Sōhei were Buddhist warrior monks of both medieval and feudal Japan. At certain points in history, they held considerable power, obliging the imperial and military governments to collaborate; the prominence of the sōhei rose in parallel with the ascendancy of the Tendai school's influence between the 10th and 17th centuries. The warriors protected land and intimidated rival schools of Buddhism, becoming a significant factor in the spread of Buddhism and the development of different schools during the Kamakura period; the sōhei shared many similarities with the European lay brothers, members of a monastic order who might not have been ordained. Much like the Teutonic Order, the warrior monks of Germany, the crusading orders, sōhei did not operate as individuals, or as members of small, individual temples, but rather as warriors in a large extended brotherhood or monastic order; the home temple of a sōhei monastic order might have had several, if not dozens or a hundred, smaller monasteries, training halls, subordinate temples connected to it.
A famous sōhei monastery is the Enryaku-ji on Mount Hiei, just outside Kyoto. Warrior monks first appeared during the Heian period, when bitter political feuds began between different temples, different subsects of Buddhism, over imperial appointments to the top temple positions. Much of the fighting over the next four centuries was over these sorts of political feuds, centered around the temples of Kyoto, Ōmi, namely the Tōdai-ji, Kōfuku-ji, Enryaku-ji, Mii-dera, the four largest temples in the country; the first armed conflict broke out in 949, when 56 monks from Tōdai-ji staged a protest at the residence of a Kyoto official, over an appointment that displeased them. Protests of this sort continued through the 10th century breaking out into brawls in which some participants would be killed. In 970, following a dispute between Enryaku-ji and the Yasaka Shrine of Kyoto, the former established the first standing army of warrior monks, it is not clear whether or not this standing army consisted of monks from Enryaku-ji, or were more like mercenaries, since Ryōgen, the abbot who established this army established a code of monastic conduct that prevented monks from leaving Mount Hiei during their twelve-year training, from covering their faces, from carrying weapons.
Beginning in 981, there were a number of armed conflicts between Enryaku-ji and Mii-dera, each the head temple of a different sub-sect of Tendai. These disputes were, as before, over political appointments, dishonorable etiquette. More than not, these were cases of members of one faction being chosen as the abbot of the other faction's temple, the monks would protest; this continued, on and off, once stopping for as long as 40 years, through the eleventh and into the 12th century. The armies became larger, the violence increased, until in 1121 and 1141 Mii-dera was burned to the ground by monks from Enryaku-ji. Other temples became embroiled in the conflicts as well, Enryaku-ji and Mii-dera united against Kōfuku-ji, another time, against Kiyomizu-dera. At the end of the 12th century, Japan was plunged into the Genpei War and, while the feuds between the temples did not end, they became subsumed by larger events; the warring Minamoto and Taira clans both tried to obtain the aid of the warrior monks of Nara and Kyoto, adding the temples' forces to the clans' mighty armies of samurai.
Taira no Kiyomori sent generous gifts of rice and silk to Enryakuji, ensuring they would not help his enemies, the Minamoto, who had allied themselves with the monks of Mii-dera. In the Battle of Uji in 1180, one of the more famous battles in which sōhei participated, the monks of Mii-dera, along with a force of Minamoto samurai, tried to defend the bridge over the Uji River, the Byōdō-in, a temple behind it, from an attacking Taira force; the monks pulled up the planks of the bridge to impair the ability of the horse mounted samurai to cross. The warrior monks stood their ground with bow and arrow, naginata and dagger, but were defeated. Following his victory, Taira no Kiyomori ordered that revenge be taken upon the monks that opposed him. Mii-dera was burned to the ground once again. Only the Enryaku-ji escaped unscathed. Three years when Minamoto no Yoshinaka betrayed his clan by storming into Kyoto, setting the Hōjōji Palace aflame and kidnapping Emperor Go-Shirakawa, he was opposed by many of the monks of Kyoto, including those from Mount Hiei.
