The mountain ranges name derives from its proximity to the sea coast, and is often referred to as the Coast Range. The range includes volcanic and non-volcanic mountains and the ice fields of the Pacific and Boundary Ranges. The Coast Mountains are approximately 1,600 kilometres long and average 300 kilometres in width, covered in dense temperate rainforest on its western exposures, the range rises to heavily glaciated peaks, including the largest temperate-latitude ice fields in the world. On its eastern flanks, the tapers to the dry Interior Plateau. The Coast Mountains are part of the Pacific Ring of Fire—the ring of volcanoes, the Coast Mountains consists of three subdivisions known as the Pacific Ranges, the Kitimat Ranges, and the Boundary Ranges. The Pacific Ranges are the southernmost subdivision of the Coast Mountains, included in this subdivision is four of the five major coastal icecaps in the southern Coast Mountains. These are the largest temperate-latitude icecaps in the world and fuel a number of major rivers, other than logging and a large ski resort at the resort town of Whistler, most of the land in the range is completely undeveloped.
Mount Waddington, the highest mountain of the Coast Mountains, lies in the Waddington Range of the Pacific Ranges, just north of the Pacific Ranges lies the central subdivision known as the Kitimat Ranges. This subdivision extends from the Bella Coola River and Burke Channel in the south to the Nass River in the north, the third and northernmost subdivision of the Coast Mountains is the Boundary Ranges, extending from the Nass River in the south to the Kelsall River in the north. This precipitation is among the heaviest in North America, the eastern slopes are relatively dry and less steep and protect the British Columbia Interior from the Pacific weather systems, resulting in dry warm summers and dry cold winters. Beyond the eastern slopes is a 154,635 km2 plateau occupying the southern, included within the Interior Plateau is a coalescing series of layered flood basalt lava flows. These sequences of fluid volcanic rock cover about 25,000 km2 of the Interior Plateau and have a volume of about 1,800 km3, the Coast Mountains consists of deformed igneous and metamorphosed structurally complex pre-Tertiary rocks.
These originated in locations around the globe, the area is built of several different terranes of different ages with a broad range of tectonic origins. Further north the northwesterly structural trend of the Coast Mountains lies partly in a continental rift responsible for the creation of several volcanoes. These volcanoes form part of the Northern Cordilleran Volcanic Province, the most volcanically active area in Canada, the first event began 130 million years ago when a group of active volcanic islands approached a pre-existing continental margin and coastline of North America. This subduction zone eventually jammed and shut down completely 115 million years ago, ending the Omineca Arc, compression resulting from this collision crushed and folded rocks along the old continental margin. The Insular Belt welded onto the continental margin by magma that eventually cooled to create a large mass of igneous rock. This large mass of rock is the largest granite outcropping in North America
The Robson River is a short but swift and waterfall-infested river in Mount Robson Provincial Park of British Columbia. It is a tributary of the Upper Fraser River and it originates near Robson Pass, which divides the Robson River, there are three lakes along the river’s course as well as four waterfalls. The Robson River begins in Robson Lake, which is located at the toe of the Robson Glacier, after exiting the lake, the river flows northwest southwest before entering Berg Lake. Before entering Berg Lake, the river widens and splits into many small streams flowing into the northeast end of Berg Lake. The first is Falls of the Pool, which comes about halfway down the gorge and at the end of the canyon is White Falls, all these falls are collectively known as the Valley of a Thousand Falls. The river continues south from White Falls for another 3.3 kilometres before entering Kinney Lake, between Berg and Kinney Lakes, the river loses 666 metres of elevation, much of which is lost in the gorge between Emperor and White Falls.
Once again, prior to entering another lake, this time Kinney, about halfway between Kinney Lake & the Fraser is Knowlton Falls, the first waterfall seen on the Berg Lake Trail. About 0.6 kilometres above the Fraser, the Yellowhead Highway crosses the river, in total, the river loses 869 metres of elevation between Robson Lake and the Fraser River, three-quarters of which is lost between Berg and Kinney Lakes. The main hiking trail in the area is the Berg Lake Trail and it goes all the way to its namesake lake, where the trail splits into more trails. Reaching Berg Lake is usually a multi-day trip, however, it is possible and it is done in a single day by some. Not everyone chooses to go all the way to Berg Lake though, some will settle with a much quicker but still satisfying trip to Kinney Lake. Bikes are permitted all the way up to Kinney Lake and a ways beyond, part way down the shore of the lake is a bike lock-up. From here, anyone continuing to go further upriver has to go on foot, the Berg Lake trail gives hikers looks at the Robson’s waterfalls.
