The Tantalus Range is a subrange of the Pacific Ranges of the Coast Mountains in southern British Columbia, Canada. The range is viewed from the "Sea to Sky Highway" that travels from Vancouver to Squamish and Whistler. To Squamish people, the local indigenous people of the area, the name of the Tantalus Range is Tsewílx'; the range's southern end is on the western edge of Squamish and it runs only about 35 km northwest on the west bank of the Squamish River and is less than 16 km wide at its widest. It is about 460000 ha in area. Mount Tantalus 2603 m is the highest in the range; the origin of the name, as well as the names of many of its peaks, are from Greek mythology. Tantalus was doomed in Hades to be half-submerged in cold water with fruit dangling close but not close enough to eat, where the word tantalize has its root; the name was conferred by a local mountain climber, "tantalized" by the sight of the range's impressive spires and icefalls from across the turbulent waters of the Squamish River.
Alternately, another version of the legend has Tantalus and his family frozen before a banquet, unable to move - descriptive of the ice-draped and somehow regal character of the peaks and icefields of the range.. The Tantalus Range is a favourite with climbers, with photographers and filmmakers; the best views of it can be had just north of Squamish from the Brohm Ridge and Cheakamus Canyon stretches of BC Highway 99. Neighbouring ranges: Garibaldi Ranges North Shore Mountains Clendinning Range Tantalus Provincial Park
Garibaldi Provincial Park
Garibaldi Provincial Park called Garibaldi Park, is a wilderness park located in British Columbia, about 70 kilometres north of Vancouver. The park is located to the east of the Sea to Sky Highway between Squamish and Whistler and covers an area of over 1,950 square kilometres. Garibaldi was designated as a provincial park in 1927, included what was split off in 1967 as Golden Ears Provincial Park, which juts southward between the basins of Pitt Lake and the Stave River into the Municipality of Maple Ridge; the park consists of many steep, rugged mountains, many of them capped by glaciers. It includes Mount Garibaldi and other volcanoes related to subduction volcanism in the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt; the park features many dense Douglas-fir, western red cedar and western-hemlock forests, as well as alpine meadows and many rocky alpine areas. The park reaches its highest peak at Wedge Mountain—2,891 metres; this park is home to mammalian species including black bear, mountain goat, deer and pika.
Bird species of golden eagle, bald eagle, ptarmagin inhabit the area. There are five park entrance points located along the Sea to Sky Highway; each entrance provides access to hiking trails with backcountry camping opportunities. All access points are open in winter for backcountry skiing, but only the Diamond Head access road is plowed. All camp sites are first-served; the Garibaldi Bus service provide frequent transportation between Vancouver and Garibaldi Provincial Park Diamond Head This southern most entrance provides hiking or skiing access to the area south of Mount Garibaldi. A cooking hut and winter-only camping area are located in Red Heather Meadows, about 5 kilometres from the parking lot. An overnight shelter and campground are located 12 kilometres from the parking lot at Elfin Lakes; the Black Tusk/Garibaldi Lake The second entrance is located halfway between Squamish and Whistler. Hiking trails provide access to Garibaldi Lake, The Black Tusk, Panorama Ridge. A trail connects to the Cheakamus Lake area further north.
Two camping areas provide sites for 90 tents. Cheakamus Lake This entrance, located just to the south of Whistler, provides access to Cheakamus Lake. Two campgrounds are located a few kilometers from the parking lot. Singing Pass The Singing Pass area is located to the east of Whistler Mountain; the area can be accessed by a trail which follows the Fitzsimmons Creek, between Whistler and Blackcomb mountains. The area can be accessed from the top of Whistler mountain via an alpine route. Camping is permitted at Russet Lake. Wedgemount Lake The most northern entrance is via a deactivated forest service road; the road is recommended for 4x4 vehicles only. Wedgemount Lake is accessed via a hiking trail. Camping is permitted around the lake; the Black Tusk Golden Ears Provincial Park BCParks - Garibaldi page - UN database entry - History of Park and Area - Virtual Museum of Canada - Garibaldi Park 2020 - History of Park and Mapping
The Bendor Range is a small but once-famous subrange of the Pacific Ranges of the Coast Mountains, about It is 7,000 square kilometres in area and about 40 km long and about 18 km at its widest. It lies between Anderson Lake on the southeast and the Carpenter Lake Reservoir or the Bridge River Power Project on the north, with the gold-rich valley of Cadwallader Creek on its southwest; the range's western flank is the site of a series of now-semi-abandoned mining towns. One of these, Bralorne, is among the deepest mines in Canada and in its heyday was the third-richest gold mine in the world, its shafts plunge a mile beneath sea level under the range. The name "Bendor" is believed by some locally to be a Gaelic-French hybrid - ben d'or - mountain of gold - and while it does mean that, more or less, the name was conferred in honour of Bend Or, a famous racehorse of the 1890s; the range has only a few small icefields, but a number of high and difficult peaks. The highest is Whitecap Mountain 2918 m, visible from the Lillooet end of Seton Lake but, as it is located near the heart of the range, invisible from the towns and lakes around its perimeter.