Following the Genpei War, the monasteries, to a large extent, turned their attention to rebuilding, first physically, politically. Their political influence grew stronger through peaceful means, the warrior monks played only minor roles in the wars of the 13th and 14th centuries. Violent conflict between the temples still occurred on occasion, once again over political and spiritual appointments, related matters. During the wars of the Nanboku-chō period, Mount Hiei took in the rebel Emperor Go-Daigo, offered him sanctuary. Emperor Go-Daigo, along with his son, the help of the sōhei of Mount Hiei, launched a brief rebellion against the Kamakura shogunate; the Ashikaga shogunate took power shortly afterwards, supported Zen over the other Buddhist sects, drawing the ire of the warrior monks. Over the course of the 1340s–1360s a number of conflicts erupted between the Tendai sect temples, those of Zen Nanzen-ji; the Ōnin War, starting in 1467, was the prelude to over a century of civil war in Japan, the stimulus for a reorganization of the warrior monks.
Unlike the Jōkyū War and Mongol invasions of the 13th century, the Ōnin War was fought in Kyoto, thus the warrior monks could no longer remain
Tendai is a Mahayana Buddhist school established in Japan in the year 806 by a monk named Saicho known as Dengyō Daishi. The Tendai school rose to prominence during the Heian Period of Japan eclipsing the powerful Hosso school and competing with the upcoming Shingon school to become the most influential at the Imperial court. However, political entanglements during the Genpei War led many disaffected monks to leave and in some cases to establish their own schools of Buddhism such as Jodo Shu, Nichiren Shu and Soto Zen. Destruction of the head temple Mount Hiei by warlord Oda Nobunaga further weakened Tendai's influence as well as the geographic shift of Japan's capital to Edo away from Kyoto. Tendai Buddhism is a descendant of the parent Chinese Tiantai school, but introduces some novelties such as the exclusive use of the Bodhisattva Precepts for ordination, its emphasis on the "Four Integrated Schools" and Saicho's emphasis on the "One Vehicle" teaching. In keeping with its parent Tiantai school, the Tendai school holds the Lotus Sutra as the ultimate teaching of the Buddha, the teachings and practices of Chinese founder Zhiyi remain an important foundation today.
David W. Chappell frames the relevance of Tendai for a universal Buddhism: Although Tendai has the reputation of being a major denomination in Japanese history, the most comprehensive and diversified school of Chinese Buddhism, it is unknown in the West; this meagre presence is in marked contrast to the vision of the founder of the movement in China, T'ien-t'ai Chih-i, who provided a religious framework which seemed suited to adapt to other cultures, to evolve new practices, to universalize Buddhism. Although Tiantai teachings had been brought to Japan as early as 754 with the arrival of Jianzhen from China, its teachings did not take root until generations when a monk named Saicho journeyed to China aboard the Japanese missions to Imperial China in 804. On the same 804 mission to China the future founder of Shingon Buddhism, Kukai travelled, however both monks were on separate ships, never saw one another once they arrived in China. From the city of Ningbo, Saicho was introduced by the governor to Daosui, the seventh patriarch of the Tiantai school and when he journeyed to Mount Tiantai for further study.
After receiving initiations in Chan Buddhism and esoteric Buddhist traditions on Mount Tiantai, Saicho devoted much of his time to making accurate copies of Tiantai texts, studying under Daosui. By the sixth month of 805, Saicho had returned to Japan along with the official mission to China; because of the Imperial Court's interest in Tiantai teachings at the time, as well as esoteric Buddhism, Saicho rose in prominence upon his return. He was asked by Emperor Kanmu to perform various esoteric rituals, at the same token, Saicho sought recognition from the Emperor of a new, independent school of Tiantai in Japan; because the emperor sought to reduce the power of the Hosso school, the emperor granted this request, but with the stipulation that the new "Tendai" school would have two programs: one for esoteric Buddhism and one for meditation. However, Emperor Kanmu died shortly thereafter, Saicho was not allocated any ordinands until 809 with the reign of Emperor Saga. Saicho's choice of establishing his community at Mount Hiei proved fortuitous because it was located to the northeast of the new capitol of Kyoto and thus was considered auspicious in terms of Chinese geomancy for protecting the capitol.
