Mount Lucania is the third-highest mountain located in Canada. A long ridge connects Mount Lucania with the fifth-highest in Canada. Lucania was named by the Duke of Abruzzi, as he stood on the summit of Mount Saint Elias on July 31, 1897, having just completed the first ascent. Seeing Lucania in the far distance, beyond Mount Logan, he named it "after the ship on which the expedition had sailed from Liverpool to New York," the RMS Lucania; the first ascent of Mount Lucania was made in 1937 by Robert Hicks Bates. They used an airplane to reach 2,670 m above sea level. Washburn called upon Bob Reeve, a famous Alaskan bush pilot, who replied by cable to Washburn, "Anywhere you'll ride, I'll fly"; the ski-equipped Fairchild F-51 made several trips to the landing site on the glacier without event in May, but on landing with Washburn and Bates in June, the plane sank into unseasonal slush. Washburn and Reeve pressed hard for five days to get the airplane out and Reeve was able to get the airplane airborne with all excess weight removed and with the assistance of a smooth icefall with a steep drop.
Washburn and Bates continued on foot to make the first ascent of Lucania, in an epic descent and journey to civilization, they hiked over 150 miles through the wilderness to safety in the small town of Burwash Landing in the Yukon. The second ascent of Lucania was made in 1967 by Jerry Halpern, Mike Humphreys, Gary Lukis, Gerry Roach. List of mountain peaks of Canada David Roberts, Escape from Lucania: An Epic Story of Survival, Simon & Schuster, ISBN 0-7432-2432-9
Mount Bona is one of the major mountains of the Saint Elias Mountains in eastern Alaska, is the fifth-highest independent peak in the United States. Mount Bona and its adjacent neighbor Mount Churchill are both large ice-covered stratovolcanoes. Bona has the distinction of being the highest volcano in the United States and the fourth-highest in North America, outranked only by the three highest Mexican volcanoes, Pico de Orizaba, Popocatépetl, Iztaccíhuatl, its summit is a small stratovolcano on top of a high platform of sedimentary rocks. The mountain's massif is covered entirely by icefields and glaciers, it is the principal source of ice for the Klutlan Glacier, which flows east for over 40 miles into the Yukon Territory of Canada; the mountain contributes a large volume of ice to the north-flowing Russell Glacier system. Mount Bona was named by Prince Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi in 1897, who saw the peak while making the first ascent of Mount Saint Elias about 80 miles to the southeast.
He named it after his racing yacht. The mountain was first climbed in 1930 by Allen Carpé, Terris Moore, Andrew Taylor, from the Russell Glacier on the west of the peak; the current standard route is the East Ridge. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of the United States List of mountain peaks of Alaska List of the highest major summits of the United States List of the most prominent summits of the United States List of the most isolated major summits of the United States List of volcanoes in the United States List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of the United States List of mountain peaks of Alaska Mount Bona at the Alaska Volcano Observatory "Mount Bona". Bivouac.com. Retrieved 2009-01-06. "Churchill". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2009-01-06
Popocatépetl is an active stratovolcano, located in the states of Puebla and Morelos, in central Mexico, lies in the eastern half of the Trans-Mexican volcanic belt. At 5,426 m it is the second highest peak in Mexico, after Citlaltépetl at 5,636 m, it is linked to the Iztaccihuatl volcano to the north by the high saddle known as the Paso de Cortés. Popocatépetl is 70 km southeast of Mexico City, from where it can be seen depending on atmospheric conditions; until the volcano was one of three tall peaks in Mexico to contain glaciers, the others being Iztaccihuatl and Pico de Orizaba. In the 1990s, the glaciers such as Glaciar Norte decreased in size due to warmer temperatures but due to increased volcanic activity. By early 2001, Popocatépetl's glaciers were gone. Lava erupting from Popocatépetl has been predominantly andesitic, but it has erupted large volumes of dacite. Magma produced in the current cycle of activity tends to be a mixture of the two; the name Popocatépetl comes from the Nahuatl words popōca "it smokes" and tepētl "mountain", meaning Smoking Mountain.
The volcano is referred to by Mexicans as El Popo. The alternate nickname Don Goyo comes from the mountain's association in the lore of the region with, "Goyo" being a nickname-like short form of Gregorio; the stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 400 m × 600 m wide crater. The symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris avalanche deposits covering broad areas south of the volcano; the modern volcano was constructed to the south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major Plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 AD, have occurred from Popocatépetl since the mid-Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. According to paleomagnetic studies, the volcano is about 730,000 years old, it is cone shaped with a diameter of 25 km with a peak elevation of 5,450 m.
