Sir Paweł Edmund Strzelecki known as Paul Edmund de Strzelecki, was a Polish explorer and geologist who in 1845 became a British subject. He is noted for his contributions to the exploration of Australia the Snowy Mountains and Tasmania as well as climbing and naming the highest mountain on the continent – Mount Kosciuszko. Strzelecki was born in 1797, in Glausche, Kingdom of Prussia, the third child of Franciszek Strzelecki, a Polish nobleman leasing land, his wife, Anna Raczyńska. In Australia, Strzelecki was called a Count, though there is no proof that he approved or used such a title himself. Strzelecki served shortly in the Prussian Army in the 6th Regiment of Thuringischen Uhlans, at the time known as Polish Regiment because so many Poles served on the staff. However, the stiff Prussian drill did not agree with his character and he submitted his resignation and returned home. There are some suggestions that he deserted the Regiment but in the official history of the Regiment the name Strzelecki does not appear.
Not long after, he became a tutor at the manor of local nobility. He fell in love with his young student, a girl of 15, Adyna Turno, but was rejected as a suitor by her father, Adam Turno. There are stories that Strzelecki attempted unsuccessfully to elope with Adyna, but biographers find this unlikely. Adyna and Strzelecki exchanged letters over 40 years but they never married. Strzelecki, provided with funds by his family, travelled in Italy, he came under the notice of Prince Sapieha, who placed him in charge of a large estate in the Russian-occupied part of Poland. Strzelecki was about 26 years of age and carried out his duties successfully; some years the prince died, a dispute arose between his son and heir and Strzelecki. Eustace refused to pay Strzelecki the prince's bequest – a huge sum of money and a considerable estate – accusing him of bad faith and prevarication. After four years the dispute was settled. Strzelecki stayed some time in France, from where he travelled to Africa. On 8 June 1834, he sailed from Liverpool to New York.
He travelled in North and South America, Cuba and the South Sea Islands, went to New Zealand about the beginning of 1839. He arrived at Sydney on 25 April 1839, he visited the estate of his friend James Macarthur at Camden. He wrote about meeting the German vintners that the Macarthurs had brought to Australia from the Rheingau region, he wrote: "I had gone with my host to look at the farm, the fields, the vineyard, — contiguous to which last stood in a row six neat cottages, surrounded with kitchen gardens, inhabited by six families of German vine-dressers, who emigrated two years ago to New South Wales, either driven there by necessity, or seduced by the hope of finding, beyond the sea, fortune and happiness, – justice and liberty. The German salutation which I gave to the group that stood nearest, was like some signal-bell, which set the whole colony in motion. Fathers and children came running from all sides to see, to salute, to talk to the gentleman who came from Germany, they took me for their fellow-countryman, were happy, questioning me about Germany, the Rhine, their native town.
I was far from undeceiving them." At the request of the Governor of New South Wales, Sir George Gipps, he made a geological and mineralogical survey of the Gippsland region in present-day eastern Victoria, where he made many discoveries. He discovered gold in 1839, but Gipps feared the effects of gold on the colony and persuaded Strzelecki to keep his discovery secret. In 1839 Strzelecki set out on an expedition into the Australian Alps and explored the Snowy Mountains with James Macarthur, James Riley and two Aboriginal guides: Charlie Tarra and Jackey. In 1840 he climbed the highest peak on mainland Australia and named it Mount Kosciuszko, to honour Tadeusz Kościuszko, one of the national heroes of Poland and a hero of the American Revolutionary War. On Victorian maps the name Mount Kosciusko was erroneously connected to the neighbouring peak, at present known as Mount Townsend and causing many confusions, including the recent incorrect information on swapping the names of the mountains. From there Strzelecki made a journey through Gippsland.
After passing the La Trobe River it was found necessary to abandon the horses and all the specimens, collected and try to reach Western Port. For 22 days they were on the edge of starvation and were saved by the knowledge and hunting ability of their guide Charlie, who caught native animals for them to eat; the party exhausted, arrived at Western Port on 12 May 1840 and reached Melbourne on 28 May. The Strzelecki Ranges are named in his honour. From 1840 to 1842, based in Launceston, Strzelecki explored nearly every part of the island on foot with three men and two pack horses; the Lieutenant-Governor, Sir John Franklin, his wife, Lady Jane, afforded him every help in his scientific endeavours. Strzelecki arrived in Sydney on 2 October, he was collecting specimens in northern New South Wales towards the end of that year, on 22 April 1843, he left Sydney after having travelled 11,000 kilometres through New South Wales and Tasmania, examining the geology along the way. He went to England after visiting the East Indies and Egypt.
