Temperate rainforests are coniferous or broadleaf forests that occur in the temperate zone and receive heavy rainfall. Temperate rain forests occur in oceanic moist regions around the world: the Pacific temperate rain forests of North American Pacific Northwest as well as the Mid-Atlantic region of the US; the moist conditions of temperate rain forests support an understory of mosses and some shrubs. Temperate rain forests can be temperate broadleaf and mixed forests. For temperate rain forests of North America, Alaback's definition is recognized: Annual precipitation over 140 cm Mean annual temperature is between 4 and 12 °C. However, required annual precipitation depends on factors such as distribution of rainfall over the year, temperatures over the year and fog presence, definitions in other regions of the world differ considerably. For example, Australian definitions are ecological-structural rather than climatic: Closed canopy of trees excludes at least 70% of the sky. Forest is composed of tree species which do not require fire for regeneration, but with seedlings able to regenerate under shade and in natural openings.
The latter would, for example, exclude a part of the temperate rain forests of western North America, as Coast Douglas-fir, one of its dominant tree species, requires stand-destroying disturbance to initiate a new cohort of seedlings. The North American definition would in turn exclude a part of temperate rain forests under definitions used elsewhere. For forests, canopy refers to the upper layer or habitat zone, formed by mature tree crowns and including other biological organisms; the canopy level is the third level of the temperate rainforest. The trees forming the canopy, can stand as tall as 100 meters or more. A variety of species survive in the canopy; the tops of these trees collect most of the rain and photosynthesis that the rainforest takes in. They form a canopy over the forest; the canopy’s coverage affects the shade tolerance levels of forest floor plants. When the canopy is in full bloom, covering about 95% of the floor, plant survival decreases; some plant species have become shade tolerant in order to survive.
The treetops keep the lower levels of the forest damp. The canopy survives through photosynthesis; the leaves provide energy and nutrients for the trees. Through satellite data, the radiation use efficiency calculates the annual amount of photosynthesis that occurs in temperate rainforests. A diverse amount of photosynthesis occurs based on the location and microclimates of the forest. Temperate forests cover a large part of the Earth, but temperate rainforests only occur in a few regions around the world. Most of these occur in oceanic moist climates: the Pacific temperate rain forests in Western North America, the Valdivian and Magellanic temperate rainforests of southwestern South America, pockets of rain forest in Northwestern Europe, temperate rainforests of southeastern Australia and the New Zealand temperate rainforests. Others occur in subtropical moist climates. Additionally pockets of temperate rainforest occur in dreary climates that are not categorized by just annual precipitation but number of cloudy days as well as number of days of measurable precipitation in the form of rain or snow.
In Western North America outside the Pacific Northwest, the Columbia Mountains of British Columbia, northern Idaho and northwestern Montana, have more of a continental climate and have pockets of temperate coniferous rainforest. In Eastern North America, there are scattered pockets of temperate rainforest along the Allegheny Plateau and adjacent parts of the Appalachian Mountains from West Virginia to New England; these areas include sections of West Virginia, Western Pennsylvania, as well as Western Upstate New York and the Adirondack Mountains. A good example of these forests are found in Zoar Valley in Western New York, Cook Forest State Park within the Allegheny National Forest, Cathedral State Park in West Virginia. In Eastern Asia, there are scattered pockets of temperate rainforest in what is known as the Russian Far East in Asia where the climate is continental in nature, but get enough precipitation and cloud cover to harbor significant pockets of temperate rainforest. Like Eastern North America, much precipitation is in the form of snow.
The mountainous coniferous forests of the Changbai Mountains bordering China and North Korea are a good example, containing some of the r
The American marten or American pine marten is a North American member of the family Mustelidae, sometimes referred to as the pine marten. The name "pine marten" is derived from the distinct Eurasian species of Martes, it differs from the fisher in that it is lighter in colour. 14 subspecies have been recognized. Two subspecies groups have been recognized based on fossil history, cranial analysis, mitochondrial DNA analysis. None of the subspecies are separable based on morphology and subspecies taxonomy is ignored except with regards to conservation issues centered around subspecies rather than ranges. Martes americana americana subspecies group: M. a. abieticola M. a. abietinoides M. a. actuosa M. a. americana M. a. atrata M. a. brumalis M. a. kenaiensis Martes americana caurina subspecies group: M. a. caurina M. a. humboldtensis M. a. nesophila M. a. origenes M. a. sierrae M. a. vancouverensis M. a. vulpina The American marten is broadly distributed in northern North America. From north to south its range extends from the northern limit of treeline in arctic Alaska and Canada to northern New Mexico.
