence halls and the Schwartz Performing Arts Center amid a mixed-use neighborhood of apartments and businesses; the main campus is marked by an irregular layout and eclectic architectural styles, including ornate Collegiate Gothic and Neoclassical buildings, the more spare international and modernist structures. The more ornat
Chaffee County, Colorado
Chaffee County is one of the 64 counties of the U. S. state of Colorado. As of the 2010 census, the population was 17,809; the county seat is Salida. Chaffee County has a confusing origin. Between February 8 and February 10, 1879, Carbonate County was created by the Colorado legislature out of northern Lake County. On February 10 the two counties were renamed, with the southern part of Lake County becoming Chaffee County, Carbonate County becoming Lake County. Chaffee County is known as the “Heart of the Rockies”, it was named for Jerome B. Chaffee, Colorado's first United States Senator. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,015 square miles, of which 1,013 square miles is land and 1.6 square miles is water. Browns Canyon National Monument Buffalo Peaks Wilderness Collegiate Peaks Wilderness San Isabel National Forest Arkansas Headwaters Recreation Area American Discovery Trail Colorado Trail Continental Divide National Scenic Trail Great Parks Bicycle Route Western Express Bicycle Route Lake County - north Park County - northeast Fremont County - southeast Saguache County - south Gunnison County - west Pitkin County - northwest As of the census of 2000, there were 16,242 people, 6,584 households, 4,365 families residing in the county.
The population density was 16 people per square mile. There were 8,392 housing units at an average density of 8 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 90.94% White, 1.58% Black or African American, 1.09% Native American, 0.44% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 4.21% from other races, 1.69% from two or more races. 8.58% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 6,584 households out of which 25.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.70% were married couples living together, 6.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.70% were non-families. 28.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 2.77. In the county, the population was spread out with 19.70% under the age of 18, 7.70% from 18 to 24, 28.00% from 25 to 44, 27.50% from 45 to 64, 17.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years.
For every 100 females there were 113.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 116.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $34,368, the median income for a family was $42,043. Males had a median income of $30,770 versus $22,219 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,430. About 7.40% of families and 11.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.30% of those under age 18 and 10.20% of those age 65 or over. Chaffee County is home to a source of water that Arrowhead water uses for some water bottles; the source is Ruby Mountain Springs. Salida Buena Vista Poncha Springs Garfield Johnson Village Maysville Smeltertown St. Elmo Vicksburg Winfield Outline of Colorado Index of Colorado-related articles National Register of Historic Places listings in Chaffee County, Colorado Cultural and Archeological Resources Chaffee County Clerk of Court Chaffee County Government website Colorado County Evolution by Don Stanwyck Colorado Historical Society Geologic Map of the Harvard Lakes 7.5ʹ Quadrangle and Chaffee Counties, Colorado United States Geological Survey
In the mountaineering parlance of the Western United States, a fourteener is a mountain peak with an elevation of at least 14,000 feet. There are 96 fourteeners in all west of the Mississippi River. Colorado has the most of any single state. Many peak baggers try to climb all fourteeners in the contiguous United States, one particular state, or another region; the summit of a mountain or hill may be measured in three principal ways: topographic elevation: the height of the summit above a geodetic sea level. Topographic prominence: how high the summit rises above its surroundings. Topographic isolation: how far the summit lies from its nearest point of equal elevation. Not all summits over 14,000 feet qualify as fourteeners. Summits which qualify are those considered by mountaineers to be independent. Objective standards for independence include topographic prominence and isolation, or a combination of the two. However, fourteener lists do not always use such objective rules. A rule used by mountaineers in the contiguous United States is that a peak must have at least 300 feet of prominence to qualify.
By this rule, Colorado has 53 fourteeners, California has 12, Washington has two. According to the Mountaineering Club of Alaska, it is standard in Alaska to use a 500-foot prominence rule rather than a 300-foot rule. By this rule, Alaska has at least 21 peaks over 14,000 feet and its 12 highest peaks exceed 15,000 feet; the following table lists the 96 mountain peaks of the United States with at least 14,000 feet of topographic elevation and at least 300 feet of topographic prominence. Of these 96 fourteeners, 53 rise in Colorado, 29 in Alaska, 12 in California, two in Washington; the 22 highest fourteeners all rise in Alaska. The table above includes 97 peaks; the number of peaks included. A criterion of 100 meters includes 90 peaks, 500 feet includes 77 peaks, 1000 feet includes 63 peaks, 500 meters includes 46 peaks; the following U. S. summits have 14,000 feet of elevation, but have less than 300 feet of topographic prominence: Denali, Browne Tower, 14,530, Alaska. Prominence = 25–125 feet, it is unclear.