Knowlton Falls is seen about halfway between the trailhead and Kinney Lake while hikers can stare into the canyon at White Falls and Falls of the Pool as the trail climbs toward Berg Lake
Arthur Philemon Coleman
Arthur Philemon Coleman was a Canadian geologist and academic. Born in Lachute, the son of Rev. Francis Coleman and Emmeline Maria Adams, he received his Bachelor of Arts in 1876 and Master of Arts in 1880 from Victoria College in Cobourg, Ontario. He received a Ph. D. at the University of Breslau in 1881 and he joined the department of geology and natural history at Victoria College in 1882 as a Professor. From 1891 to 1901, he was a Professor of Geology at the School of Practical Science in Toronto, from 1893 to 1909, he was a geologist at the Bureau of Mines of the Government of Ontario. From 1901 to 1922, he was a Professor of Geology at the University of Toronto and was Dean of the Faculty of Arts from 1919 to 1922, from 1931 to 1934, he was a geologist with the Department of Mines of the Government of Ontario. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada in 1900 and was its President in 1921 and he was awarded the Murchison Medal of the Geological Society of London in 1910 and in 1928 was awarded the Royal Society of Canadas Flavelle Medal.
In 1902, he was elected President of the Royal Canadian Institute and in 1910, in 1915, he was President of the Geological Society of America. In 1929, he was appointed Honorary Vice-President of the Royal Canadian Geographical Society. The Last Million Years Edited by George F. Kay He achieved the first ascent of Castle Mountain in 1884 and he made a total of eight exploratory trips to the Canadian Rockies, wholly four of them looking for the mythical giants of Hooker and Brown. Mount Coleman and Coleman Glacier in Banff National Park is named in his honour and he was awarded the Penrose Medal in 1936. The Arthur P. Coleman Collection at the Victoria University Library at the University of Toronto Arthur Philemon Coleman, 1852-1939. A. P. Coleman, Explorer – Science, Art & Discovery, a Virtual Exhibit Works written by or about Arthur Philemon Coleman at Wikisource Works by A. P. Coleman at Faded Page
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can be considered a subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16. 5% of the land area. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, and the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 565 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7. 5% of the worlds population, North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge. The so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago, the Classic stage spans roughly the 6th to 13th centuries. The Pre-Columbian era ended with the migrations and the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery.
Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect different kind of interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants, European influences are strongest in the northern parts of the continent while indigenous and African influences are relatively stronger in the south. Because of the history of colonialism, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, the Americas are usually accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass previously unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a map, in which he placed the word America on the continent of South America. He explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio, for Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer.
He used the Latinized version of Vespuccis name, but in its feminine form America, following the examples of Europa and Africa. Later, other mapmakers extended the name America to the continent, In 1538. Some argue that the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries except in the case of royalty, a minutely explored belief that has been advanced is that America was named for a Spanish sailor bearing the ancient Visigothic name of Amairick. Another is that the name is rooted in a Native American language, the term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with location and context. In Canadian English, North America may be used to refer to the United States, usage sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands
In rock climbing and other climbing disciplines, climbers give a grade to a climbing route that concisely describes the difficulty and danger of climbing the route. Different aspects of climbing each have their own grading system, and many different nationalities developed their own, different grading systems consider these factors in different ways, so no two grading systems have an exact one-to-one correspondence. They may be the opinion of one or a few climbers, a grade for an individual route may be a consensus reached by many climbers who have climbed the route. While grades are usually applied fairly consistently across a climbing area, because of these variables, a given climber might find a route to be either easier or more difficult than expected for the grade applied. In 1894, the Austrian mountaineer Fritz Benesch introduced the first known grading system for rock climbing, the Benesch scale had seven levels of difficulty, with level VII the easiest and level I the most difficult.
