Jacob August Riis was a Danish-American social reformer, "muckraking" journalist a social documentary photographer. He is known for using his photographic and journalistic talents to help the impoverished in New York City, he endorsed the implementation of "model tenements" in New York with the help of humanitarian Lawrence Veiller. Additionally, as one of the most famous proponents of the newly practicable casual photography, he is considered one of the fathers of photography due to his early adoption of flash in photography. While living in New York, Riis experienced poverty and became a police reporter writing about the quality of life in the slums, he attempted to alleviate the bad living conditions of poor people by exposing their living conditions to the middle and upper classes. Born in Ribe, Jacob Riis was the third of the 15 children of Niels Edward Riis, a schoolteacher and writer for the local Ribe newspaper, Carolina Riis, a homemaker. Among the 15, only Jacob, one sister, the foster sister survived into the twentieth century.
Riis was influenced by his father. His father persuaded him to read Charles Dickens's magazine All the Year Round and the novels of James Fenimore Cooper. Jacob had a happy childhood, but the experienced tragedy at the age of eleven when his brother Theodore, a year younger, drowned, he never forgot his mother's grief. At age eleven or twelve, he donated all the money he had and gave it to a poor Ribe family living in a squalid house if they cleaned it; the tenants obliged. Though his father had hoped that Jacob would have a literary career, Jacob wanted to be a carpenter; when he was 16, he became fond of Elisabeth Gjørtz, the 12-year-old adopted daughter of the owner of the company for which he worked as an apprentice carpenter. The father disapproved of the boy's blundering attentions, Riis was forced to complete his carpentry apprenticeship in Copenhagen. Riis returned to Ribe in 1868 at age 19. Discouraged by poor job availability in the region and Gjørtz's disfavor of his marriage proposal, Riis decided to emigrate to the United States.
Riis immigrated to America in 1870. He first traveled in a small boat from Copenhagen to Glasgow, where on May 18 he boarded the steamer Iowa, traveling in steerage, he carried $40 donated by friends. Riis disembarked in New York on June 5, on that day spending half of the $40 his friends had given him on a revolver for defense against human or animal predators; when Riis arrived in New York City, he was one of a large number of migrants and immigrants, seeking prosperity in a more industrialized environment, who came to urban areas during the years after the American Civil War. Twenty-four million people relocated to urban areas; the demographics of American urban areas became more heterogeneous as many immigrants arrived, creating ethnic enclaves more populous than many of the cities of their homelands. "In the 1880s 334,000 people were crammed into a single square mile of the Lower East Side, making it the most densely populated place on earth. They were packed into filthy, disease-ridden tenements, 10 or 15 to a room, the well-off knew nothing about them and cared less."
After five days, during which he used all his money, Riis found work as a carpenter at Brady's Bend Iron Works on the Allegheny River above Pittsburgh. After a few days of that, he began mining for increased pay but resumed carpentry. Learning on July 19, 1870, that France had declared war on Germany, he expected that Denmark would join France to avenge the Prussian seizure of Schleswig, determined to fight for France, he returned to New York, having pawned most of his possessions and without money, attempted to enlist at the French consulate, but was told that there was no plan to send a volunteer army from America. Pawning his revolver, he walked out of New York. After a brief period of farm working and odd jobs at Mount Vernon, New York, Riis returned to New York, where he read in the newspaper New York Sun that the newspaper was recruiting soldiers for the war. Riis rushed there to enlist, but the editor claimed or affected ignorance but offered the famished Riis a dollar for breakfast. Riis was destitute, at one time surviving on windfall apples.
Still, he found work at a brickyard at Little Washington in New Jersey, was there for six weeks until he heard that a group of volunteers was going to the war. Thereupon he left for New York. On arrival, Riis found that he had arrived too late, he pleaded with the French consul. He made various other attempts to enlist, none successful; as autumn began, Riis was destitute, without a job. He survived on scavenged food and handouts from Delmonico's Restaurant and slept in public areas or in a foul-smelling police lodging-house. At one time Riis's only companion was a stray dog. One morning he awoke in a lodging-house to find that his go
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form and alignment that have arisen from the same cause an orogeny. Mountain ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain ranges are found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System and are a feature of most terrestrial planets. Mountain ranges are segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not have the same geologic structure or petrology, they may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, volcanic landforms resulting in a variety of rock types. Most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earth's land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt.
The Pacific Ring of Fire includes the Andes of South America, extends through the North American Cordillera along the Pacific Coast, the Aleutian Range, on through Kamchatka, Taiwan, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, to New Zealand. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the world's longest mountain system; the Alpide belt includes Indonesia and Southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, Caucasus Mountains, Balkan Mountains fold mountain range, the Alps, ends in the Spanish mountains and the Atlas Mountains. The belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges; the Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, 8,848 metres high and traverses the border between China and Nepal. Mountain ranges outside these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Great Dividing Range, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains. If the definition of a mountain range is stretched to include underwater mountains the Ocean Ridges form the longest continuous mountain system on Earth, with a length of 65,000 kilometres.
The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, where mountain ranges can contain sub-ranges. The sub-range relationship is expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains. Equivalently, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians; the parent-child expression extends to the sub-ranges themselves: the Sandwich Range and the Presidential Range are children of the White Mountains, while the Presidential Range is parent to the Northern Presidential Range and Southern Presidential Range. The position of mountains influences climate, such as snow; when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the leeward side, it warms again and is drier, having been stripped of much of its moisture.
