Census in Australia
The census in Australia, or the Census of Population and Housing, collects key characteristic data on every person in Australia, the place they are staying in, on a particular night. The census is the largest statistical collection compiled by the Australian Bureau of Statistics and is held every five years. Participation in the census is compulsory; the Australian Bureau of Statistics is legislated to collect and disseminate census data under the Australian Bureau of Statistics Act 1975, the Census and Statistics Act 1905. The first Australian census was held in 1911, on the night of 2 April and subsequent censuses were held in 1921, 1933, 1947, 1954 and 1961. In 1961 the five-year period was introduced. Censuses are held on the second Tuesday of August; the most recent was held on 9 August 2016 at a cost of $440 million. The census counts all people who are located within Australia and its external and internal territories, with the exception of foreign diplomats and their families, on census night.
For the first time, in 2016 Norfolk Island was included in the Australian census rather than being conducted by the Norfolk Island Government. The census examines data such as age, incomes, dwelling types and occupancy, transportation modes, languages spoken, religion; the census is collected and published against geographic areas defined by the Australian Standard Geographical Classification. The ASGC provides a set of geographic classifications for the dissemination of all ABS statistics. In 2007 the ABS published; the primary aim of mesh blocks is to provide a building block for constructing alternative and more relevant geographies. Only data on total persons and total dwellings is released at the mesh block level. Mesh blocks will form the basis of a new statistical geography, the Australian Statistical Geography Standard; the traditional concept of a Collection District is that it was the area that one census collector can cover in about a ten-day period. In the 2001 census, collectors may be allocated more than one urban collection district because of their size.
In urban areas collection districts average about 220 dwellings. In rural areas the number of dwellings per collection district reduces as population densities decrease. For the 2016 census there were 358,122'mesh blocks' and 57,523 spatial Statistical Area Level 1 regions defined throughout Australia; the Census and Statistics Act 1905 and Privacy Act 1988 guarantee that no personally-identifiable information is released from the ABS to other government organisations, or the public. However the ABS makes confidential census data available to researchers, who must make various legal commitments before being given access. In the 1970s there was public debate about the census. In 1979 the Law Reform Commission reported on the Census. One of the key elements under question was the inclusion of names, it was found. On 18 December 2015, the ABS announced that it will retain name and address data collected in the 2016 census for up to four years; this was an increase from 18 months in the 2011 censuses.
From 1971 to 1996 the ABS had a policy of destruction of the original census forms and their electronic representations, as well as field records. Prior to that it appears there was no explicit policy of destruction, but most material had been destroyed because of lack of storage facilities; however the 2001 census offered, for the first time, an option to have personal data archived by the National Archives of Australia and released to the public 99 years and in 2001 54% of Australians agreed to do so. Indigenous Australians in contact with the colonists were enumerated at many of the colonial censuses; when the Federation of Australia occurred in 1901, the new Constitution contained a provision, which said: "In reckoning the numbers of the people of the Commonwealth, or of a State or other part of the Commonwealth, aboriginal natives shall not be counted." In 1967, a referendum was held which approved two amendments to the Australian constitution relating to indigenous Australians. The second of the two amendments deleted Section 127 from the Constitution.
It was believed at the time of the referendum, is still said, that Section 127 meant that aboriginal people were not counted in Commonwealth censuses before 1967. In fact section 127 related to calculating the population of the states and territories for the purpose of allocating seats in Parliament and per capita Commonwealth grants, its purpose was to prevent Queensland and Western Australia using their large aboriginal populations to gain extra seats or extra funds. Thus the Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics interpreted Section 127 as meaning that they may enumerate "aboriginal natives" but that they must be excluded from published tabulations of population. Aboriginal people living in settled areas were counted to a greater or lesser extent in all censuses before 1967; the first Commonwealth Statistician, George Handley Knibbs, obtained a legal opinion that "persons of the half blood" or less are not "aboriginal natives" for the purposes of the Constitution. At the first Australian census in 1911 only those "aboriginal natives" living near white settlements were enumerated, the main population tables included only those of half or less aboriginal descent.
Details of "half-caste" (but not "ful
Mount Perry railway line
The Mount Perry Branch Railway is a closed railway line in Central Queensland, Australia. In 1869 copper was discovered at Mount Perry and the township grew rapidly. A railway to the coast was essential to provide cheap transport and make the mining of low percentage ore viable. Maryborough and Bundaberg vied for the opportunity to be the terminus and the latter city was successful. A survey dated 20 March 1875 proposed a line from North Bundaberg, thus avoiding an expensive bridge over the Burnett River, west to Gin Gin and via the old road and telegraph route to Moolboolaman but still some distance short of Mount Perry. There were delays in gaining official approval for the line to the extent that, when Queensland Parliament approved construction, mining at Mount Perry was curtailed; the first 65 kilometre section from North Bundaberg railway station to Moolboolaman opened on 19 July 1881. The stops were at Oakwood, Manoo, Birthamba, Goondoon, Bullyard, Maroondan, Uping, McIlwraith, Gin Gin, Watawa, Tirroan and Daylsford.