In 1845 he published his Physical Description of New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land
Australian Alps National Parks and Reserves
The Australian Alps National Parks and Reserves is a group of eleven protected areas consisting of national parks, nature reserves and one wilderness park located in the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales and Victoria and, listed as a "place" on the Australian National Heritage List on 7 November 2008 under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. The listing which covers an area of 16,531.80 square kilometres, contains the vast majority of alpine and sub-alpine environments in Australia. The listing includes the following protected areas - Alpine, Baw Baw, Kosciuszko, Mount Buffalo and Snowy River national parks. Australian Alps List of Australian Capital Territory protected areas Protected areas of New South Wales Protected areas of Victoria Media related to Australian Alps National Parks and Reserves at Wikimedia Commons Australian Alps National Parks and Reserves. Department of the Environment. 2008. "The Australian Alps". Department of the Environment National Heritage List.
Australian Government. 2008
Kosciuszko National Park
The Kosciuszko National Park is a 6,900-square-kilometre national park and contains mainland Australia's highest peak, Mount Kosciuszko, for which it is named, Cabramurra the highest town in Australia. Its borders contain a mix of rugged mountains and wilderness, characterised by an alpine climate, which makes it popular with recreational skiers and bushwalkers; the park is located in the southeastern corner of New South Wales, 354 km southwest of Sydney, is contiguous with the Alpine National Park in Victoria to the south, the Namadgi National Park in the Australian Capital Territory to the northeast. The larger towns of Cooma and Jindabyne lie just outside and service the park; the waters of the Snowy River, the Murray River, Gungarlin River all rise in this park. Other notable peaks in the park include Mount Jagungal, Bimberi Peak and Mount Townsend. On 7 November 2008, the Park was added to the Australian National Heritage List as one of eleven areas constituting the Australian Alps National Parks and Reserves.
The Snowy Mountains region is thought to have had Aboriginal occupation for some twenty thousand years, though harsh winter weather made habitation of the snow country impossible. Large-scale intertribal gatherings were held in the High Country during summer for collective feasting on the Bogong moth; this practice continued until around 1864. The area was first explored by Europeans in 1835, in 1840, Edmund Strzelecki ascended Mount Kosciuszko and named it after a Polish patriot. High-country stockmen followed. Banjo Paterson's famous poem The Man From Snowy River recalls this era; the cattle graziers have left a legacy of mountain huts scattered across the area. Today these huts are maintained by the National Parks and Wildlife Service or volunteer organisations like the Kosciuszko Huts Association. In the 19th century, gold was mined on the high plains near Kiandra. At its height, this community had a population of about 4,000 people, ran 14 hotels, it was here that Skiing in Australia commenced around 1861.
Since the last resident left in 1974, Kiandra has become a ghost town of ruins and abandoned diggings. In the 20th century, the focus of Skiing in New South Wales shifted south closer to the Kosciuszko Main Range; the Kosciuszko National Park came into existence as the National Chase Snowy Mountains on 5 December 1906. In April 1944, following the passage of the Kosciusko State Park Act, the Kosciuszko State Park was proclaimed, it became the Kosciuszko National Park in 1967. The name was misspelt as Kosciusko until 1997; the construction of the Snowy Mountains Scheme between 1949–74 saw much of the area explored, brought improvements to roads and resulted in the construction of several dams and tunnels across the Park in one of the world's largest engineering achievements Kosciuszko National Park has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Currango Homestead The higher regions of the park experience an alpine climate, unusual on mainland Australia. However, only the peaks of the main range are subject to consistent heavy winter snow.