From east to west its distribution extends from Newfoundland and south west to Napa County, California. In Canada and Alaska, American marten distribution is continuous. In the western United States, American marten distribution is limited to mountain ranges that provide preferred habitat. Over time, the distribution of American marten has contracted and expanded regionally, with local extirpations and successful recolonizations occurring in the Great Lakes region and some parts of the Northeast; the American marten has been reintroduced in several areas. The marten lives in mature coniferous or mixed forests in Alaska and Canada, the Pacific Northwest of the United States and south into Northern New England and through the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada. Small groups of martens live in the Midwest in Wisconsin. Trapping and destruction of forest habitat have reduced its numbers, but it is still much more abundant than the larger fisher; the Newfoundland subspecies of this animal is considered to be threatened.
The Pacific Northwest subspecies, the Humboldt marten, is more so, with only a few hundred individuals remaining. Compared to other carnivores, American marten population density is low for their body size. One review reports population densities ranging from 0.4 to 2.5 individuals/km2. Population density may vary seasonally. Low population densities have been associated with low abundance of prey species. Home range size of the American marten is variable, with differences attributable to sex, geographic area, prey availability, cover type, quality or availability, habitat fragmentation, reproductive status, resident status and population density. Home range size does not appear to be related to body size for either sex. Home range size ranged from 0.04 sq mi in Maine to 6.1 sq mi in Minnesota for males, 0.04 sq mi in Maine to 3.0 sq mi in Wisconsin for females. Males exhibit larger home ranges than females, which some authors suggest is due to more specific habitat requirements of females that limit their ability to shift home range.
However, unusually large home ranges were observed for 4 females in two studies. Males and females in northeastern California appeared to have equal home range size. Home ranges are indicated by scent-marking. American marten male pelts show signs of scarring on the head and shoulders, suggesting intrasexual aggression that may be related to home range maintenance. Home range overlap is minimal or nonexistent between adult males but may occur between males and females, adult males and juveniles, between females. Several authors have reported that home range boundaries appear to coincide with topographical or geographical features. In northeastern California and home range boundaries were influenced by cover and other American marten. In south-central Alaska, home range boundaries included a major river. In an area burned 8 years in interior Alaska, home range boundaries coincided with transition areas between riparian and nonriparian habitats. In northwestern Montana, home range boundaries appeared to coincide with the edge of large open meadows and burned areas.
The American marten is a long, slender-bodied weasel about the size of a mink with large rounded ears, short limbs, a bushy tail. American marten have a triangular head and sharp nose, their long, silky fur ranges in color from pale yellowish buff to tawny brown to black. Their head is lighter than the rest of their body, while the tail and legs are darker. American marten have a characteristic throat and chest bib ranging in color from pale straw to vivid orange. Sexual dimorphism is pronounced, with males averaging about 15% larger than females in length and as much as 65% larger in body weight. Total length ranges from 1.5 to 2.2 feet, with tail length of 5.4 to 6.4 inches, Adult weight ranges from 1.1 to 3.1 pounds and varies by age and location. Other than size, sexes are similar in appearance. American marten have limited body-fat reserves, experience high mass-specific heat loss, have a limited fasting endurance
Revelstoke Mountain Resort
Revelstoke Mountain Resort is a ski resort on Mount Mackenzie, just outside Revelstoke, British Columbia in Canada. It is owned by Northland Properties; the resort has a 1713m vertical drop, Revelstoke has the longest vertical descent of any ski resort in North America. In terms of size, it is about the same as other major resorts, such as Breckenridge and Panorama, about a third the size of Whistler-Blackcomb; when completed, it will have 10,000 acres. Mount Mackenzie and the surrounding area has hosted a number of skiing operations for many years. Starting in the late 1960s a single two-person lift has been operational on the lower slopes, forming the basis of a resort known as Powder Springs. More both Sno-Cat and Heliskiing operations have operated in the bowls on the upper elevations; the resort opened for the first time on December 22, 2007, was thought to be the biggest North American ski resort debut in twenty years. However the event was overshadowed by the death of an Edmonton ski instructor who disappeared on the mountain's "Jalapeno" run and whose body was found in a tree well three days on Christmas Day.