At the northwest of the range, but invisible from the towns below because of the terrain of its flanks, is Mount Truax 2870 m. East of it are Mount Williams 2775 m and Mount Bobb 2821 m. Note: some classification systems assign the Bendor to the Chilcotin Ranges subgrouping of the Pacific Ranges, but this is incorrect as it is on the south side of the Bridge River, the limit of the Chilcotin Ranges. "Bendor Range". BC Geographical Names. Bridge River-Lillooet Country Archive Bendor Range entry in the Canadian Mountain Encyclopedia
In mountaineering, a first ascent is the first successful, documented attainment of the top of a mountain, or the first to follow a particular climbing route. First mountain ascents are notable because they entail genuine exploration, with greater risks and recognition than climbing a route pioneered by others; the person who performs the first ascent is called the first ascensionist. In free climbing, a first ascent of a climbing route is the first successful, documented climb of a route without using equipment such as anchors or ropes for aiding progression or resting; the details of the first ascents of many prominent mountains are scanty or unknown. Today, first ascents are carefully recorded and mentioned in guidebooks. Overwhelmingly, the idea of a "first ascent" is a modern one in places such as Africa and the Americas with a history of colonialism. There may be little or no physical evidence or documentation about the climbing activities of indigenous peoples living near the mountain.
For example, the volcano Llullaillaco on the border of Argentina and Chile is known to have been climbed in the prehistoric period due to the presence of Incan artifacts at the summit, yet credit for the first recorded ascent is given to Chilean climbers Bión González and Juan Harseim, who summited in 1952. The term is used when referring to ascents made using a specific technique or taking a specific route, such as via the North Face, without ropes or without oxygen. In rock climbing, some of the earlier first ascents for difficult routes, involved a mix of free and aid climbing; as a result, purist free climbers have developed the designation first free ascent to acknowledge ascents intentionally made more challenging by using equipment for protection only. Second ascents are noteworthy in climbing circles involving improving on a pioneering route through lessons learned from it, experience which may span from technical improvements to having a better understanding of how much gear and provisions to take.
Some other "first ascents" could be recorded for particular routes. One is the First Winter Ascent, which is, as the name suggests, the first ascent made during winter season; this is most important where the climate of winter is a factor in increasing the difficulty grade of the route. In the Northern Hemisphere conventional winter ascents are made between December 21 and March 21 and are not related to the conditions. In the Himalayan area, although Nepal and China's winter season permits start on December 1, the conventional winter ascents begin on December 21. Another is the First Solo Ascent, the first ascent made by a single climber; this is most important on high-level rock climbing, when the climber has to provide his own security or when climbing without any protection at all. Another type of ascent known as FFA is the first female ascent. While not considered as important, this designation remains significant on some difficult, limit-pushing climbs, where the first female ascent may not happen until well after the FA, due to possible difficulties encountered by female physicality.
The term last ascent has been used to refer to an ascent of a mountain or face that has subsequently changed to such an extent – because of rockfall – that the route no longer exists. It can be used facetiously to refer to a climb, so unpleasant or unaesthetic that no one would willingly repeat the first ascent party's ordeal. List of first ascents Notable first free ascents List of first ascents in the Alps List of first ascents in the Himalaya Glossary of climbing terms Alpinist Magazine – Peter Mortimer's First Ascent, Issue 17
The Camelsfoot Range is a sub-range of the Chilcotin Ranges subdivision of the Pacific Ranges of the Coast Mountains in British Columbia. The Fraser River forms its eastern boundary; the range is 90 km at its maximum length and less than 30 km wide at its widest. The far southeast end of the Camelsfoot is rugged, dropping to one last point at 7000'-plus before plunging into the gorge of the Fraser Canyon at Fountain, near Lillooet. For 45 km NW from there, the range is rocky and forested with lodgepole pine, breaking into high benchlands and large creek basins draining through benchland country via small canyons. Beyond that the range's terrain is much more gentle, with high, meadowed ridges running east towards the Fraser Canyon between treed plateaus and small canyons, a few large, barren domes running further north along the Fraser; the range is bounded on the north and west by a large and impressive benchland-and-hoodoo sand canyon similar to those along the range's east flank - that of Churn Creek, a provincial protected area.