The crater is elliptical with an orientation northeast-southwest. The walls of the crater vary from 600 to 840 m in height. Popocatépetl is active after being dormant for about half of last century, its activity increased in 1991 and smoke has been seen emanating from the crater since 1993. The volcano is monitored by the Deep Earth Carbon Degassing Project; the geological history of Popocatépetl began with the formation of the ancestral volcano Nexpayantla. About 200,000 years ago, Nexpayantly collapsed in an eruption, leaving a caldera, in which the next volcano, known as El Fraile, began to form. Another eruption about 50,000 years ago caused that to collapse, Popocatépetl rose from that. Around 23,000 years ago, a lateral eruption destroyed the volcano's ancient cone and created an avalanche that reached up to 70 kilometres from the summit; the debris field from, one of four around the volcano, it is the youngest. Three Plinian eruptions are known to have taken place: 3,000 years ago, 2,150 years ago, 1,100 years ago.
The latter two buried the nearby village of Tetimpa. The first known ascent of the volcano was made by an expedition led by Diego de Ordaz in 1519; the early-16th-century monasteries on the slopes of the mountain are a World Heritage Site. Popocatépetl is one of the most active volcanoes in Mexico and the most famous, having had more than 15 major eruptions since the arrival of the Spanish in 1519. Timeline: Mid-to late first century: A violent VEI-6 eruption may have caused the large migrations that settled Teotihuacan, according to DNA analysis of teeth and bones. Eruptions were observed in 1363, 1509, 1512, 1519–1528, 1530, 1539, 1540, 1548, 1562–1570, 1571, 1592, 1642, 1663, 1664, 1665, 1697, 1720, 1802, 1919, 1923, 1925, 1933. 1947: A major eruption. 21 December 1994: The volcano spewed gas and ash, carried as far as 25 km away by prevailing winds. The activity prompted the evacuation of nearby towns and scientists to begin monitoring for an eruption. December 2000: Tens of thousands of people were evacuated by the government, based on the warnings of scientists.
The volcano made its largest display in 1,200 years. 25 December 2005: The volcano's crater produced an explosion which ejected a large column of smoke and ash about 3 km into the atmosphere and expulsion of lava. January and February 2012: Scientists observed increased volcanic activity at Popocatépetl. On January 25, 2012, an ash explosion occurred on the mountain, causing much dust and ash to contaminate the atmosphere around it. 15 April 2012: Reports of superheated rock fragments being hurled into the air by the volcano. Ash and water vapor plumes were reported 15 times over 24 hours. Wednesday 8 May 2013, at 7:28 p.m. local time: Popocatépetl erupted again with a high amplitude tremor that lasted and was recorded for 3.5 hours. It began with plumes of ash that rose 3 km into the air and began drifting west at first, but began to drift east-southeast, covering areas of the villages of San Juan Tianguismanalco, San Pedro Benito Juárez and the City of Puebla in smoke and ash. Explosions from the
The Chugach Mountains of southern Alaska are the northernmost of the several mountain ranges that make up the Pacific Coast Ranges of the western edge of North America. The range is about 250 miles long and 60 miles wide, extends from the Knik and Turnagain Arms of the Cook Inlet on the west to Bering Glacier, Tana Glacier, the Tana River on the east, it is bounded on the north by the Matanuska and Chitina rivers. The highest point of the Chugach Mountains is Mount Marcus Baker, at 13,094 feet, but with an average elevation of 4,006 feet, most of its summits are not high. So its position along the Gulf of Alaska ensures more snowfall in the Chugach than anywhere else in the world, an annual average of over 1500 cm; the mountains are protected in the Chugach National Forest. Near to Anchorage, they are a popular destination for outdoor activities; the Richardson Highway, Seward Highway, Portage Glacier Highway, the Glenn Highway run through the Chugach Mountains. The Anton Anderson Memorial Tunnel of the Portage Glacier Highway provides railroad and automobile access underneath Maynard Mountain between Portage Lake and the city of Whittier on Prince William Sound.