During the summer of 2008, further trail cutting in the "North Bowl" area extended the skiable area and added a number of expert runs and glades. The Ripper, a second four-person chairlift, was added in 2008; the gondola was extended down the hill in December 2008, from the original base area to the new village area further down the hill. With this extension the lift-served vertical increased to 5,620 ft, overtaking Whistler's 5,280 ft, making it the largest in North America. In order to build the local economy, the City of Revelstoke started the process of finding outside investors to expand the ski area and build a large complex at the base of the mountain. Funding was secured from a group of private investors that appear to have since organized as Revelstoke Mountain Resort; the Government of Canada and Government of British Columbia are involved, but it is not clear if they have a financial stake – BC is reported to have sold them some Crown Land but is otherwise uninvolved. The development was priced at $1 billion in total, an agreement among the major parties was signed on 20 March 2005.
The complete project is expected to take fifteen years to complete. Construction began in late 2005 with the completion of a road allowing access to most of the mountain. Construction of the first five ski trails started at the top of the existing 2-person chairlift at 1100 m, extending up to 1350 m. Construction on higher-altitude trails began during the summer of 2006, covering the area from 1350 m to 2300 m; the chairlift was removed and replaced by a new eight-person gondola, running from the original "base" area to the mid-mountain area, while a new four-person high-speed chairlift ran from that point to the top of the mountain. On January 16, 2007, RMR announced its purchase of local heli-ski operation Selkirk Tangiers Helicopter Skiing Ltd. With this addition, the resort controls over 2,000 km² of heli-ski terrain with access from the resort base; the hill is served by a high-speed gondola lift, that rises from the base area through the mid-mountain station and allows access to the upper lifts.
Two smaller chairlifts operate above the gondola, a detachable quad serves to access the sub-peak, while another detachable quad provides access to the North Bowl Area. A magic carpet next to the Mid-Mountain Lodge serves a small beginner slope. A smaller fixed-grip double was removed in 2008 after the first season of RMR; the ski lifts at RMR can enable access to North America's most vertical feet of lift accessed terrain. North: 26% West: 44% East: 4% South: 26% From the 2009/2010 season, RMR is the host for the Canadian Championships of the Freeskiing World Tour, the largest competitive Big Mountain competition. By hosting this event annually, Revelstoke Mountain Resort joins other mountain resorts such as Kirkwood, Squaw Valley USA, Telluride on the World Tour, helping add to Revelstoke's reputation for big mountain terrain; the Master Plan calls for the eventual construction of as many as 25 lifts in total, both in the opened western face of the mountain, as well as the bowls to the south served by the cat-ski operations.
List of ski areas and resorts in Canada revelstokemountainresort.com - official link
Glacier National Park (Canada)
Glacier National Park is part of a system of 43 parks and park reserves across Canada, one of seven national parks in British Columbia. Established in 1886, the park encompasses 1,349 km2, includes a portion of the Selkirk Mountains which are part of the larger grouping of mountains, the Columbia Mountains, it contains the Rogers Pass National Historic Site. The park's history is tied to two primary Canadian transportation routes, the Canadian Pacific Railway, completed in 1885, the Trans-Canada Highway, completed in 1963. Rogers Pass in the centre of the park eluded explorers until 1881; the railway brought with it tourism, the establishment of Glacier National Park and the construction of a popular alpine hotel. The heavy winter snows and steep, avalanche-prone valleys of the park have been a major obstacle to transportation, necessitating much railway engineering and avalanche control measures; the park contains high peaks, active glaciers, one of Canada's largest cave systems. Its dense forests support populations of large mammals and alpine species.
The region is noted for its heavy snowfall. The park has an extensive network of trails, three campgrounds, four backcountry huts and cabins. Due to the major transportation routes that bisect it, Glacier National Park sees large numbers of visitors; the Selkirk Mountains were first noted by Europeans when explorer David Thompson of the North West Company skirted around them on the Columbia River in 1811. He named them Nelson's Mountains, after Lord Horatio Nelson, but they were renamed after an executive for the rival Hudson's Bay Company, Lord Thomas Douglas Selkirk. Finding a pass through the Selkirks became a priority after construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway began. Completion of the railway was a condition of the Colony of British Columbia upon entering Canadian Confederation in 1867. In 1865, CPR surveyor Walter Moberly led an expedition up the Illecillewaet River. Despite discovering Eagle Pass through the nearby Monashees, Moberly failed to find a pass through the Selkirks after getting sidetracked in the Tangier Creek drainage.