The remainder of Saicho's life was spent in heated debates with notable figures of the Hosso school Tokuitsu and maintaining an strained relationship with Kukai to broaden his understanding of esoteric Buddhism. Saicho's efforts were devoted to developing a "Mahayana-only" ordination platform that required the Bodhisattva Precepts only, not through the "Vinaya in Four Parts", traditionally used in East Asian Buddhist monasticism. By the time that Saicho died in 822, his yearly petition was granted. Seven days after Saicho died, the Imperial Court granted permission for the Tendai sect to use the Bodhisattva Precepts for its ordination process; this allowed Tendai to use an ordination platform separate from the powerful Buddhist schools in Nara. Gishin, Saicho's disciple and the first zasu, presided over the first allotted ordinands in 827. Further, the Tendai order underwent efforts to deepen its understanding of teachings that Saicho had brought back esoteric Buddhism. Saicho had only received initiation in the Diamond Realm Mandala, since the rival Shingon school under Kukai had received deeper training, early Tendai monks felt it necessary to return to China for further initiation and instruction.
Saicho's disciple Ennin went to China in the year 838 and returned ten years with a more thorough understanding of esoteric Buddhism, but Pure Land Buddhism teachings, deeper knowledge of the parent Tiantai school as well. By 864, Tendai monks were now appointed to the powerful sōgō with the naming of Anné as the provisional vinaya master. Other examples include Enchin's appointment to the Office of Monastic Affairs in 883. While Saicho had opposed the Office during his lifetime, within a few generations disciples were now gifted with positions in the Office by the Imperial Family. By this time, Japanese Buddhism was dominated by the Tendai school to a much greater degree than Chinese Buddhism was by its forebearer, the Tiantai. For reference, the first eight zasu after Saicho were: Gishin
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions and spiritual practices based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha and resulting interpreted philosophies. Buddhism originated in ancient India as a Sramana tradition sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, spreading through much of Asia. Two major extant branches of Buddhism are recognized by scholars: Theravada and Mahayana. Most Buddhist traditions share the goal of overcoming suffering and the cycle of death and rebirth, either by the attainment of Nirvana or through the path of Buddhahood. Buddhist schools vary in their interpretation of the path to liberation, the relative importance and canonicity assigned to the various Buddhist texts, their specific teachings and practices. Observed practices include taking refuge in the Buddha, the Dharma and the Sangha, observance of moral precepts, monasticism and the cultivation of the Paramitas.
Theravada Buddhism has a widespread following in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia such as Myanmar and Thailand. Mahayana, which includes the traditions of Pure Land, Nichiren Buddhism and Tiantai, is found throughout East Asia. Vajrayana, a body of teachings attributed to Indian adepts, may be viewed as a separate branch or as an aspect of Mahayana Buddhism. Tibetan Buddhism, which preserves the Vajrayana teachings of eighth-century India, is practiced in the countries of the Himalayan region and Kalmykia. Buddhism is an Indian religion attributed to the teachings of the Buddha born Siddhārtha Gautama, known as the Tathāgata and Sakyamuni. Early texts have his personal name as "Gautama" or "Gotama" without any mention of "Siddhārtha," which appears to have been a kind of honorific title when it does appear; the details of Buddha's life are mentioned in many Early Buddhist Texts but are inconsistent, his social background and life details are difficult to prove, the precise dates uncertain. The evidence of the early texts suggests that he was born as Siddhārtha Gautama in Lumbini and grew up in Kapilavasthu, a town in the plains region of the modern Nepal-India border, that he spent his life in what is now modern Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.
Some hagiographic legends state that his father was a king named Suddhodana, his mother was Queen Maya, he was born in Lumbini gardens. However, scholars such as Richard Gombrich consider this a dubious claim because a combination of evidence suggests he was born in the Shakyas community – one that gave him the title Shakyamuni, the Shakya community was governed by a small oligarchy or republic-like council where there were no ranks but where seniority mattered instead; some of the stories about Buddha, his life, his teachings, claims about the society he grew up in may have been invented and interpolated at a time into the Buddhist texts. According to the Buddhist sutras, Gautama was moved by the innate suffering of humanity and its endless repetition due to rebirth, he set out on a quest to end this repeated suffering. Early Buddhist canonical texts and early biographies of Gautama state that Gautama first studied under Vedic teachers, namely Alara Kalama and Uddaka Ramaputta, learning meditation and ancient philosophies the concept of "nothingness, emptiness" from the former, "what is neither seen nor unseen" from the latter.