Soon more difficult climbs were made, which originally were graded level 0 and 00, in 1923, the German mountaineer Willo Welzenbach compressed the scale and turned the order around, so that level 00 became level IV-V. It prevailed internationally and was renamed in 1968 as the UIAA scale, originally a 6-grade scale, it has been officially open-ended since 1979. For free climbing, there are many different grading systems varying according to country and they include, The Yosemite Decimal System of grading routes was initially developed as the Sierra Club grading system in the 1930s to rate hikes and climbs in the Sierra Nevada range. The rock climbing portion was developed at Tahquitz Rock in southern California by members of the Rock Climbing Section of the Angeles Chapter of the Sierra Club in the 1950s and it quickly spread to Canada and the rest of the Americas. Originally a single-part classification system and protection rating categories were added later, the new classifications do not apply to every climb and usage varies widely.
When a route involves aid climbing, its unique aid designation can be appended to the YDS free climbing rating, Class 1 is the easiest and consists of walking on even terrain. Class 5 is climbing on vertical or near-vertical rock, and requires skill, un-roped falls would result in severe injury or death. Originally, Class 6 was used to aid climbing. However, the separate A rating system became popular instead, the original intention was that the classes would be subdivided decimally, so that a route graded 4.5 would be a scramble halfway between 4 and 5, and 5.9 would be the hardest rock climb. Increased standards and improved equipment meant that climbs graded 5.9 in the 1960s are now only of moderate difficulty. While the top grade was 5.10, a range of climbs in this grade was completed. Letter grades were added for climbs at 5.10 and above by adding a letter a, b, c, the system originally considered only the technical difficulty of the hardest move on a route. For example, a route of mainly 5.7 moves but with one 5. 11b move would be graded 5.
11b, the YDS system involves an optional Roman numeral grade that indicates the length and seriousness of the route
Alpine Club of Canada
The Alpine Club of Canada is an amateur athletic association with its national office in Canmore, Alberta that has been a focal point for Canadian mountaineering since its founding in 1906. The club was co-founded by Arthur Oliver Wheeler, who served as its first president, and Elizabeth Parker, a journalist for the Manitoba Free Press. Byron Harmon, whose 6500+ photographs of the Canadian Rockies in the early 20th century provide the best glimpse of the area at time, was official photographer to the club at its founding. The club is the organization in Canada devoted to climbing, mountain culture. It is the Canadian regulatory organization for climbing competition, sanctioning local and national events, the ACC is divided into 22 regional sections across Canada that serve local members and focus on local issues and access, linking mountain enthusiasts to the national community. The clubs goals remain the promotion of the sport of climbing, mountain culture adventure, access. The ACC publishes the annual Canadian Alpine Journal, which serves as the journal of record for Canadian achievements in climbing, ski mountaineering, in 2006, Canada Post issued a stamp to celebrate the clubs centenary.
Arthur O. Wheeler, who was born in 1860 in Kilkenny County, beginning in 1883, he worked for the Dominion Government and Canadian Pacific Railway as a land surveyor in the Canadian Rockies. His employment allowed him to experience mountaineering while exposing him to environmental concerns about the future of Canadian wilderness. He was described by climbing enthusiast Andrew J. Kauffman as having Irish emotions, Irish sensitivity, Irish grace and, more frequently than some would like, an Irish temper. Wheelers continuous pursuit of creating a Canadian Alpine Club led him to many letters seeking support. A native of Winnipeg, Parker was an avid nationalist and an environmental enthusiast, conscious of the benefit of mountains, she took her children to Banff in the summer of 1904. She spent 18 months there and began writing newspaper and magazine articles about the mountains, even if her health did not allow her to be a climber she thought that mountaineering could help women become stronger and more confident.
