The Courier-Mail is a daily tabloid newspaper published in Brisbane, Australia. Owned by News Corp Australia, it is published daily from Monday to Saturday in tabloid format, its editorial offices are located at Bowen Hills, in Brisbane's inner northern suburbs, it is printed at Murarrie, in Brisbane's eastern suburbs. It is available for purchase throughout Queensland, most regions of Northern New South Wales and parts of the Northern Territory; the history of The Courier-Mail is through four mastheads. The Moreton Bay Courier became The Courier the Brisbane Courier and since 1933 The Courier-Mail; the Moreton Bay Courier was established as a weekly paper in June 1846. Issue frequency increased to bi-weekly in January 1858, tri-weekly in December 1859 daily under the editorship of Theophilus Parsons Pugh from 14 May 1861; the recognised founder and first editor was Arthur Sidney Lyon, assisted by its printer, James Swan, the mayor of Brisbane and member of Queensland Legislative Council. Lyon referred to as the "father of the Press" in the colony of Queensland, had served as a writer and journalist in Melbourne, moved on to found and edit journals such as Moreton Bay Free Press, North Australian and Darling Downs Gazette.
Lyon was encouraged to emigrate by Rev. Dr. John Dunmore Lang and arrived in Brisbane from Sydney in early 1846 to establish a newspaper, he persuaded a printer of Lang's Sydney newspaper The Colonialist to join him. Lyon and Swan established themselves on the corner of Queen Street and Albert Street, Brisbane, in a garret of a building known as the North Star Hotel; the first issue of the Moreton Bay Courier, consisting of 4 pages, appeared weekly on Saturday 20 June 1846, with Lyon as editor and Swan as publisher. After some 18 months and Swan disagreed on many aspects of editorial policy, including transportation of convicts and squatting. Lyon took over sole control in late 1847, but had money problems, gave sole control to Swan. Swan sold out to Thomas Blacket Stephens in about November 1859; the Moreton Bay Courier became The Courier, the Brisbane Courier in 1864. In June–July 1868, Stephens floated a new company, transferred the plant and copyright of the Brisbane Courier to "The Brisbane Newspaper Company".
He was the managing director. The Journal was, from November 1873 to December 1880, managed by one of the new part owners, the Tasmanian-born former public servant Gresley Lukin. Although called'managing editor', actual writing and editing was by William Augustine O'Carroll. Most prominent of the various editors and sub-editors of the Queenslander'literary staff' were William Henry Traill NSW politician and editor of the famed Sydney journal'The Bulletin', Carl Adolph Feilberg, Danish born but from the age of six educated in England and in France. Carl Feilberg followed William Henry Trail in the role of political commentator and the de facto editor of the Queenslander to January 1881, he succeeded William O'Carroll as Courier editor-in-chief from September 1883 to his death in October 1887. Lukin's roles as part owner-editor changed on 21 December 1880. Charles Hardie Buzacott, former'Postmaster General' in the first McIlwraith government, had been a staff journalist. John James Knight was editor-in-chief of the Brisbane Courier 1906–16 managing director chairman of all the company's publications.
The first edition of The Courier-Mail was published on 28 August 1933, after Keith Murdoch's Herald and Weekly Times acquired and merged the Brisbane Courier and the Daily Mail. In 1987, Rupert Murdoch's News Limited acquired newspaper control, outstanding shares of Queensland Newspapers Pty Ltd; the Courier-Mail was inducted into the Queensland Business Leaders Hall of Fame in 2015. The Courier-Mail is a right leaning newspaper with four editorial endorsements for the coalition to one for Labor in the period 1996–2007; the Courier-Mail supports free market economic policies and the process of globalisation. It supported the 2003 invasion of Iraq; the Courier-Mail has the fourth-highest circulation of any daily newspaper in Australia. Its average Monday-Friday net paid print sales were 172,801 between January and March 2013, having fallen 8.0 per cent compared to the previous year. Its average Saturday net paid print sales were 228,650 between January and March 2013, down 10.5 per cent compared to the previous year.