His party refused to explore further due to the lateness of the season, Moberly was forced to retreat. An expedition led by Major Albert Bowman Rogers up the Illecillewaet discovered a viable pass in 1881. Rogers was awarded a five thousand dollar prize for locating a route through the mountains. By 1885, the CPR had constructed a line through Rogers Pass and trains were traveling west to the Pacific for the first time in Canada; the federal government and the CPR realized the tourism potential of the mountainous glaciated area. Following a trip by Prime Minister John A. Macdonald and his wife Agnes through the Rockies on the newly completed Trancontinental Railroad, he returned to Ottawa inspired, led the creation of Glacier and Yoho National Parks, both established on October 10, 1886, they were the third national parks in the country, after Banff, a year earlier. The grade of the railway approaching Rogers Pass was too steep to allow for dining cars on the trains, so the CPR built a hotel west of the pass in 1886.
This added to a collection of CPR-owned hotels across Canada, including Mount Stephen House in Yoho National Park, built in the same year and with the same floor plan. Glacier House, located near the terminus of the Illecillewaet Glacier, became a center for tourism, mountaineering and photography in the Selkirks; the hotel was expanded in 1905 and 1911. It was considered one of western Canada's premier tourist destinations at the turn of the twentieth century; the hotel attracted alpinists from around the world. Due to its elevation, climbers could be in the high alpine within hours of leaving their room. In 1899, the CPR contracted the services of several Swiss guides to assist the less mountain-savvy tourists through the high country. Throughout the Glacier House period, many first ascents were made on peaks within the park; the hotel attracted naturalists and scientists keen to study the mountain environment. Mary Vaux Walcott and her brothers and William Vaux, visited the area many times, began the first scientific studies of the Illecillewaet Glacier.
Glacier House is considered "the first center of alpinism" in North America by American Alpine Club historian William Lowell Putnam. It saw an influx of European and American professional climbers in its first two decades of operation. William Spotswood Green was the first European climber to make note of the excellent climbing possibilities of peaks near the CPR line. Green and Henry Swanzy made the first recorded ascents of major peaks in the summer of 1888, climbing Mount Bonney and Green's Peak. Harold Topham, a British climber, made many first ascents in 1890 including Mount Fox. Huber and Sulzer claimed the prized first ascent of the dramatic Mount Sir Donald. Arthur Oliver Wheeler, a cartographer and founding member of the Alpine Club of Canada, came to Glacier House in 1901; this started a thirty-year relationship with the northern Selkirks, which saw Wheeler map the region, publish large reference works on its geography, explore much of the park's terrain. An ACC hut near the Illecillewaet campground bears his name, as well as a pass.
Professor Charles Ernest Fay, first president of the American Alpine Club, after visiting the park in the 1890s, publicized it in the club's magazine. By the 1900s all of the park's prominent peaks had seen human tracks. After its first winter in operati
Forillon National Park
Forillon National Park, one of 42 national parks and park reserves across Canada, is located at the outer tip of the Gaspé Peninsula of Quebec and covers 244 km2. Created in 1970, Forillon was the first national park in Quebec; the park includes forests, sea coast, salt marshes, sand dunes and the Eastern End of the Appalachians. The word forillon is thought to have referred to a flowerpot island or sea stack which used to be a landmark in the area but has since collapsed into the ocean; the area was a traditional summer hunting and fishing ground for the Mi'kmaq and Haudenosaunee people. This area was once used for its rich supply of wood. People living in L'Anse-au-Griffon were once involved in the lumber industry here; the creation of the park in 1970 was preceded by the removal of 225 families through expropriation. When preparing to create the new park, the Government of Canada requested that the Quebec government expropriate the homes of these families; the Quebec government sub-contracted the appropriation and negotiations to a private firm.