Construction of the first stage predated the completion of the North Coast line from Maryborough to Bundaberg by some seven years and it was only that Bundaberg station was renamed North Bundaberg. There followed extensions to Gillen’s Siding opened on 15 August 1882 via Goyan and Ellimatta to Boolboonda opened on 12 November 1883, lastly via Wonbah and Drummer’s Creek to Mount Perry opened on 20 May 1884. A feature of the last stage of the line was construction of the Boolboonda Tunnel. Excavated a distance of 192 metres through solid rock, the tunnel is the longest unsupported tunnel in the southern hemisphere. Completion of the final stage meant that a service leaving Mount Perry at 7.30am took 4 ½ hours to reach Bundaberg before departing at 3.00 pm for the return journey. Information about locomotives is sketchy; the locomotive pictured on the right was used from 1881 to 1890. The description of the photo reads: "Steam locomotive with a group of men gathered around it, ca. 1880 This locomotive has a plate on the side of the cabin with the words'Railway Works Ipswich Queensland 1877' inscribed.
The locomotive was built at Ipswich Railway Workshops in 1877. It was known as an A10 class steam locomotive, it ran on the southern and western railway, as Locomotive 36, until 1881 when it operated on the Bundaberg Railway. In 1890 it was sold to contractors building part of the Bundaberg - Gladstone railway and in 1892 sold again to Young Brothers of Fairymead Mill, Bundaberg, it was used on trains at Avonside at the mill at North Bundaberg. Its boiler exploded at Avondale in the early 1890s. In 1935 it was replaced by a locomotive purchased from Mount Lyall in Tasmania but its remains were not disposed of until 1951." Two trains a week operated after the Moolboolaman opening but a rapid rise in timber transport necessitated three trains a week in 1883 and daily services in 1884. Sugar cane traffic increased when a mill was opened at Bingera in 1885. Although mining activities dwindled, timber transport took over to some degree until copper mining again became viable in the early 1900s; until the line ran at a loss but high copper prices saw large scale mining return to Mount Perry and provide the railway and town with a new lease of life.
A fatal accident resulted after a derailment near Gillen’s Siding early on Sunday 17 February 1924. The train was on an holiday excursion from Mount Perry to Bargara. Two people died in the incident, deemed to have been caused by excessive speed and negligence by the driver and guard. Transportation of timber and dairy products continued until it became uneconomical for the service to continue; the line closed in stages – from Mount Perry to Tirroan on 31 October 1960, from Tirroan to Gin Gin in 1988, Gin Gin station on 17 January 1992 and the line to North Bundaberg on 16 January 1993. The Mount Perry railway line has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Boolboonda Tunnel North Bundaberg railway station. About 1994, North Bundaberg station building was relocated some 500 metres west to the opposite side of the track and is now part of the Bundaberg Railway Museum. Splitters Creek Railway Bridge. Although avoiding a bridge over the Burnett River, the route could not avoid a crossing of Splitters Creek, a Burnett tributary located a short distance to the west.
This imposing heritage listed structure towers high over the creek and features steel rods which link the trestles to provide extra strength. Industrial railways transported goods, such as sugar cane, from the production area to the main line; some of the industrial locomotives have been preserved at Bundaberg. Construction of Queensland railways "Perry's Past - A Centenary History of Perry Shire" by Mervyn Royle 1980 "Triumph of Narrow Gauge: A History of Queensland Railways" by John Kerr 1990 Boolarong Press, Brisbane Information sheet on Class A10 locomotive 1925 map of the Queensland railway system
George William Martens was an Australian politician. He was an Australian Labor Party member of the Australian House of Representatives from 1928 to 1946, representing the electorate of Herbert. Born in Mount Perry, Queensland, he received a primary education before becoming a bushworker. Martens gained work at the Pleystowe Sugar Mill, west of Mackay in northern Queensland, where two of his co-workers were future Prime Minister Arthur Fadden and Queensland state politician Maurice Hynes. Martens was active in the trade union movement, notably the Sugar Workers Union, was an organiser with the Australian Workers' Union, of which he became Queensland secretary. In 1928, he was elected to the Australian House of Representatives as the Labor member for Herbert, defeating the sitting Nationalist Lewis Nott, he held the seat until 1946. After retiring from politics, Martens become director of Commonwealth Oil Refineries. Martens died on 23 August 1949 in New South Wales, his death bed request was that there would be no newspaper nor radio announcements of his death and that he should be cremated and privately.