The paper's Monday-Friday readership was 488,000 in March 2013, having fallen 11.6 per cent compared to the previous year. Its Saturday readership was 616,000 in March 2013, down 13.8 per cent compared to the previous year. Around three-quarters of the paper's readership is located in the Brisbane metropolitan area. Although claimed to be Brisbane's only daily newspaper since the demise of Queensland Newspapers' own afternoon newspaper The Telegraph in 1988, it arguably has had two competitors since 2007. News Corp itself published mX, a free afternoon newspaper, since 2007, but mX had a low news content, was discontinued in mid 2015. Fairfax Media has published the online Brisbane Times since 2007. According to third-party web analytics providers Alexa and SimilarWeb, Courier-Mail's website is the 141st and 273rd most visited in Australia as of August 2015. SimilarWeb rates the site as the 25th most visited news website in Australia, attracting 2.6 million visitors per month. Prominent journalists and columnists include Mike O'Connor.
Its current Editor is Lachlan Heywood. Its editorial cartoonist is Sean Leahy, its National Political Corresp
Geoscience Australia is an agency of the Australian Government. It carries out geoscientific research; the agency is the government's technical adviser on all aspects of geoscience, custodian of the geographic and geological data and knowledge of the nation. On a user pays basis it produces geospatial products such as satellite imagery, it is a major contributor to the Australian Government's free, open data collections such as data.gov.au. The agency has six strategic priority areas: building Australia's resource wealth in order to maximise benefits from Australia's minerals and energy resources and into the future. Geoscience Australia came into being in 2001 when the Australian Surveying and Land Information Group merged with the Australian Geological Survey Organisation, its history dates back to Federation in 1901 when it was decided to set aside land for the national capital. This decision led to the establishment of the Australian Survey Office in 1910, when surveying began for the Australian Capital Territory.
AUSLIG's main function was to provide national geographic information. It was formed in 1987, when the Australian Survey Office joined with the Division of National Mapping, formed in 1947. Another important component of AUSLIG was the provision of satellite imagery to industry and government, started by the Australian Landsat Station in 1979, renamed the Australian Centre for Remote Sensing in 1986. AGSO's predecessor organisation the Bureau of Mineral Resources and Geophysics was established in 1946; the BMR was a geological survey with the main objective was the systematic geological and geophysical mapping of the continent as the basis for informed mineral exploration. Geoscience Australia's activities have expanded and today it has responsibility for meeting the Australian Government's geoscience requirements; this role takes the Agency well beyond its historic focus on resource development and topographic mapping to topics as diverse as natural hazards such as tsunami and earthquakes, environmental issues, including the impacts of climate change, groundwater research and coastal research, carbon capture and storage and vegetation monitoring as well as Earth observations from space.
Geoscience Australia's remit extends beyond the Australian landmass to Australia's vast marine jurisdiction. It has a free place name search and its earthquake monitoring services can be accessed; the Library is the premier geoscience library in Australia providing services to geoscience organisations, research centres, the mining and petroleum industries and the public. Geological Survey of South Australia Geological Survey of Western Australia List of national mapping agencies Geoscience Australia home page. Geoscience Australia in Google Cultural Institute As the cocky flies distance calculator International Map of the World XNATMAP's home page preserving NATMAP's history and maintaining contact with the people who were part of that history
The Peaks of Lyell
The Peaks of Lyell is a book by Geoffrey Blainey, based on his University of Melbourne MA thesis published in 1954. It contains the history of the Mount Lyell Mining and Railway Company, through association and further the West Coast Tasmania, it is unique for this type of book in that it has gone to the sixth edition in 2000, few company histories in Australia have achieved such continual publishing. Blainey was fortunate in being able to speak to older people about the history of the West Coast, some who had known Queenstown in its earliest years; the book gives an interesting overview from the materials and people Blainey was able to access in the early 1950s, the omissions. Due to the nature of a company history, a number of items of Queenstown history did have alternative interpretations on events such as the 1912 North Mount Lyell Disaster, there were residents of Queenstown living in the town as late as the 1970s who had stories that differed from the official company history. Significant characters from the West Coast Tasmania history such as Robert Carl Sticht and James Crotty amongst a longer list still deserve further work on their significance in West Coast and Tasmanian history, but the book has had significant'presence' in being in print for so long.