The name "Chugach" comes from Chugach Sugpiaq "Cuungaaciiq," Alaska Natives inhabiting the Kenai Peninsula and Prince William Sound on the south coast of Alaska. The Chugach people are an Alutiiq people. In 1898 United States Army Captain William R. Abercrombie spelled the name "Chugatch" and applied it to the mountains, it is possible that the Koniagmiut may have called these northern Sugpiat "Cuungaaciirmiut" in ancient times but it is possible that this was a neologism during Russian times. The twelve highest peaks in the Chugach Mountains are listed below: Other important peaks in the Chugach Mountains include: Mount Michelson 8,504 feet Bashful Peak 8,005 feet Mount Billy Mitchell 6,968 feet Mount Palmer 6,703 feet Eagle Peak 6,309 feet Polar Bear Peak 5,656 feet North Suicide Peak 5,065 feet Ptarmigan Peak 4,839 feet Byron Peak 4,590 feet Flattop Mountain 3,245 feet Bold Peak 7,522 feet Matanuska Formation Media related to Chugach Mountains at Wikimedia Commons
Mount Sanford (Alaska)
Mount Sanford is a shield volcano in the Wrangell Volcanic Field, in eastern Alaska near the Copper River. It is the sixth highest mountain in the United States and the third highest volcano behind Mount Bona and Mount Blackburn; the south face of the volcano, at the head of the Sanford Glacier, rises 8,000 feet in 1 mile resulting in one of the steepest gradients in North America. Mount Sanford is composed of andesite, is an ancient peak, being Pleistocene, although some of the upper parts of the mountain may be Holocene; the mountain first began developing 900,000 years ago, when it began growing on top of three smaller shield volcanoes that had coalesced. Although obscured by icefields, the uppermost 2,000 feet of the mountain appear to be a lava dome filling a larger summit crater. Two notable events in the mountain's history include a large rhyolite flow which traveled some 11 miles to the north east of the peak and has a volume of about 5 cubic miles, another flow which erupted from a rift zone on the flank of the volcano some 320,000 years ago.
The second flow marks the most recent activity of the volcano. The flow was dated using radiometric methods. Observers have reported minor activity at Sanford vapor clouds or plumes from ice and rockfalls; some reported incidents may have been orographic clouds, while others have been interpreted as avalanches. The majority of Mount Sanford above 8,000 feet is covered by icefields, merging to the south with that surrounding Mount Wrangell; the largest glacier on Sanford is the Sanford Glacier, whose source lies at the steep cirque that cuts into the south side of the mountain. The mountain was named in 1885 by Lieutenant Henry T. Allen of the U. S. Army, a descendant of Reuben Sanford. Mount Sanford was first climbed on July 21, 1938 by noted mountaineers Terris Moore and Bradford Washburn, via the still standard North Ramp route up the Sheep Glacier; this route "offers little technical difficulty" and "is a glacier hike all the way to the summit" but is still a serious mountaineering challenge due to the altitude and latitude of the peak.
The base of the route is accessed by air, but landing near the mountain is not straightforward. On March 12, 1948, Northwest Airlines Flight 4422 crashed into Mount Sanford. All 24 passengers and 6 crew members were killed; the wreckage was covered by snow and was not found again until 1999. The first solo ascent of Sanford was achieved on September 19, 1968, by Japanese mountaineer Naomi Uemura, who died just after making the first solo winter ascent of Denali. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of the United States List of mountain peaks of Alaska List of the highest major summits of the United States List of the most prominent summits of the United States List of the most isolated major summits of the United States List of volcanoes in the United States Richter, Donald H.. Guide to the Volcanoes of the Western Wrangell Mountains, Alaska. USGS Bulletin 2072. Richter, Donald H.. Geologic Map of the Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska. USGS Scientific Investigations Map 2877.
Winkler, Gary R.. A Geologic Guide to Wrangell—Saint Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska: A Tectonic Collage of Northbound Terranes. USGS Professional Paper 1616. ISBN 0-607-92676-7. Wood, Charles A.. Volcanoes of North America. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-43811-X. Mount Sanford at the Alaska Volcano Observatory"Sanford Trip Report". Mt. Sanford Expedition via the Sheep Glacier, 2014. Retrieved 2014-08-14
Marcus Baker was an American naturalist, explorer of Alaska and newspaper editor. Baker was born 23 Sept 1849 in Kalamazoo and graduated from the University of Michigan. After graduating, he worked as an instructor of mathematics at the University of Michigan from 1871 to 1873. On 25 May 1899 he married Marian Una Strong in Michigan. In 1872, he was hired by William Healey Dall to be a naturalist on an expedition to Alaska, where he collected topographic and hydrographical data, he would continue to go with Dall to Alaska every year until 1888, when he co-founded the National Geographic Society and one of the first editors of the National Geographic Magazine. He was one of the 15 original signers of the articles of incorporation for the National Geographic Society in 1888. Baker was well known for his work in cartography. Baker's home in DC was built in 1889 at 1905 16th Street NW, it is a 4,000 square foot five-bedroom townhouse with a lower-level apartment. The house's molding and woodwork has been restored to preserve the house however, a media room with surround sound and a home theater, a garage, outdoor decks were added.
He was on the board of the US Board of Geographic Names during the 1890s. On 12 Dec 1903, he suffered a heart attack and died in Washington DC. Mount Marcus Baker in the Chugach Range of southern Alaska is named after him. Works by or about Marcus Baker at Internet Archive Works by Marcus Baker at LibriVox
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List