Finding these teachings to be insufficient to attain his goal, he turned to the practice of asceticism. This too fell short of attaining his goal, he turned to the practice of dhyana, which he had discovered in his youth, he famously sat in meditation under a Ficus religiosa tree now called the Bodhi Tree in the town of Bodh Gaya in the Gangetic plains region of South Asia. He gained insight into the workings of karma and his former lives, attained enlightenment, certainty about the Middle Way as the right path of spiritual practice to end suffering from rebirths in Saṃsāra; as a enlightened Buddha, he attracted followers and founded a Sangha. Now, as the Buddha, he spent the rest of his life teaching the Dharma he had discovered, died at the age of 80 in Kushinagar, India. Buddha's teachings were propagated by his followers, which in the last centuries of the 1st millennium BCE became over 18 Buddhist sub-schools of thought, each with its own basket of texts containing different interpretations and authentic teachings of the Buddha.
The Four Truths express the basic orientation of Buddhism: we crave and cling to impermanent states and things, dukkha, "incapable of satisfying" and painful. This keeps us caught in saṃsāra, the endless cycle of repeated rebirth and dying again, but there is a way to liberation from this endless cycle to the state of nirvana, namely following the Noble Eightfold Path. The truth of dukkha is the basic insight that life in this mundane world, with its clinging and craving to impermanent states and things is dukkha, unsatisfactory. Dukkha can be translated as "incapable of satisfying," "the unsatisfactory nature and the general insecurity of all conditioned phenomena". Dukkha is most translated as "suffering," but this is inaccurate, since it refers not to episodic suffering, but to the intrinsically unsat
Kyoto Kyoto City, is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture, located in the Kansai region of Japan. It is best known in Japanese history for being the former Imperial capital of Japan for more than one thousand years, as well as a major part of the Kyoto-Osaka-Kobe metropolitan area. In Japanese, Kyoto was called Kyō, Miyako, or Kyō no Miyako. In the 11th century, the city was renamed Kyoto, from the Chinese calligraphic, jingdu. After the city of Edo was renamed Tokyo in 1868, the seat of the Emperor was moved there, Kyoto was for a short time known as Saikyō. Kyoto is sometimes called the thousand-year capital; the National Diet never passed any law designating a capital. Foreign spellings for the city's name have included Kioto and Meaco, utilised by Dutch cartographers. Another term used to refer to the city in the pre-modern period was Keishi, meaning "urba" or "capital". Ample archaeological evidence suggests human settlement in Kyoto began as early as the Paleolithic period, although not much published material is retained about human activity in the area before the 6th century, around which time the Shimogamo Shrine is believed to have been established.
During the 8th century, when powerful Buddhist clergy became involved in the affairs of the Imperial government, Emperor Kanmu chose to relocate the capital in order to distance it from the clerical establishment in Nara. His last choice for the site was the village of Uda, in the Kadono district of Yamashiro Province; the new city, Heian-kyō, a scaled replica of the Tang capital Chang'an, became the seat of Japan's imperial court in 794, beginning the Heian period of Japanese history. Although military rulers established their governments either in Kyoto or in other cities such as Kamakura and Edo, Kyoto remained Japan's capital until the transfer of the imperial court to Tokyo in 1869 at the time of the Imperial Restoration; the city suffered extensive destruction in the Ōnin War of 1467–1477, did not recover until the mid-16th century. During the Ōnin War, the shugo collapsed, power was divided among the military families. Battles between samurai factions spilled into the streets, came to involve the court nobility and religious factions as well.
Nobles' mansions were transformed into fortresses, deep trenches dug throughout the city for defense and as firebreaks, numerous buildings burned. The city has not seen such widespread destruction since. In the late 16th century, Toyotomi Hideyoshi reconstructed the city by building new streets to double the number of north-south streets in central Kyoto, creating rectangle blocks superseding ancient square blocks. Hideyoshi built earthwork walls called odoi encircling the city. Teramachi Street in central Kyoto is a Buddhist temple quarter where Hideyoshi gathered temples in the city. Throughout the Edo period, the economy of the city flourished as one of three major cities in Japan, the others being Osaka and Edo; the Hamaguri rebellion of 1864 burnt down 28,000 houses in the city which showed the rebels' dissatisfaction towards the Tokugawa Shogunate. The subsequent move of the Emperor to Tokyo in 1869 weakened the economy; the modern city of Kyoto was formed on April 1, 1889. The construction of Lake Biwa Canal in 1890 was one measure taken to revive the city.