Scholarship on some of the neglected aspects of West Coast and Queenstown history only emerged from the shadow of Blaineys work in the 2000s. In 1994, when the fifth edition was printed, the Mount Lyell company closed down, most of the records held by the company were donated to the State Library of Tasmania. By the 2000s a sixth edition was published. Blainey, Geoffrey; the Peaks of Lyell, Melbourne University Press, Vic. 1954, 310pp. History of Mt. Lyell, University of Melbourne, 1955, 328 leaves; the first half of this history was presented as Geoffrey Blainey's Master of Arts thesis. 2nd ed. Melbourne University Press, Vic. 1959, 310pp. 3rd ed. Melbourne University Press, Vic.. 4th ed. Melbourne University Press, Vic. 1978, 341pp. 5th ed. St. David's Park Publishing, Tas. 1993, 370pp. Blainey, Geoffrey; the Peaks of Lyell. Hobart: St. David's Park Publishing. ISBN 0-7246-2265-9; the Companion to Tasmanian History
The Lyell Highway is a highway in Tasmania, running from Hobart to Queenstown. It is the one of two transport routes that passes through the West Coast Range, the other being the Anthony Road; the name is derived from Mount Lyell, the mountain peak where copper was found in the late 19th century. Starting at Granton it winds along the southern side of the Derwent River in a north westerly direction to New Norfolk; this section has in the past been susceptible to flooding At New Norfolk it crosses the Derwent River and winds its way through hilly terrain to Hamilton. Just prior to Hamilton is the turnoff to Bothwell via a sealed route that passes Arthurs Lake and goes on to Launceston. After Hamilton, the small town of Ouse is the only other population centre on the highway until the former Hydroelectricity town of Wayatinah; when the highway was first constructed, it made use of existing tracks and roads in the Victoria Valley area, directly north of Ouse, leaving the Ouse and Derwent River valleys and climbing the hilly country through the towns of Osterley, Victoria Valley and Dee before rejoining the present highway near Brontë.
This route skirts Dee Lagoon, runs close to several other lakes Lake Echo. The now-bypassed road is narrow, unsealed; when the hydro-electric system was expanding and their works were under construction at Tarraleah, the highway was re-aligned to follow the Derwent River until it passed Tarraleah to provide better access to the area for construction vehicles. The Ouse-Tarraleah section was opened to traffic in August 1940 though construction work hadn't finished. After Tarraleah the road climbs steeply out of the Nive River gorge until it re-joins the original route near Brontë. At Brontë the Marlborough Highway turns off the main road and leads to the Great Lake, where it joins the Lakes Highway and runs to Deloraine. A common short-cut is the'14-Mile Road', a gravel road which cuts across the Nive Plains just after Tarraleah, by-passing the steep Tarraleah Gorge section, re-joining the highway several kilometres past Brontë, it is not a safe alternative as it is a narrow, unsealed road, can be frequented by log-trucks.
In wintry conditions the whole of the Central Highlands section is susceptible to black ice, it can be exceptionally bad in the forested section west of Ouse, but it can be encountered all the way to the west coast. Snow is encountered in the Derwent Bridge area during most winters and may force closure of the road for several days; this applies to both the older Osterley-Lake Echo-Dee section. As the highway enters Derwent Bridge it strikes a midpoint between Lake St Clair to the north, Lake King William to the south; this section is known as that west of Derwent Bridge or Mount King William. It runs through the Franklin-Gordon Wild Rivers National Park, through the West Coast Range before reaching Queenstown. There has been a state reserve along the highway The highway did not reach Queenstown until November 1932. and was not properly surfaced for some time after that, blocked. During construction in the late 1920s and early 1930s it was called the West Coast Road. Due to its altitude, the section of the highway over the plateau between Derwent Bridge and Mount King William is closed during winter due to ice and snow.