Mount Cameron, 14,238, Colorado. Prominence = 118 feet. El Diente Peak, 14,159, Colorado. Prominence = 239 feet. On many fourteener lists. Point Success, 14,158, Washington. Prominence = 118 feet. Polemonium Peak, 14,080+, California. Prominence = 160–240 feet. Starlight Peak, 14,080, California. Prominence = 80–160 feet. North Conundrum Peak, 14,040+, Colorado. Prominence = 200–280 feet. North Eolus, 14,039, Colorado. Prominence = 159–199 feet. North Maroon Peak, 14,014, Colorado. Prominence = 234 feet. On many fourteener lists. Thunderbolt Peak, 14,003, California. Prominence = 223 feet. Sunlight Spire, 14,001, Colorado. Prominence = 195–235 feet. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of Greenland List of mountain peaks of Canada List of mountain peaks of the Rocky Mountains List of mountain peaks of the United States List of the highest major summits of the United States List of the major 4000-meter summits of the United States List of the major 3000-meter summits of the United States List of the most prominent summits of the United States List of the ultra-prominent summits of the United States List of the most isolated major summits of the United States List of the major 100-kilometer summits of the United States List of extreme summits of the United States List of mountain peaks of Alaska List of mountain peaks of California List of mountain peaks of Colorado List of mountain peaks of Hawaiʻi List of mountain peaks of Montana List of mountain peaks of Nevada List of mountain peaks of Utah List of mountain peaks of Washington List of mountain peaks of Wyoming List of mountain peaks of México List of mountain peaks of Central America List of mountain peaks of the Caribbean United States of America Geography of the United States Geology of the United States Category:Mountains of the United States commons:Category:Mountains of the United States Physical geography Topography Topographic elevation Topographic prominence Topographic isolation United States Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System @ USGS United States National Geodetic Survey Geodetic Glossary @ NGS NGVD 29 to NAVD 88 online elevation converter @ NGS Survey Marks and Datasheets @ NGS Bivouac.com Peakbagger.com Peaklist.org Peakware.com Summitpost.org
Collegiate Peaks Wilderness
The Collegiate Peaks Wilderness is a 168,000-acre area located in central Colorado between Leadville and Buena Vista to the east and Aspen to the west and Crested Butte to the southwest. Most of the area is in the San Isabel and Gunnison National Forests, with a smaller area in the White River National Forest southeast of Aspen. Most of the area is in northwest Chaffee County with smaller portions in Gunnison and Lake counties; the Collegiate Peaks area includes much of the Sawatch Range and has the highest average elevation of any wilderness area in the United States. Five of the area's 14,000-foot peaks are named for famous universities and colleges, including Mt. Harvard, Mt. Oxford, Mt. Yale, Mt. Princeton and Mt. Columbia; these peaks are the source of the name for the wilderness area. Other fourteeners in the area include La Plata Peak, Mount Belford, Huron Peak, Missouri Mountain; the Collegiate Peaks includes several notable 13,000-foot peaks including the Three Apostles, a chain of three mountains about six miles south of the ghost town of Winfield.
The middle peak of the Three Apostles is referred to as Ice Mountain and is recognized as one of the most difficult peaks to climb in the Sawatch Range. Notably, the Collegiate Peaks has two peaks named Grizzly Peak. One is south of Independence Pass at 13,988, the other is north of Taylor Reservoir on the Continental Divide at 13,281; the area is an important watershed for three rivers on both sides of the Continental Divide: the upper Arkansas River, the Gunnison River, the Roaring Fork River. There are numerous alpine creeks in the area's wide valleys and these are all quite marshy. Snow does not begin to melt until May or June and it remains year-round in places on some of the high peaks. Both the Continental Divide Trail and the Colorado Trail cross the area; the Continental Divide Trail follows the course of the Continental Divide itself with several side spurs. The Colorado Trail passes through the lower eastern portion of the area and crosses Pine Creek, Frenchman Creek and Three Elk Creek all of which drain into the Arkansas River north of Buena Vista.
In earlier times the area was inhabited by various people. There are groves of old growth Ponderosa Pine on the eastern side which bear evidence of stripping by bands of native Utes who inhabited the area and used the bark from living trees for clothing and food; the area is dotted with the evidence of mining operations from the last century. In the Pine Creek valley - one of the central valleys between Mounts Oxford and Missouri to the north and Mt. Harvard and Columbia to the south, there is evidence of an earlier settlement on both sides of the stream comprising four cabins and a horse corral. South of the town of Winfield are the spare remains of the town of Harrison at the base of Mt. Huron; the Collegiate Peaks borders several other Colorado wilderness areas including: Buffalo Peaks, Maroon Bells-Snowmass, Hunter-Fryingpan, Mount Massive. It was designated by congress as a wilderness area in 1980 in accordance with the provisions of the Wilderness Act of 1964