The population of the city exceeded one million in 1932. There was some consideration by the United States of targeting Kyoto with an atomic bomb at the end of World War II because, as an intellectual center of Japan, it had a population large enough to persuade the emperor to surrender. In the end, at the insistence of Henry L. Stimson, Secretary of War in the Roosevelt and Truman administrations, the city was removed from the list of targets and replaced by Nagasaki; the city was spared from conventional bombing as well, although small-scale air raids did result in casualties. As a result, the Imperial City of Kyoto is one of the few Japanese cities that still have an abundance of prewar buildings, such as the traditional townhouses known as machiya. However, modernization is continually breaking down the traditional Kyoto in favor of newer architecture, such as the Kyōto Station complex. Kyoto became a city designated by government ordinance on September 1, 1956. In 1997, Kyoto hosted the conference.
Kyoto is located in a valley, part of the Yamashiro Basin, in the eastern part of the mountainous region known as the Tamba highlands. The Yamashiro Basin is surrounded on three sides by mountains known as Higashiyama and Nishiyama, with a height just above 1,000 metres above sea level; this interior positioning results in cold winters. There are three rivers in the basin, the Ujigawa to the south, the Katsuragawa to the west, the Kamogawa to the east. Kyoto City takes up 17.9% of the land in the prefecture with an area of 827.9 square kilometres. The original city was arranged in accordance with traditional Chinese feng shui following the model of the ancient Chinese capital of Chang'an; the Imperial Palace faced south. The streets in the modern-day wards of Nakagyō, Shimogyō, Kamigyō-ku still follow a grid pattern. Today, the main business district is located to the south of the old Imperial Palace, with the less-populated northern area retaining a fa
The Sakamoto Cable the Hieizan Railway Line, is a Japanese funicular line in Ōtsu, Shiga. It is the only line; the line opened as an eastern route to Enryaku-ji, a famous temple on Mount Hiei. This is the longest funicular line in Japan. Distance: 2.0 km Gauge: 1,067 mm Stations: 4 Vertical interval: 484 m Keifuku Cable Line – on the other side of the mountain List of funicular railways List of railway companies in Japan List of railway lines in Japan Official website
Shugendō is a syncretic religion that originated in Heian Japan. Practitioners are called Yamabushi. Shugendō evolved during the seventh century from an amalgamation of beliefs, philosophies and ritual systems drawn from local folk-religious practices, pre-Buddhist mountain worship, Shinto and Vajrayana; the seventh-century ascetic and mystic En no Gyōja is considered as the patriarch of Shugendō, having first organized Shugendō as a doctrine. Shugendō means "the path of training and testing" or "the way to spiritual power through discipline."The Meiji government, which separated Shinto and Buddhism, ruled out Shugendō as unacceptable because of its amalgamation of the two religions and forbade it in 1872. With the advent of religious freedom in Japan after World War II, Shugendō was revived. In modern times, Shugendō is practiced through Tendai and Shingon temples; some temples include Kimpusen-ji in Yoshino, Ideha Shrine in the Three Mountains of Dewa and Daigo-ji in Kyoto. Shugendō practitioners are said to be descendants of the Kōya Hijiri monks of the eighth and ninth centuries.
Kaihōgyō Mikkyō Milarepa Mount Hatsuka Mount Hiei Mount Ōfuna Mount Ōmine Onmyōdō Sokushinbutsu Faure, Bernard. Shugendō: The History and Culture of a Japanese Religion. Kyoto: Ecole française d'Extrême-Orient, centre de Kyoto. ISBN 9782855391236. Gill, Andrea K.. "Shugendō: Pilgrimage and Ritual in a Japanese Folk Religion". Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee. 3: 49–65. ISSN 2330-4715. Retrieved 11 October 2017. Hitoshi, Miyake; the Mandala of the Mountain: Shugendō and Folk Religion. Tokyo: Keio University Press. ISBN 9784766411287. Miyake, Hitoshi. "Religious Rituals in Shugendo: A Summary". Japanese Journal of Religious Studies. 16: 101–116. Doi:10.2307/30234003. JSTOR 30234003. A Look at Japanese Ascetic Practice Head Temple Takao-san Yakuo-in Central Shugendo Training Center in Kanto 天台寺門宗｜修験道 Shugen: The Autumn Peak of Haguro Shugendo Mount Fuji and Shugendo Shugendo article in Buddhism & Shintoism in Japan Koryu Shugen Yamabushi practice training | Dewa Sanzan