This firm used various bullying tactics to scare the residents into agreeing to settlements of reduced value. This stratagem ensured a larger profit margin for the contractor. On 14 February 2011, the House of Commons adopted a motion which issued an official apology to the people whose properties were expropriated to create Forillon Park; the motion read:That this House issue an official apology to the people whose properties were expropriated to create Forillon Park for the unconscionable manner in which they were treated, that the Speaker of the House send the representatives of the people whose properties were expropriated and of their descendants an official copy of the Journals of the House of Commons indicating the adoption of this motion. This expropriation is the subject of a song titled "Forillon" by the group Le Vent du Nord on their album Têtu, it was mentioned in a song titled "La Gigue à Mitchounano" by singer Paul Piché. This national park includes nesting colonies of sea birds and whales, seals as well as woodland mammalian species which are red fox, black bear, lynx, coyote, porcupine, snowshoe hare and ermine.
Raptors that inhabit this park are great horned owls, northern harriers, peregrine falcons, bald eagles, rough-legged hawks, ospreys. Activities at interpretation sites bring visitors to learn more about human and natural life in the Forillon peninsula; the Grande-Grave National Heritage Site attests to the way of life of fishing families. The Hyman Store features collections of articles that were sold at the time, the store "owners" tell tales of thriving fisheries industry. Close by, the pedestrian walk "Une Tournée dans les Parages" brings visitors around houses and agricultural and commercial installations from the beginning of the twentieth century. Along the shores, whale watching is available. Forillon encloses the site of Fort Péninsule, near the Penouille beach; this fortification was built during World War II to protect the Gaspé bay, as was Fort Prével on the other side of the bay. Visitors today can enter an underground tunnel to see cannon in place since that time. National Parks of Canada List of National Parks of Canada List of Quebec national parks Forillon National Park Watch the NFB documentary A Day in Forillon
Lysichiton americanus called western skunk cabbage, yellow skunk cabbage, American skunk-cabbage or swamp lantern, is a plant found in swamps and wet woods, along streams and in other wet areas of the Pacific Northwest, where it is one of the few native species in the arum family. The plant is called skunk cabbage because of the distinctive "skunky" odor that it emits when it blooms; this odor will permeate the area where the plant grows, can be detected in old, dried specimens. The distinctive odor attracts its pollinators, scavenging beetles. Although named and with a similar smell, the plant is easy to distinguish from the eastern skunk cabbage, another species in the arum family found in eastern North America; the plant grows from rhizomes that measure 30 cm or longer, 2.5 to 5 cm in diameter. The short-stalked leaves are the largest of any native plant in the region, 30–150 cm long and 10–70 cm wide when mature, its flowers are produced in a spadix contained within a 7–12 cm, bright yellow or yellowish green spathe atop a 30–50 cm stalk.
The flowers are densely packed. It is among the first flowers to bloom in early spring. Unlike the genus Symplocarpus, the flowers of Lysichiton species do not produce heat, although this is and incorrectly said to be the case. L. americanus is found from Kodiak Island and Cook Inlet, Alaska south through British Columbia, Washington and Northern California as far south as Santa Cruz County. Isolated populations are found in northeastern Washington, northern Idaho and Wyoming; the plant was introduced into cultivation in the United Kingdom in 1901 and has escaped to become naturalized in marshy areas in Britain and Ireland, for example in Hampshire and Surrey, including Wisley Gardens, in the north and west of the UK. In 2016, it was classified by the European Union as an invasive non-native plant species, it was used as an ornamental garden plant in Britain and Ireland, where it grows well in marshy conditions. As of 2018, the Royal Horticultural Society recommends. Hybrids with Lysichiton camtschatcense, called Lysichiton × hortensis, are cultivated.