It can be affected by rockfalls With the damming of the King River and the creation of Lake Burbury, the highway was re-routed to a narrow point where the Bradshaw bridge could be constructed across the lake. Highways in Australia List of highways in Tasmania Blainey, Geoffrey; the Peaks of Lyell. Hobart: St. David's Park Publishing. ISBN 0-7246-2265-9. Whitham, Charles. Western Tasmania: A Land of Riches and Beauty. Https://web.archive.org/web/20060821115426/http://www.parks.tas.gov.au/wha/wherein/detail.html Map of World Heritage Area
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
West Coast Range
The West Coast Range is a mountain range located in the West Coast region of Tasmania, Australia. The range lies to the west and north of the main parts of the Franklin-Gordon Wild Rivers National Park; the range has had a significant number of mines utilising the geologically rich zone of Mount Read Volcanics. A number of adjacent ranges lie to the east: the Engineer Range, the Raglan Range, the Eldon Range, the Sticht Range but in most cases these are on a west–east alignment, while the West Coast Range runs in a north–south direction, following the Mount Read volcanic arc; the range has encompassed multiple land uses including the catchment area for Hydro Tasmania dams, transport routes and historical sites. Of the communities that have existed in the range itself, Gormanston, is the last to remain; these are determined by a number of factors - the southerly direction of glaciation in the King River Valley and around the Tyndalls. The following mountains are contained within the West Coast Range, including sub-ranges without a named peak and including subsidiary peaks.
Darwin Crater - a probable meteorite impact crater associated with Darwin glass Gooseneck Hill Henty Glacial Moraine Marble Bluff - adjacent to the confluence of the Eldon and South Eldon rivers and the northern edge of Lake Burbury Teepookana Plateau Thureau Hills - adjacent to the eastern slopes of Mount Owen and Mount Huxley Walford Peak - adjacent to Lake Dora Anthony River on the northern part of the range Bird River at the southern end of the range Eldon River on the eastern side of the range Governor River on the eastern side of the range Henty River on the western side of the range King River starting in the Eldon Range and passing between Mount Huxley and Mount Jukes, dammed by The Hydro Mackintosh River Murchison River Pieman River Queen River runs through Queenstown to join with the King River to the west of Mount Huxley Sophia River South Eldon River Tofft River runs between the Thureau hills and Mount Owen and Mount Huxley Yolande River between Lake Margaret and the Henty River Basin Lake - on the western side of the range Lake Adam - a tributary lake for Lake Margaret Lake Barnabas Lake Beatrice - on the eastern edge of Mount Sedgwick Lake Burbury - created by the damming of the King River by The Hydro Lake Dora Lake Dorothy Lake Huntley - on the eastern side of Mount Tyndall Lake Julia - in the area of the range known as'The Tyndalls' Lake Mackintosh - created by damming the Mackintosh River Lake Magdala - a tributary lake for Lake Margaret Lake Martha - tributary lake for Lake Margaret Lake Mary, Tasmania - a tributary lake for Lake Margaret Lake Margaret on the northern side of Mount Sedgwick Lake Monica - tributary lake for Lake Margaret Lake Murchison - created by the damming of the Murchison River Lake Myra - tributary lake for Lake Margaret Lake Paul - tributary lake for Lake Margaret Lake Peter - tributary lake for Lake Margaret Lake Philip - a tributary lake for Lake Margaret Lake Plimsoll Lake Polycarp - a tributary lake for Lake Margaret Lake Rolleston - between the Tyndall Range and the Sticht Range Lake Selina - just west of Lake Plimsoll Lake Spicer - just west of Eldon Peak Lake Tyndall - south of Mount Tyndall Lake Westwood - next to Mount Julia Mount Farrell Regional Reserve Mount Murchison Regional Reserve Tyndall Regional Reserve Lake Beatrice Conservation Area Princess River Conservation Area Crotty Conservation Area West Coast Range Regional Reserve The slopes of Mount Owen, Mount Lyell and Mount Sedgwick are covered in stumps of forest trees killed by fires and smelter fumes from the earlier part of the twentieth century.