Arklay, T. M. Arthur Fadden: A Political Silhouette, Australian Scholarly Publishing: North Melbourne. ISBN 978 1 925003 84 0. Media related to George Martens at Wikimedia Commons "GEO. MARTENS DIES IN SYDNEY"; the Worker. 60. Brisbane. 29 August 1949. P. 2. Retrieved 21 December 2016 – via National Library of Australia. — obituary
Division of Flynn
The Division of Flynn is an Australian Electoral Division in Queensland. The division was created following a redistribution of seats in the state, it was first contested at the 2007 federal election. The electorate extends west from the port city of Gladstone, as far as the Central Highlands town of Emerald, it was named after founder of the Royal Flying Doctor Service. In June 2006, the Australian Electoral Commission announced that the new federal electorate in Queensland to be created for the 2007 election would be named Wright in honour of Judith Wright for her life as a "poet and in the areas of arts and indigenous affairs in Queensland and Australia". However, in September 2006 the AEC announced that, due to numerous objections from people fearing the name may be linked to disgraced former Queensland ALP leader Keith Wright, it would name the seat after John Flynn; the city of Gladstone, home to 40% of Flynn's voters, has long been a Labor stronghold. However, the rural areas vote in large numbers for the Liberal National Party.
Division of Flynn — Australian Electoral Commission
Queensland Country Women's Association
The Queensland Country Women's Association is the Queensland chapter of the Country Women's Association in Australia. The association seeks to serve the interests of women and children in rural areas in Australia through a network of local branches. Established in 1922, local branches provide friendship and mutual support to their members while contributing to the betterment of life in their local communities. Over time, many branches have evolved to include support for wider issues such as domestic violence campaigns and fund-raising for international initiatives such as orphanages. On 8-11 August 1922, the Brisbane Women's Club held an open conference for countrywomen in Brisbane's Albert Hall during the Exhibition; the conference was opened by Lady Forster, wife of Australian Governor-General and the Queensland Governor Matthew Nathan attended. On 11 August 1922, the outcome of the conference was to establish the Queensland Country Women's Association. Ruth Beatrice Fairfax was elected the first President.
The first meeting of the Toowoomba branch was held at the Toowoomba Town Hall on 12 September 1922. Ruth Fairfax spoke about the objectives of the organisation; the meeting resolved to hold a conference as soon as there were sufficient representatives to attend. The objectives of the association were broad but included some specific items:1. To improve welfare and conditions of women and children in the country2. To draw together all women and children in Country Districts.3. To bring opportunities for recreation and enjoyment within reach of all Members.4. To encourage the active study of Local and State affairs and to promote a wise and kindly spirit.5. To improve educational facilities in the Country.6. To secure better provision for the safeguarding of Public Health of children, the securing of more adequate Medical and Hospital facilities for Country Districts."There was a call for a design for a badge and the winner was Mrs Mabel Chandler of Burra Burri who proposed the letters CWA within a large letter "Q".
It was decided that the royal blue should be adopted as the colours for the organisation. Many QCWA buildings are painted white to approximate the chosen colours; the Queensland chapter was inducted into the Queensland Business Leaders Hall of Fame in 2013. In 2017 the QWCA created its own perfume,' 1922', it was developed by Damask Perfumery in Brisbane. The artwork and branding of the bottle was supplied by Brisbane watercolour artist Michelle Grayson; as at December 2018, the QWCA has over 240 branches throughout Queensland. The following list includes all branches active in December 2018, some of the former branches. On 9 June 2003 in the Queen's Birthday Honours List, Mrs Jean Eva Anderson of Ballater Station at Stamford was awarded the Medal of the Order of Australia for her "service to the community of Hughenden through the Country Womens Association", she had given 52 years of service to the Hughenden branch. Her award was presented to her by the Governor of Queensland, Quentin Bryce. Pagliano, Muriel.