The climate station at Charlotte Pass recorded Australia's lowest temperature of −23 °C on 28 June 1994. During the last ice age, which peaked about 20,000 years ago in the Pleistocene epoch, the highest peaks of the main range near Mount Kosciuszko experienced a climate which favoured the formation of glaciers, evidence of which can still be seen today. Cirques moraines, tarn lakes, roche moutonnées and other glacial features can all be seen in the area. Lake Cootapatamba, formed by an ice spilling from Mount Kosciuszko's southern flank, is the highest lake on the Australian mainland. Lake Albina, Club Lake, Blue Lake, Hedley Tarn have glacial origins. There is some disagreement as to how widespread Pleistocene glaciation was on the main range, little or no evidence from earlier glacial periods exists. The'David Moraine', a one-kilometre-long ridge running across Spencers Creek valley seems to indicate a larger glacier existed in this area at some time, however the glacial origin of this feature is disputed.
There is evidence of periglacial activity in the area. Solifluction appears to have created terraces on the northwest flank of Mount Northcote. Frost heave is a significant agent of soil erosion in the Kosciuszko Area; the Kosciuszko National Park covers a variety of climatic regions which support several distinct ecosystems. That, most identified with the park, the alpine area above the tree line, is one of the most fragile and covers the smallest area; this area is a patchwork of alpine heaths, feldmarks and fens. The windswept feldmark ecotope is endemic to the alpine region, covers a mere 300,000 m2, it is most vulnerable to the wandering footsteps of unmindful tourists. Nine separate wilderness zones have been identified in the latest management scheme; these include the Indi, Pilot, Bogong Peaks, Western Falls and Bimberi wilderness areas. Many rare or threatened plant and animal species occur within the boundaries of the park; the park is home to one of Australia's most threatened species: the corroboree frog.
The endangered mountain pygmy possum and the more common dusky antechinus are located in the high country of the park. There are significant populations of feral animals in the park, including brumbies or wild horses. Park authorities have coordinated their culling and relocation, leading to public controversy over how to reduce their numbers; the actual number of horses within the park is difficult to ascertain with estimates ranging from 1700 in 2008 increasing by 300 each year, 7679 in 2009, from 2500 to 14,000 in
Jindabyne, New South Wales
Jindabyne is a town in south-east New South Wales, Australia that overlooks Lake Jindabyne near the Snowy Mountains, in Snowy Monaro Regional Council. It is a popular holiday destination year round in winter; this is due to its proximity to major ski resort developments within the Kosciuszko National Park, including Thredbo and Charlotte Pass. Situated on land, now under Lake Jindabyne, the township was transferred to its present location in the 1960s due to the construction of Jindabyne Dam, on the Snowy River, as part of the Snowy Mountains Scheme. At the 2016 census, Jindabyne had a population of 2,629 people; the town's name is derived from an aboriginal word meaning "valley". Jindabyne is one of the highest settlements of its size in Australia, at 918 metres above sea level. Light snowfalls sometimes occur during winter. In mid-July in 2004 and 2005, snow fell up to half a metre following freak snowfalls over a large area of New South Wales. Jindabyne is connected to the surrounding area by Kosciuszko Road & North via Canberra, the Alpine Way West to the Riverina and Wodonga and the Barry Way to the South and Gippsland.
Situated on a site, now under the waters of Lake Jindabyne, the township was relocated to its present position in the 1960s before the damming of the Snowy River as part of the Snowy Mountains Scheme. The Scheme was developed from the 1940s as a way of increasing the flow of inland rivers in order to encourage the development of primary industries based on irrigation, to create hydroelectricity. Completed in 1967, Jindabyne Dam is a major dam, located 2 kilometres south south-east of the relocated township. Parts of Old Jindabyne can be seen when the levels of Lake Jindabyne are low the foundations of the old St Columbkille Roman Catholic Church; the settlement of East Jindabyne is located above. The dam's main purpose is for the generation of hydropower and is one of the sixteen major dams that comprise the Snowy Mountains Scheme, a vast hydroelectricity and irrigation complex constructed in south-east Australia between 1949 and 1974 and now run by Snowy Hydro. Jindabyne celebrated the new town's 50th anniversary on 19 December 2014 with a long lunch, parade through the town centre, speech by Peter Hendy MP.