These have larger spathes than either of the parents. While some consider the plant to be a weed, its roots are food for bears, who eat it after hibernating as a laxative or cathartic; the plant was used by indigenous people as medicine for burns and injuries, for food in times of famine, when all parts were eaten. The leaves have a somewhat peppery taste. Caution should be used in attempts to prepare western skunk cabbage for consumption, as it contains calcium oxalate crystals, which result in a prickling sensation on the tongue and throat and can result in intestinal irritation and death if consumed in large quantities. Although the plant was not part of the diet under normal conditions, its large, waxy leaves were important to food preparation and storage, they were used to line berry baskets and to wrap around whole salmon and other foods when baked under a fire. It is used to cure sores and swelling. Lysichiton camtschatcensis: a related plant from north-east Asia, but not known for producing a foul smell Symplocarpus foetidus: although not in the same genus, it is confused with western skunk cabbage Calla palustris: a similar plant grown as an ornamental herbaceous perennial Flora of North America: Lysichiton americanus Native American Ethnobotany: Lysichiton americanus UBC Botanical Garden and Centre for Plant Research: Lysichiton americanus
Tsuga is a genus of conifers in the subfamily Abietoideae. The common name hemlock is derived from a perceived similarity in the smell of its crushed foliage to that of the unrelated plant poison hemlock. Unlike the latter, Tsuga species are not poisonous. Eight to ten species are within the genus, with four species occurring in North America and four to six in eastern Asia, they are medium-sized to large evergreen trees, ranging from 10–60 m tall, with a conical to irregular crown, the latter occurring in some of the Asian species. The leading shoots droop; the bark is scaly and deeply furrowed, with the colour ranging from grey to brown. The branches stem horizontally from the trunk and are arranged in flattened sprays that bend downward towards their tips. Short spur shoots, which are present in many gymnosperms, are weakly to moderately developed; the young twigs, as well as the distal portions of stem, are flexible and pendent. The stems are rough due to pulvini; the winter buds are ovoid or globose rounded at the apex and not resinous.
The leaves are flattened to angular and range from 5–35 mm long and 1–3 mm broad. They are arranged spirally on the stem. Towards the base, the leaves narrow abruptly to a petiole set on a forward-angled pulvinus; the petiole is twisted at the base so it is parallel with the stem. The leaf apex is either rounded, or acute; the undersides have two white stomatal bands separated by an elevated midvein. The upper surface of the leaves lack stomata, they have one resin canal, present beneath the single vascular bundle. The pollen cones grow solitary from lateral buds, they are 3–5 mm long, globose, or ellipsoid, yellowish-white to pale purple, borne on a short peduncle. The pollen itself has a saccate, ring-like structure at its distal pole, this structure can be more or less doubly saccate; the seed cones are borne on year-old twigs and are small ovoid-globose or oblong-cylindric, ranging from 15–40 mm long, except in T. mertensiana, where they are cylindrical and longer, 35–80 mm in length. Maturation occurs in 5–8 months, the seeds are shed shortly thereafter.
The seed scales are thin and persistent. They lack an apophysis and an umbo; the bracts are small. The seeds are small, from 2 to 4 mm long, winged, with the wing being 8 to 12 mm in length, they contain small adaxial resin vesicles. Seed germination is epigeal. Mountain hemlock, T. mertensiana, is unusual in the genus in several respects. The leaves are less flattened and arranged all round the shoot, have stomata above as well as below, giving the foliage a glaucous colour; some botanists treat it in a distinct genus as Hesperopeuce mertensiana Rydb. Though it is more only considered distinct at the rank of subgenus. Another species, bristlecone hemlock, first described as Tsuga longibracteata, is now treated in a distinct genus Nothotsuga; the species are all adapted to moist, cool temperate areas with high rainfall, cool summers, little or no water stress. Hemlock trees are more tolerant of heavy shade than other conifers; the two eastern North American species, T. canadensis and T. caroliniana, are under serious threat by the sap-sucking insect Adelges tsugae.
This adelgid, related to the aphids, was introduced accidentally from eastern Asia, where it is only a minor pest. Extensive mortality has occurred east of the Appalachian Mountains; the Asian species are resistant to this pest, the two western American hemlocks are moderately resistant. In North America, hemlocks are attacked by hemlock looper. Larger infected hemlocks have large high root systems that can bring other trees down if one falls; the foliage of young trees is browsed by deer, the seeds are eaten by finches and small rodents. Old trees are attacked by various fungal disease and decay species, notably Heterobasidion annosum and Armillaria species, which rot the heartwood and leave the tree liable to windthrow, Rhizina undulata, which may kill groups of trees following minor grass fires that activate growth of the Rhizina spores; the wood obtained from hemlocks is important in the timber industry for use as wood pulp. Many species are used in horticulture, numerous cultivars have been selected for use in gardens.
The bark of the hemlock is used in tanning leather. The needles of the hemlock tree are sometimes used to make a perfume. Accepted speciesTsuga canadensis eastern hemlock – Eastern Canada, Eastern United States Tsuga caroliniana Carolina hemlock – Southern Appalachians Tsuga chinensis Taiwan hemlock – much of China incl Tibet + Taiwan Tsuga diversifolia northern Japanese hemlock – Honshu