Country women: history of the first seventy five years: the Queensland Country Women's Association. Merino Lithographics.—full text available online. The Queensland Country Women's Association, fifty years 1922-1972. Queensland Country Women's Association. 1972. Media related to Queensland Country Women's Association at Wikimedia Commons
Florence Maud Broadhurst was an Australian wallpaper and fabrics designer as well as businesswoman, whose murder remains a mystery. Broadhurst was born in Queensland, at Mungy Station, she became a singer, winning local eisteddfods, joined a group known as the Smart Set Diggers who performed in Toowoomba. In 1922 she joined a comedy sextet known as the "Globe Trotters" and the "Broadcasters", who toured South East Asia and China. In 1926 she established the Broadhurst Academy in Shanghai, offering tuition in violin, voice production, banjolele playing, modern ballroom dancing, classical dancing, musical culture and journalism. After her return to Queensland in 1927, she sustained head injuries in a car accident, she went to England and in 1929 married Percy Walter Gladstone Kann, an English stockbroker. They co-directed Pellier Ltd, Robes & Modes, she called herself Madame Pellier. Kann and Broadhurst separated, Broadhurst became involved with diesel engineer Leonard Lloyd-Lewis, living in Banstead from 1939.
During World War II she joined the Australian Women's Voluntary Services, offering hospitality to Australian soldiers. In 1949, the couple and their son Robert moved to Australia, where she maintained the fiction that she was British, she travelled and produced 114 landscape paintings, which were first shown as "Paintings of Australia" in 1954 at David Jones Art Gallery, Sydney later in Brisbane and Canberra. In the late 1950s Lloyd-Lewis left her for a woman younger than their own son, she was a foundation member of the Art Gallery Society of New South Wales and a member of the Society of Interior Designers of Australia, was a teacher of printmaking and sculpture at the National Art School and was involved in a variety of charitable activities. Her husband left her and their son in 1961. Broadhurst ran a motor-sales company with her son, she worked from a studio at Paddington. She travelled to England in 1973 to receive cell therapy treatment for her failing eyesight and hearing. Broadhurst was bludgeoned to death with a large piece of timber in her Paddington studio on 15 October 1977.
The murder was never solved, but there has been some speculation that Broadhurst was a victim of serial killer John Wayne Glover, convicted of murdering six elderly women between 1989 and 1990, is thought by police to have been responsible for other deaths. In Gillian Armstrong's Unfolding Florence: The Many Lives of Florence Broadhurst and employees of Broadhurst stated that they believed the killer may have been known to her and that the motive may have been financial; this was due to the presence of two cups of tea near her body, suggesting a meeting or appointment, the killer's apparent knowledge of her factory's layout. In 1959 Broadhurst established Australian Wallpapers Pty Ltd. which became Florence Broadhurst Wallpapers Pty Ltd, advertised as "the only studio of its kind in the world". Her brightly coloured geometric and nature-inspired oversized designs were all hand printed. Technical advances made in her studio included printing onto metallic surfaces, the development of a washable, vinyl-coating finish and a drying rack system that allowed her wallpapers to be produced in large quantities.
By 1972, her wallpapers contained around 800 designs in eighty different colours, while by the mid-1970s she monopolised the quality end of the Australian market and was exporting worldwide. Broadhurst's library of wooden silk-printing screens and film positives was sold to Wilson Fabrics and Wallcoverings in 1978, just one year after her death. However, the decline of wallpaper as a popular form of home furnishing in the 1980s saw the collection languish, it was re-sold to Signature Prints Pty Ltd. Signature Prints in turn was purchased by a conglomerate led by current CEO David Lennie in 1989. Lennie had run a small wallpaper company in Auckland, New Zealand and met Florence Broadhurst before her death. In the late 1990s, Chee Soon & Fitzgerald, a tiny but influential Sydney design store, held the wholesale and retail distribution rights for Broadhurst wallpaper; this led to some popularity in Sydney design circles but little media attention. In the early 2000s, Signature Prints made a conscious decision to promote Broadhurst's designs overseas in the UK.
This effort, coupled with an international resurgence of interest in wallpaper increased the designer's profile and led to distribution deals being struck for both the UK and the US in 2003. Five hundred and thirty Broadhurst designs are in the company's collection but only a small proportion are printed by the company as wallpaper and fabric; the company retains strict control over the designs and insists printing take place in its inner-city Sydney factory. Some licences have been granted for other uses, such as high-end fashion pieces by designers Akira Isogawa, Nicky Zimmermann and Karen Walker. In late 2008 a rug collection featuring ten Broadhurst designs was released in Australia and the US. List of unsolved deaths List of Orientalist artists Orientalism Unfolding Florence: The Many Lives of Florence Broadhurst, a 2006 documentary/drama movie Siobhan O'Brien, A Life By Design, 2004 Gillian Armstrong, Unfolding Florence: The Many Lives of Florence Broadhurst, docu-drama, 2006 Helen O'Neill, Florence Broadhurst: Her Secret and Extraordinary Lives, 2006 Florence Broadhurst items at the Powerhouse Museum Florence Broadhurst's Signature style Florence Broadhurst Website
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s