The celebrations were attended by His Excellency, General David Hurley, Governor of New South Wales, Member for Monaro, Mr John Barilaro, Mayor of Snowy Mountains Shire, Mr John Cahill. Jindabyne is a service town for Australia's highest ski resorts: Perisher and Charlotte Pass. Thredbo and Perisher are 30 minutes' drive into the Kosciuszko National Park, although require the payment of park entry fees and the compulsory carrying of snow chains in winter for cars without 4WD. However, Jindabyne attracts tourists in summer with Lake Jindabyne popular for activities such as fishing, water skiing and wakeboarding. Since the late 2000s mountain biking has become a popular summer activity and as of 2016, is assisting in turning the Snowy Mountains into a year-round adventure-tourist destination; the town is tourist-oriented with a large range of snow-sport rental outlets and accommodation facilities. Prices can be increased during the peak winter season, although they remain lower than those of outlets within the national park and ski resorts.
Lake Jindabyne is a sailing and fishing destination. The body of water is one of the largest fresh water reservoirs in New South Wales, has a resident population of Atlantic Salmon, Brook Trout Brown trout and Rainbow Trout. Lake Jindabyne has a reputation as one of the best places to catch trout in Australia; the Gaden Trout Hatchery, located about 10 kilometres north-west of Jindabyne, on the route leading to Perisher Ski Resort, holds tours of the hatchery's trout ponds, is one of Australia's main centres involved in the breeding and rearing of cold water sport fish. Access to information regarding current tourist activities, business listings can be found using the area's free mobile app, the "Jindy Guide". Jindabyne has a cool oceanic climate with some continental influence. Diurnal range is high in the summer. Rainfall is moderate and is distributed throughout the year. Snowfalls are common in the region. Jindabyne Central School and Snowy Mountains Grammar School serve as the town's educational facilities.
Jindabyne receives five free-to-air television networks including all the digital free-to-air channels relayed from Canberra, broadcast from Jindabyne Hill. Networks available include ABC, SBS, Prime7, WIN, Southern Cross Ten Snowy Mountains TV is broadcast from the same location, operates in addition to the other broadcasters under an open narrowcasting licence. Radio stations in Jindabyne include: Raw FM 87.6 2XL 96.3 FM Snow FM 97.7 FM ABC South East NSW 95.5 FM Radio National 97.1 FM Monaro FM 93.9 FM Racing Radio 102.7 FM The Song Farewell Jindabyne was included on the 1966 The Settlers album, The Settlers Sing Song of the Snowy Mountains. The song Jindabyne was a single released on Columbia records, it refers to the old town now beneath the lake. The 2004 Somersault was filmed in the town; the 2006 Australian drama film Jindabyne directed by Ray Lawrence was filmed on location in and around the town. It stars Laura Linney; the song Around Jindabyne was performed by John Williamson. Snowy Scheme Museum Destination Jindabyne is a locally developed initiative and website in partnership with the Jindabyne Chamber of Commerce with current and updated business information and for tourists making plans to visit the town and Snowy Mountai
The bogong moth is a temperate species of night-flying moth, notable for its biannual long-distance seasonal migrations towards and from the Australian Alps, similar to the diurnal monarch butterfly. During the autumn and winter it is found in southern Queensland, western New South Wales, western Victoria, in South and Western Australia. Adult bogong moths breed and larvae hatch during this period, consuming winter pasture plants during their growth. During the spring, the moths migrate south or east and reside in mountains such as Mount Bogong, where they gregariously aestivate over the summer until their return towards breeding grounds again in the autumn; the moth's name, bogong, is derived from the Australian Aboriginal Dhudhuroa word bugung, describing the brown coloration of the moth. It is an icon of Australian wildlife due to its historical role as an important food source and because aboriginal tribes would come to where the moths spend the summer to feast on them and hold intertribal gatherings.
In recent years, it has become well known for its accidental invasion of major cities like Canberra and Sydney due to strong winds during its spring migration. Concerns have been raised over the potential role of agriculture in turning the bogong moth into a biovector of arsenic in the Australian Alps. Aggregations of bogong moths in aestivation sites has led to the bioaccumulation of the pollutant in both the surrounding local environment and within predators in the endangered mountain pygmy-possum. However, no conclusive evidence has directly linked agriculture as the source of arsenic in bogong moths; the bogong moth was first described by French lepidopterist Jean Baptiste Boisduval in 1832, who described the moth as Noctua infusa from a type specimen from Australia. He described the moth as having blackish brown hind wings. However, in 1903 British entomologist George Hampson classified a specimen with white hind wings under this name, alongside another specimen of Agrotis spina with blackish brown hind wings.