After reading her articles, an editor of the Manitoba Free Press referenced her to Wheelers letters, writing an article in response to his letter, Parker advocated the establishment of an Alpine Club. However, she believed that it should be solely Canadian to encourage the development of national identity, together they combined their efforts to create the Alpine Club of Canada. The inaugural meeting took place on March 27 and 281906, a. O. Wheeler became President and Elizabeth Parker was named First Secretary. Several categories of members were created with different levels of involvement, Honorary Members, the first official camp of the ACC took place in July 1906. Thanks to the Canadian Pacific Railway, campers arrived at Field, the camps chief mountaineer was Morrison Bridgland
It is a measure of the independence of a summit. A peaks key col is a point on this contour line. By convention, the prominence of Mount Everest, the Earths highest mountain, is taken to equal the elevation of its summit above sea level, if the peaks prominence is P metres, to get from the summit to any higher terrain one must descend at least P metres. Together with the convention for Mount Everest, this implies that the prominence of any island or continental highpoint is equal to its elevation above sea level, for every ridge connecting the peak to higher terrain, find the lowest point on the ridge. The key col is defined as the highest of these cols, the prominence is the difference between the elevation of the peak and the elevation of the key col. The following mental exercise may illustrate the meaning of topographic prominence, imagine you are standing at the top of a peak and imagine that an imaginary sea level rises to your feet. Now slowly lower the sea level and an imaginary island appears beneath your feet.
Your island will grow and will merge with other islands that emerge, the parent peak may be either close or far from the subject peak. The summit of Mount Everest is the parent peak of Aconcagua at a distance of 17,755 km, the key col may be close or far from the subject peak. The key col for Aconcagua is the Bering Strait at a distance of 13,655 km, the key col for the South Summit of Mount Everest is about 100 m distant. Prominence is interesting to many mountaineers because it is a measurement that is strongly correlated with the subjective significance of a summit. Peaks with low prominences are either subsidiary tops of some higher summit or relatively insignificant independent summits, peaks with high prominences tend to be the highest points around and are likely to have extraordinary views. Only summits with a sufficient degree of prominence are regarded as independent mountains, for example, the worlds second-highest mountain is K2. While Mount Everests South Summit is taller than K2, it is not considered an independent mountain because it is a subsummit of the main summit, many lists of mountains take topographic prominence as a criterion for inclusion, or cutoff.
John and Anne Nuttalls The Mountains of England and Wales uses a cutoff of 15 m, in the contiguous United States, the famous list of fourteeners uses a cutoff of 300 ft /91 m. Also in the U. S.2000 feet of prominence has become a threshold that signifies that a peak has major stature. This generates lists of peaks ranked by prominence, which are different from lists ranked by elevation. Such lists tend to emphasize isolated high peaks, such as range or island high points, one advantage of a prominence-ranked list is that it needs no cutoff, since a peak with high prominence is automatically an independent peak
Kinney Lake is a lake located in Mount Robson Provincial Park of British Columbia, Canada. The lake can be reached by following the Berg Lake Trail for 4.2 kilometres, the lake is an expansion of the Robson River and is located about halfway between the rivers source and its mouth. It was named by Arthur Philemon Coleman, Canadian geologist, who explored the region with his friend, George Kinney, who spotted the lake first
Grand Trunk Pacific Railway
The Grand Trunk Pacific Railway was a historical Canadian transcontinental railway running from Winnipeg to the Pacific coast at Prince Rupert, British Columbia. The entire line was managed and operated by Grand Trunk Railway, the CPR and CNoR both ran southern routes along the Canada–US border in order to serve existing markets as well as US shipping. GTR had been approached on several occasions to build the original Canadian Pacific Survey route through Yellowhead Pass, Construction began in 1905 and was completed by 1913. In 1918, CNoR failed and was nationalized as the Canadian National Railways, a number of GTP subdivisions remain in use as part of the CN mainlines, while others have been abandoned and lifted starting in the 1980s. At the beginning of the 20th century, the GTR planned a second Canadian transcontinental rail route with a terminal on the Pacific that would be nearer to Asia than Vancouver. It would follow one of the routes surveyed by Sandford Fleming from Winnipeg to Port Simpson at the end of the Portland Canal which formed part of the boundary between British Columbia and Alaska.