The historic Empire Valley Ranch is near the mouth of Churn Creek and is provincially protected for heritage and environmental reasons. It is on a high side-valley above the Fraser Canyon. Camelsfoot Peak and the range itself take their name from an odd episode in the story of the Fraser and Cariboo Gold Rushes. Frank Laumeister, a United States veteran of the Camel Corps, bought 23 camels from the US military, ending their use, he used the animals to carry freight on the Douglas Road and the Old Cariboo Road from Lillooet to Fort Alexandria, on the new Cariboo Wagon Road from Yale. After this, he discontinued using the camels. Horses could not stand their smell, the camels' soft feet were hurt by the rocky soils of the BC Interior and the canyon trails, handlers found them difficult. Many escaped retirement into the wilds; the last confirmed sighting was in the Ashcroft area in 1905 1910 by some claims. Barroom stories recount sightings elsewhere in the southern Interior into the 1930s, but these are taken with the same amount of stock as the Sasquatch or the Cariboo Alligator.
The original Log Cabin Theatre in Lillooet, still exists today was used by Laumeister for a camel barn. No one knows; the new highway bridge in Lillooet is named the Bridge of the Twenty-Three Camels to commemorate their role in local history. The name of the Yalakom River is a simplified version of the Chilcotin word for the ewe of the mountain sheep. Shulaps, the name of the range to the west of the Camelsfoot, is a simplified version of the Chilcotin for the ram. There have been copper prospects operating on Red Mountain 2445 m, the highest in the range, on Poison Mountain 2264 m, just south Red, is located where the spine of the Shulaps Range intersects with that of the Camelsfoot, at the apex of the Yalakom valley which runs SE towards Lillooet from this point. Poison Mountain's name comes from the toxic leaching of its orebodies into local streams while Red's comes from the colour of its cuprous earth. Red's flanks show ziggurat-like scars that are evidence of the scale of ore-sampling that at one time was underway.
There are projected open-pit mine and smelter plans for the Poison Mountain-Red Mountain orebody, using power from the projected Hat Creek lignite deposits nearby on the other side of the Fraser. These have never been brought forward in the public planning process, nor are they to be given the scope of First Nations land claims in the immediate region. Red has a twin summit, French Mountain 2231 m named French Bar Mountain after a rich gold-bearing bar on the Fraser just east. North of them is a remote, gentle summit known as Black Dome Mountain 2252 m. China Head 2125 m and Nine Mile Ridge 2422 m are southeast of Red and are large, wide ridges covered in meadow. China Head's name is thought by some to have to do with a conical-shaped hill atop the ridge visible from the Fraser, but the name may have to do with long-established Lillooet entrepreneur Cheng Won, who owned a hog ranch on Leon Creek, another valley south and "Wo Hing General Store" in Lillooet; the term "head" in 19th-century frontier usage was a synonym for mountain or ridge or headland, not meant as a reference to a head.
Due south of it is the isolated massif of Yalakom Mountain 2424 m, one of the highest in the range and remains a redoubt of mountain sheep and other big game, was part of a long-standing wildlife preserve. East of Yalakom Mountain is Hogback Mountain 2149 m, whose name is not descriptive but concerns Cheng Won's hog ranch on its shoulders from which the pigs would run wild onto the mountain. South of Hogback and Leon Creek the range becomes much more rugged as it narrows. Mount Birch 2232 m, just south of Leon Creek, is named after the Lieutenant-Governor who ran the Crown Colony of British Columbia for most of the alcoholic Frederick Seymour's term as Governor. Birch has a twin summit on its short, sharp ridge - Mount Duncan 2182 m and a southern foreshoulder overlooking the confluence of the Yalakom and Bridge Rivers is named Mount Bishop 1,721 m. From Bishop south to the Fraser the boundary of the range is the lower stretches of the Bridge River, after its confluence with the Yalakom. A rural farming and ranching community named Moha called Yalakom, is located around that confluence, the lower end of the Big Canyon of the Bridge River.
Southeast from Duncan there is S
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List