Australian amateur entomologist Alfred Jefferis Turner identified A. spina as a synonym of A. infusa in 1920. I. F. B. Common, an Australian entomologist, found specimens with both hind wing colors in 1954. Specimens with the white hind wings were only found during specific months in mercury vapor light traps near Canberra, he attributed the white hind wing specimens to a seasonal form; the moth's name, bogong, is derived from the Australian Aboriginal Dhudhuroa word bugung, meaning brown moth. Its presence has contributed to the naming of numerous landmarks. For example, a town, Bogong, in the Australian state of Victoria has been named after the moth. Mount Bogong, located south of the Bogong High Plains, is named after the moth, with its traditional name, meaning the mountain where Aboriginal people collected the'boo.gong fly'. In the Australian state of New South Wales, a series of mountains in the Kosciuszko National Park are named the Bogong Peaks. Adult bogong moths have an overall dark brown coloration, with a dark stripe interrupted by two light-colored spots on the wings distinguishing it from other moths.
There are nonmigratory forms of the moth. Bogong moths have a wingspan ranging between 40–50 mm, a body length of around 25–35 mm; the average weight of an adult bogong moth is 0.326 grams. Bogong moth eggs are dome–shaped in appearance and are vertically ridged, they are 0.4 mm in height. Caterpillars start out with a pale coloration, but as they grow and consume food they become green with pale and dark stripes and spots. Larvae achieve a maximum length of 50 mm. Bogong moth populations are located across southern Australia, west of the Great Dividing Range; the regions contain populations of nonmigratory and migratory moths of this species, distinguished by their differing seasonal presences in each region. The adult bogong moth lays eggs across New South Wales, southern Queensland, northern parts of Victoria, where larvae hatch and grow until adulthood. During the spring season and subsequent summer aestivation, bogong moths migrate south or east towards the Australian Alps, can be found in the Australian Capital Territory and Bogong Mountains.
However, bogong moths can be found in locations as far as Tasmania and New Zealand due to strong winds that blow them off their path. Bogong moth eggs and larvae are found in self-mulching soils and crop pastures, where both wild and agricultural larval food sources are abundant during the autumn and winter seasons; the heavy presence of larvae in these pastures can lead to significant crop damage. During the spring and summer seasons, when grasses overtake these pastures, conditions are unfavorable for larval survival since larvae do not consume these plants; this leads to delayed breeding, as bogong moths are multivoltine and so can raise multiple generations. Instead, adult bogong moths migrate in a southerly direction during the summer and aestivate, until conditions are favorable again. During the spring migration, adult bogong moths can be found in their ideal aestivation sites, which consist of cool, dark caves and crevices but can include spaces underneath tors and fallen tree trunks.
Stable temperatures and humidity make these locations ideal for bogong moth aestivation. Crevices regulate their environment through wind flow, caves have more regular temperatures and greater humidity; this reduces water loss in bogong moths during their inactivity. While temporary sites can be used in lower elevations, these s
Great Dividing Range
The Great Dividing Range, or the Eastern Highlands, is Australia's most substantial mountain range and the third longest land-based range in the world. It stretches more than 3,500 kilometres from Dauan Island off the northeastern tip of Queensland, running the entire length of the eastern coastline through New South Wales into Victoria and turning west, before fading into the central plain at the Grampians in western Victoria; the width of the range varies from about 160 km to over 300 km. The Greater Blue Mountains Area, Gondwana Rainforests, Wet Tropics of Queensland World Heritage Areas are located in the range; the sharp rise between the coastal lowlands and the eastern uplands has affected Australia's climate due to orographic precipitation, these areas of highest relief have revealed an impressive gorge country. The Dividing Range does not consist of a single mountain range, it consists of a complex of mountain ranges, upland areas and escarpments with an ancient and complex geological history.
The physiographic division name for the landmass is called the East Australian Cordillera. In some places the terrain is flat, consisting of low hills; the highlands range from 300 to 1,600 metres in height. The mountains and plateaus, which consist of limestones, quartzite and dolomite, have been created by faulting and folding processes; the crest of the range is defined by the watershed or boundary between the drainage basins of rivers which drain directly eastward into the Pacific Ocean, or southward into Bass Strait, those rivers which drain into the Murray–Darling river system towards the west and south. In central Queensland, the rivers on the west side drain into Lake Eyre basin. In north Queensland, the rivers on the west side of the range drain towards the Gulf of Carpentaria; the higher and more rugged parts of the "range" do not form part of the crest of the range, but may be branches and offshoots from it. The term "Great Dividing Range" may refer to the watershed crest of the range, or to the entire upland complex including all of the hills and mountains between the east coast of Australia and the central plains and lowlands.
