1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Ralph Waldo Trine
Ralph Waldo Trine was an American philosopher and teacher. He wrote many books on the New Thought movement. Trine had several conversations with him about success in life. Born September 9, 1866, in Mount Morris, Trine was the son of Samuel G. Trine and Ellen E. Newcomer, he attended public school, after graduating from high school at the age of 16 he began work as a farmer and lumberjack. He worked as a bank teller for a time before going to college. Trine attended the University of Wisconsin in his early twenties and shows in the 1891 yearbook that covered 1889/90 and their alumni magazine of 1900. In his mid twenties he attended Knox College in Illinois and graduated receiving a Master of Arts degree in 1891, he attended Johns Hopkins University studying history, social science, political science where he concurrently worked as a journalist for the Boston Daily Evening Transcript. Trine earned a large cash prize for an essay he wrote in the late 1800s on how education lowered crime, he became involved in social problems related to animals and became director of the American Humane Society and the Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.
In 1892, Trine was both a student and teacher of rhetoric at Emerson College where he had an influence on E. W. Kenyon, who went on to become the father of the Word of Faith Movement. Trine moved to New York area where he built a cabin when he was 30 years old. Situated near a grove of pine trees, the property provided an ideal environment for his writing talents. At this time he plays. Living in the area for many years, while raising their only child, they became involved in metaphysical seminars that were held at Lake Oscawana, they moved to California and continued writing. He liked raising fruit trees as a hobby. Trine was influenced by writings of Emmet Fox, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry Drummond. Trine's book "What All the World's A-Seeking" amplified on ideas and concepts Drummond brought up in his book, "The Greatest Thing in the World and Other Addresses". Trine's primary work, "In Tune with the Infinite" was published in 1897, it has been translated into some twenty languages and millions of copies have been sold.
It was a favorite of Janet Gaynor. Henry Ford attributed his automobile business and financial success to ideas he picked up from Trine's book, he gave away copies of Trine's book to executive industrialists he knew. Ford considered Trine an old friend and had several intimate conversations with him about life and success, he attributed many aspects of his success in life directly to these talks with Trine. Trine was a philosopher and teacher besides being the author of many books related to the New Thought movement, he was introduced to the movement in the late nineteenth-century and was an advocate in the early twentieth-century of the related ideas. He was one of the first of its representatives to write books on it, his writings had an influence on other religious people including Ernest Holmes, a pioneer of Religious Science. Trine's books of the early twentieth-century on New Thought ideas have promoted and sold more than any other of this genre; the basic principles that Trine wrote about were published by other self-help authors like Napoleon Hill, David Schwartz and Brian Tracy.
Trine received an honorary Doctorate of Laws degree in 1938. He and his wife retired to a retirement community for religious professionals in 1955. Trine married Grace Steele Hyde in Mohawk, New York, in 1898, she wrote poetry and plays. They had one child, born 1906. Trine died in 1958 in Claremont, California, at the age of 92. American artist Kathryn Woodman Leighton painted a portrait of Trine in the early 1930s; this painting was given to Knox College by his widow in 1960. A 50th anniversary edition of In Tune With The Infinite – Fullness of Peace and Plenty was published in 1947. Bobbs-Merrill published a commemorative book The Best of Ralph Waldo Trine in 1957, he wrote more than a dozen books. Colledge, William A.. The New standard encyclopedia. University Society. Jones, David Wayne. Health, Wealth & Happiness: Has the Prosperity Gospel Overshadowed the Gospel of Christ?. Kregel Publications. ISBN 978-0-8254-8969-3. Leonard, John. Who's who in America. A. N. Marquis. Lyons, Louis S.. Who's who Among the Women of California.