The devastation of forests close to the mining operations at Queenstown was substantial as early as the 1890s and continued late into the twentieth century. Some Huon Pine on the slopes of Mount Read have been found. Due to fire, mining and a range of human activities the vegetation zones along the West Coast range can be considered to be modified, few pockets of vegetation could be considered unchanged since European presence; the eastern side of the range is on the western boundary of the Franklin-Gordon Wild Rivers National Park, at these points the forests are in better condition. Forestry conservation zones exist along its length in accordance with the Regional Forestry Agreement. In the average winter the "1,000 metre snowline" sees most of the mountains with snow. In previous decades, Lake Margaret was the main long-term weather-reporting location, however the Mount Read automatic weather station now maintains extremes reported on the Bureau of Meteorology website for extreme conditions.
The rainfall records of Lake Margaret were on a par with Tully in Queensland for the highest rainfall in Australia. Approximations for the West Coast Range are made at 2800–3000 mm precipitation per year; the prevailing weather is due to the location of the West Coast. It has no landmass shielding it from the Southern Ocean or Antarctic weather, being in the Roaring Forties cold fronts and extreme weather are regular occurrences on the West Coast; the Cape Sorell Waverider Buoy, initiated by the BOM in 1998 has given good indications of the behaviour of ocean swells to correlate with weather conditions. Earlier weather records were kept for Zeehan. Due to change in population distribution and resources in the west coast, the main weather data is from Strahan Airport and Mount Read; the following BOM recorded locations are relevant to West Coast Range: Early European exploration of the range was made by explorers, by convicts escaping from Macquarie Harb
The topographic isolation of a summit is the minimum great-circle distance to a point of equal elevation, representing a radius of dominance in which the peak is the highest point. It can be calculated for small hills and islands as well as for major mountain peaks, can be calculated for submarine summits; the following sortable table lists the Earth's 40 most topographically isolated summits. The nearest peak to Germany's highest mountain, the 2,962-metre-high Zugspitze, that has a 2962-metre-contour is the Zwölferkogel in Austria's Stubai Alps; the distance between the Zugspitze and this contour is 25.8 km. Its isolation is thus 25.8 km. Because there are no higher mountains than Mount Everest, it has no definitive isolation. Many sources list its isolation as the circumference of the earth over the poles or – questionably, because there is no agreed definition – as half the earth's circumference. After Mount Everest, the highest mountain of the American continents, has the greatest isolation of all mountains.
There is no higher land for 16,534 kilometres when its height is first exceeded by Tirich Mir in the Hindu Kush. Mont Blanc is the highest mountain of the Alps; the geographically nearest higher mountains are all in the Caucasus. Kukurtlu, which rises near Mount Elbrus, is the reference peak for Mont Blanc. Musala is the highest peak in Rila mountain, in Bulgaria and the Balkan Peninsula, standing at 2,925 m it is the 4th most topographically isolated peak in Continental Europe.. Rila is the 6th highest mountain in Europe. With a topographic prominence of 2473 m, Musala is the 6th highest peak by topographic prominence in mainland Europe. Table of the most isolated major summits of North America Table of the most isolated major summits of the United States Most isolated mountain peaks of Canada Most isolated mountain peaks of Mexico geodesy physical geography summit topographic elevation topographic prominence topography bivouac.com Canadian Mountain Encyclopedia peakbagger.com peaklist.org peakware.com World Mountain Encyclopedia summitpost.org^ ^ "Europe Ultra-Prominences".
Peaklist. Retrieved 26 February 2015