At some places it can be up to 400 km wide. Notable ranges and other features which form part of the range complex have their own distinctive names; the Great Dividing Range was formed during the Carboniferous period—over 300 million years ago—when Australia collided with what are now parts of South America and New Zealand. The range has experienced significant erosion since. For tens of thousands of years prior to British colonisation the ranges were home to various Aboriginal Australian nations and clans. Evidence remains in some places of their traditional way of life including decorated caves and trails used to travel between the coastal and inland regions. Many descendants of these nations still exist today and remain the traditional owners and custodians of their lands. After British colonisation in 1788, the ranges were an obstacle to exploration and settlement by the British settlers. Although not high, parts of the highlands were rugged. Crossing the Blue Mountains was challenging due to the mistaken idea that the creeks should be followed rather than the ridges, impenetrable, sandstone mountains.
Knowing that local Aboriginal people had established routes crossing the range and by making use of Aboriginal walking trails, a usable ridge-top route was discovered by Europeans directly westward from Sydney across the Blue Mountains to Bathurst by an expedition jointly led by Gregory Blaxland, William Lawson and William Charles Wentworth. Towns in the Blue Mountains were named after each of these men; this was the start of the development of the agricultural districts of inland New South Wales. A road was built to Blaxland by convicts within six months. Easier routes to inland New South Wales were discovered towards Goulburn to the southwest, westwards from Newcastle. Subsequent explorations were made across and around the ranges by Allan Cunningham, John Oxley, Hamilton Hume, Paul Edmund Strzelecki, Ludwig Leichhardt and Thomas Mitchell; these explorers were concerned with finding and appropriating good agricultural land. By the late 1830s the most fertile rangelands adjacent to the mountain ranges had been explored, appropriated from the traditional inhabitants and some settled.
These included the Gippsland and Riverina regions in the south, up to the Liverpool Plains and the Darling Downs in the north. Various road and railway routes were subsequently established through many parts of the ranges, although many areas remain remote to this day. For example, in eastern Victoria there is only one major road crossing the highlands from north to south, the Great Alpine Road. Parts of the highlands consisting of flat and, by Australian standards, well-watered land were developed for agricultural and pastoral uses; such areas include the Atherton Tableland and Darling Downs in Queensland, the Northern Tablelands, Southern Highlands and Southern Tablelands in New South Wales. Other parts of the highlands have been used for forestry. Many parts of the highlands which were not developed are now included in National Parks. All of mainland Australia's alpine areas, including its highest mountain, Mount Kosciuszko, are part of this range, called the Main Range; the highest areas in southern New South Wales and eastern Victoria are known as the Australian Alps.
The central core of the Great Dividing Range is dotted with hundreds of peaks and is surrounded by many smaller mountain ranges or spurs, vall
A normal route or normal way is the most used route for ascending and descending a mountain peak. It is the simplest route. In the Alps, routes are classed in the following ways, based on their waymarking and upkeep: Footpaths Hiking trails Mountain trails Alpine routes Climbing routes and High Alpine routes in combined rock and ice terrain, graded by difficultySometimes the normal route is not the easiest ascent to the summit, but just the one, most used. There may be technically easier variations; this is the case on the Watzmannfrau, the Hochkalter and Mount Everest. There may be many reasons these easier options are less well-used: the simplest route is less well known than the normal route; the technically easiest route is more arduous than another and is therefore used on the descent. The technically easiest route carries a much higher risk of e.g. rockfalls or avalanche and is therefore avoided in favour of a more difficult route. The technically easier route requires a complicated or long approach march, or all access may be banned via one country.
The term tourist route may sometimes be applied by those wishing to suggest that other routes up a mountain are somehow more "worthy". This belittling of the "normal route" therefore maintains a distinction between those perceiving themselves as serious mountaineers who disparage the incursion of tourist climbers into their domain