In 1903 there was resentment in Canada over the Alaska boundary decision which favoured US interests after a British commissioner sided with them, as a result of the clamour in Canada, US President Theodore Roosevelt threatened to send an occupation force to nearby territory. Prime Minister Wilfrid Laurier considered a new location at Prince Rupert would be easily defended and decided to build the terminal there rather than at Port Simpson. Turning of the first sod for the construction of the GTPR, took place at a ceremony, September 11,1905, at Fort William, Ontario. From there a 190-mile section of track was built by the Grand Trunk Pacific Construction Company, connecting with the NTR, from the onset of construction, the GTPR had a variety of socio-economic issues. The GTPR never met the expectations set forth by the Grand Trunk Railway. Construction began on the Canadian Prairies in 1905, the year that the provinces of Alberta, Construction proceeded west to Saskatoon, Saskatchewan in 1907, Alberta in 1909, and through Jasper, Alberta into Yellowhead Pass crossing the Continental Divide in 1910-1911.
In 1910, the company built a dock in Seattle, the Grand Trunk Pacific dock. On July 30,1914, the dock was destroyed by fire, the GTPR did not immediately realize the traffic potential GTR and the federal government had hoped. GTR did not have a marketing plan, and efforts at settlement were disrupted by the First World War. GTR rejected operating the NTR for cost reasons, forcing the government to assume that operation into Canadian Government Railways. By 1919 it was obvious that the GTPR was not paying its way, on July 12,1920 the GTPR was placed under the management of Crown corporation Canadian National Railways and in 1923 was completely absorbed into the CNR. The chateau-style hotels of the early 20th century remain iconic Canadian symbols, after the nationalization, this tradition continued with construction of The Bessborough Hotel in Saskatoon
In climbing, a first ascent is the first successful, documented attainment of the top of a mountain, or the first to follow a particular climbing route. First ascents are notable because they entail genuine exploration, with risks, challenges. The person who performs the first ascent is called the first ascensionist, the details of the first ascents of even many prominent mountains are scanty or unknown, sometimes the only evidence of prior summiting is a cairn, artifacts, or inscriptions at the top. Today, first ascents are generally recorded and usually mentioned in guidebooks. Overwhelmingly, the idea of a first ascent is a one, especially in places such as Africa. There may be little or no evidence or documentation about the climbing activities of indigenous peoples living near the mountain. The term is used when referring to ascents made using a specific technique or taking a specific route, such as via the North Face. In rock climbing, some of the earlier first ascents, particularly for difficult routes, involved a mix of free, as a result, purist free climbers have developed the designation first free ascent to acknowledge ascents intentionally made more challenging by using equipment for protection only.
Some other first ascents could be recorded for particular mountains or routes, one is the First Winter Ascent, which is, as the name easily suggests, the first ascent made during winter season. This is most important where the climate of winter is a factor in increasing the difficulty grade of the route, in the Northern Hemisphere conventional winter ascents are made between December 21 and March 21 and are not related to the conditions. Also in the Himalayan area, although Nepal and Chinas winter season permits start on December 1, another is the First Solo Ascent, which is the first ascent made by a single climber. This is most important on high-level rock climbing, when the climber has to provide his own security or even when climbing without any protection at all, another type of ascent, known as FFA is the first female ascent. The term last ascent has been used to refer to an ascent of a mountain or face that has changed to such an extent – often because of rockfall – that the route no longer exists.
It can be used facetiously to refer to a climb that is so unpleasant or unaesthetic that no one would willingly repeat the first ascent partys ordeal. List of first ascents List of first ascents in the Alps List of first ascents in the Himalaya Glossary of climbing terms Alpinist Magazine – Peter Mortimers First Ascent, Issue 17
Athabasca Pass is a high mountain pass in the Canadian Rockies. It is the headwaters of the Whirlpool River, a tributary of the Athabasca River, in fur-trade days it connected Jasper House on the Athabasca River with Boat Encampment on the Columbia River. The pass lies between Mount Brown and McGillivray Ridge and it is south of Yellowhead Pass and north of Howse Pass. The pass is first mentioned in the record in the papers of British explorer David Thompson. The pass subsequently became a point on the fur trade route between Ruperts Land and the Columbia District, used by the York Factory Express. The pass was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1971, list of Rocky Mountain passes on the continental divide