Security publishing Company. Trine, Ralph Waldo. In Tune with the Infinite: An Inspirational Masterpiece that Transcends Time. Oaklea Press. ISBN 978-1-892538-06-2. Melton, J. Gordon. Religious leaders of America: a biographical guide to founders and leaders of religious bodies and spiritual groups in North America. Gale Research. ISBN 978-0-8103-8878-9. Melton, J. Gordon. Encyclopedia of American Religions. Gale. ISBN 978-0-7876-6384-1. Newsweek. Newsweek. Newsweek, Incorporated. Fifty years ago Ralph Waldo Trine, who derived his name from the Sage of Concord, wrote his most popular work; the book was translated into twenty languages, including Esperanto, more than a million and a quarter copies have been sold since 1897. Wilson, Bill; the Recovery Bible. Penguin Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-101-62054-0. Works by Ralph Waldo Trine at Project Gutenberg Ralph Waldo Trine's Online Library Collection, New Thought Library
Ogle County, Illinois
Ogle County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 United States Census, it had a population of 53,497, its county seat is Oregon, its largest city is Rochelle. Ogle County comprises Rochelle, IL Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Rockford-Freeport-Rochelle, IL Combined Statistical Area. Ogle County was formed in 1836 out of Jo Daviess and LaSalle counties, named in honor of Captain Joseph Ogle, a veteran of the Revolutionary War who settled in Illinois in 1785. Ogle County government was organized in 1837. In 1839, a portion of Ogle County was partitioned off to form Lee County. Ogle County was a New England settlement; the founders of Oregon and Rochelle arrived from New England. They were part of a wave of farmers who migrated into the Northwest Territory in the early 1800s, their trek eased by completion of the Erie Canal in 1825, they found virgin forest and wild prairie, laid out farms, constructed roads, erected government buildings and established post routes.
They brought a passion for strong abolitionism. They were members of the Episcopalian Church. Culturally Ogle County, like much of northern Illinois would maintain values similar to those of New England. According to the US Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 763 square miles, of which 759 square miles is land and 4.4 square miles is water. Winnebago County - north Boone County - northeast Stephenson County - northwest DeKalb County - east Carroll County - west Lee County - south Whiteside County - southwest In recent years, average temperatures in Oregon have ranged from a low of 10 °F in January to a high of 82 °F in July, although a record low of −27 °F was recorded in January 1999 and a record high of 110 °F was recorded in July 1936. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.43 inches in February to 4.88 inches in June. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 53,497 people, 20,856 households, 14,711 families residing in the county; the population density was 70.5 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 22,561 housing units at an average density of 29.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 93.2% white, 0.9% black or African American, 0.5% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 3.8% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 8.9% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 38.0% were German, 15.3% were Irish, 10.2% were English, 6.4% were American, 5.3% were Swedish, 5.3% were Norwegian. Of the 20,856 households, 33.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.1% were married couples living together, 9.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.5% were non-families, 24.5% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.01. The median age was 40.7 years. The median income for a household in the county was $55,733 and the median income for a family was $64,927. Males had a median income of $49,996 versus $32,082 for females; the per capita income for the county was $24,959.
About 6.6% of families and 8.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.4% of those under age 18 and 5.9% of those age 65 or over. By 2000, 65% of the county labor force was employed as white-collar workers with an increase of 20 points in comparison with 1990 statistics. Manufacturing remains the leading employment sector absorbing more than 21.7% of the labor force though there was a decrease from 30,4% in 1995. However it is expected that services would replace manufacturing starting 2015 as the leading activity. Agriculture remains important in Ogle county corn and soybeans. In 2003, the Illinois Department of Agriculture ranked Ogle County 17th in the State for crop cash receipts, 14th in the state for livestock cash receipts; as for livestock production and pigs are still leading though productions decreased from 57,000 units in 1998 to 48,900 in 2002. The county got some investment packages such as a $180 million truck-to-train cargo hub in 2006. In August 2006, it was announced that a new ethanol production facility would receive a package of $5.5 million Opportunity Returns grant from the State.
Along with its neighbor Lee County, Ogle County is one of the most Republican counties in the nation when it comes to presidential elections. In the last 150 years, a Republican candidate has carried the county in each presidential election. No Democratic candidate has won the county, which favored the Whig Party before the Republican Party was formed, it is represented by Republican Adam Kinzinger as a county in Illinois's 16th congressional district. The following public-use airports are located in the county: Ogle County Airport - Mount Morris, Illinois Rochelle Municipal Airport - Rochelle, Illinois Beach Cemetery Prairie Nature Preserve Douglas E. Wade Prairie Nature Preserve Jarrett Prairie Nature Preserve Nachusa Grasslands Byron Oregon Polo Rochelle Grand Detour Lost Nation List of settlements in Ogle County, Illinois List of townships in Ogle County, Illinois List of cemeteries in Ogle County, Illinois National Register of Historic Places listings in Ogle County, Illinois Kauffman, Horace G..
Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois and History of Ogle County. 2. Chicago: Munsell Publishing Co. Retrieved November 23, 2010; the History of Ogle County, Illinois. Chicago: H. F. Kett & Co. 1878. Retrieved November 23, 2010. Offic
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
White Pines State Park Lodge and Cabins
The White Pines State Park Lodge and Cabins are located in rural Ogle County, Illinois near the village of Mount Morris. They were added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1985; the Cabins are one of two Historic Places found in or near Mount Morris, the other is the Samuel M. Hitt House; the Lodge and Cabins are part of a National Register Multiple Property Submission, they were submitted with several other state park lodges, all designed by Joseph F. Booton. Separate entities from White Pines State Park, The Lodge and Cabins are managed as a "wilderness getaway," thus, they are owned and operated. With the Great Depression in full swing the Civilian Conservation Corps sought to relieve the work needs of unemployed Americans; the National Park Service sought to work with state governments in an effort to meet those ends. Many of the projects the CCC was involved with were construction projects; the project at White Pines was meant to be the construction of a lodge building. Two hundred men worked on the State Park construction project at one time, in the years 1933-1939, many of them World War I veterans.
After the lodge was completed, it was decided to build a restaurant and breezeway onto the lodge building. Logs for most of the project were shipped via railroad from as far away as Oregon and Washington state, unloaded in Stratford and dragged to the construction site by teams of horses; the CCC project completed sixteen one room log cabins and three four-bedroom cabins. The work crews built picnic shelters, trail shelters and foot bridges. Only the logs for the cabins came from another source, they were purchased from a salvage company that had purchased utility poles from a defunct utility company at the price of 30 cents a piece. As of 2007, the site was home to the sixteen one room cabins and the lodge building, renovated and revamped. Modern amenities were available and the site is operated as a private lodge; the area that encompasses the National Register of Historic Places listing for the Lodge and Cabins at White Pines Forest State Park covers 7 acres. The area is ringed by a perimeter road.
In addition, the area fifty yards beyond the road, into the woods, is included, to preserve the "woodland retreat" character of the site. The architecture of the lodge and cabins at White Pines was most influenced by the limitations on size instilled by the conservation effort underway at the southernmost stand of native white pines in the United States; when the site was under consideration for the lodge and cabins it had seen extensive recreational use by the surrounding population. That use threatened to unhinge the delicate balance that existed within White Pines fragile ecosystem; as such, the Illinois State Park Plan, implemented at the time of the lodge's construction called for additional state recreational areas in the northern Illinois area to alleviate the burden on White Pines. Because of the concern for conservation at the site, the White Pines State Park Lodge and Cabins is the smallest of the five sites on the Multiple Property Submission. Despite its relative small size compared to the Starved Rock Lodge or the Pere Marquette Lodge, the complex remains faithful to Booton's vision of "fanciful forest retreats."
The lodge was the first structure to be completed at the site. The lodge building at White Pines is a combination of two buildings connected by a covered breezeway; the north building contains the south building a dining room and kitchen. Both rectangular lodge buildings are of unhewn pine log construction and set on a limestone base. Gable roofs are supported by exposed interior log rafters. Both of the buildings have stone chimneys extending from the large stone fireplaces which form the interior focal point; the building comprehensively makes use of wooden logs in its construction, the only non-wood part of the lodge, for that matter, the cabins, are its stone fireplaces and chimneys. The cabins, constructed after initial construction at the lodge was completed, are laid out in a circular pattern north of the lodge; the whole cabin area is set in a stand of white pines. The northern three cabins are the larger of the sixteen structures, being family units with multiple rooms; the remaining thirteen cabins are single room buildings.
Like the lodge they are of unhewn log construction and feature stone chimneys extending from their roofs. Media related to White Pines State Park Lodge and Cabins at Wikimedia Commons