A rain shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are subjected to erosional forces which work to tear them down; the basins adjacent to an eroding mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted until the mountains are reduced to low hills and plains; the early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example. As the uplift was occurring some 10,000 feet of Mesozoic sedimentary strata were removed by erosion over the core of the mountain range and spread as sand and clays across the Great Plains to the east; this mass of rock was removed as the range was undergoing uplift. The removal of such a mass from the core of the range most caused further uplift as the region adjusted isostatically in response to the removed weight. Rivers are traditionally believed to be the principal cause of mountain range erosion, by cutting into bedrock and transporting sediment.
Computer simulation has shown that as mountain belts change from tectonically active to inactive, the rate of erosion drops because there are fewer abrasive particles in the water and fewer landslides. Mountains on other planets and natural satellites of the Solar System are isolated and formed by processes such as impacts, though there are examples of mountain ranges somewhat similar to those on Earth. Saturn's moon Titan and Pluto, in particular exhibit large mountain ranges in chains composed of ices rather than rock. Examples include the Mithrim Montes and Doom Mons on Titan, Tenzing Montes and Hillary Montes on Pluto; some terrestrial planets other than Earth exhibit rocky mountain ranges, such as Maxwell Montes on Venus taller than any on Earth and Tartarus Montes on Mars, Jupiter's moon Io has mountain ranges formed from tectonic processes including Boösaule Montes, Dorian Montes, Hi'iaka Montes and Euboea Montes. Peakbagger Ranges Home Page Bivouac.com
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Henry E. Huntington
Henry Edwards Huntington was an American railroad magnate and collector of art and rare books. Huntington settled in Los Angeles, where he owned the Pacific Electric Railway as well as substantial real estate interests. In addition to being a businessman and art collector, Huntington was a major booster for Los Angeles in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In the city of San Marino, many places are named after him, including a school, a road and a library. Born in Oneonta, New York, Henry Huntington was the nephew of Collis P. Huntington, one of The Big Four, instrumental in creating the Central Pacific Railroad, one of the two railroads that built the transcontinental railway in 1869. Henry Huntington held several executive positions alongside his uncle with the Southern Pacific. After Collis Huntington's death, Henry Huntington assumed Collis Huntington's leadership role with Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Company in Virginia, married his widow Arabella Huntington, his divorce from his first wife Mary Alice Prentice, birth sister of his Uncle Collis' adopted daughter, in 1910 and marriage to Arabella in 1913 after Mary Alice's death shocked San Francisco society.
He had none with Arabella. Arabella's son Archer, from her prior marriage from which she was widowed, had earlier been adopted by Collis Huntington. In 1898, in friendly competition with his uncle's Southern Pacific, Huntington bought the narrow gauge city-oriented Los Angeles Railway, known as the'Yellow Car' system. In 1901, Huntington formed the sprawling interurban, standard gauge Pacific Electric Railway, known as the'Red Car' system, centered at 6th and Main Streets in Los Angeles. Huntington succeeded in this competition by providing passenger friendly streetcars on 24/7 schedules, which the railroads could not match; this was facilitated by the boom in Southern California land development, where housing was built in places such as Orange County's Huntington Beach, a Huntington-sponsored development, streetcars served passenger needs that the railroads had not considered. Connectivity to Downtown Los Angeles made such suburbs feasible. By 1910, the Huntington trolley systems spanned 1,300 miles of southern California.
At its greatest extent, the system contained over 20 streetcar lines and 1,250 trolleys, most running through the core of Los Angeles and serving such nearby neighborhoods as the Crenshaw district, West Adams, Echo Park, Hancock Park, Exposition Park, Boyle Heights and Lincoln Heights. The system integrated the 1902 acquisition, the Mount Lowe Scenic Railway above Altadena, California in the San Gabriel Mountains. In 1905 Huntington, A. Kingsley Macomber, William R. Staats developed the Oak Knoll subdivision, located to the west of his San Marino estate in the oak-covered hilly terrain near Pasadena. In 1906, along with Frank Miller, owner of the Mission Inn, Charles M. Loring, formed the Huntington Park Association, with the intent to purchase Mount Rubidoux in Riverside, build a road to the summit, develop the hill as a park to benefit the city of Riverside; the road was completed in February 1907. The property was donated to the city of Riverside by the heirs of Frank Miller, today the hill is a 161-acre city park.
Huntington was a Life Member of the Sons of the Revolution in the State of California. Huntington retired from business in 1916. In 1927 Henry E. Huntington died in Philadelphia, he and Arabella are buried, with a large monument, in the Gardens of the Huntington Library in San Marino, California. The Huntington Hotel was named Hotel Wentworth when it opened on February 1, 1907. Financial problems and a disappointing first season forced it to close indefinitely. Henry Huntington purchased the Wentworth in 1911, it reopened in 1914, transformed into a winter resort. The 1920s were prosperous for the hotel, as Midwestern and Eastern entrepreneurs discovered California's warm winter climate; the hotel's reputation for fine service began with long-time general manager and owner Stephen W. Royce. By 1926, the hotel's success prompted Royce to open the property year-round; the "golden years" ended with the stock market crash and the Great Depression of the late 1920s and early 1930s. By the end of the 1930s the hotel was vibrant again.
When World War II began, all reservations were cancelled and the hotel was rented to the Army for $3,000 a month. Following the war, the Huntington's fortunes improved again. In 1954 Stephen Royce sold the hotel to the Sheraton Corporation, serving as general manager until his retirement in 1969; the hotel operated until 1985. The structure was built of un-reinforced concrete in 1906. After a two-and-a-half year major renovation, the hotel reopened in March 1991 as the Ritz Carlton Huntington Hotel and Spa; the hotel completed a $19 million renovation in January 2006. Huntington left a prominent legacy with the Huntington Library, Art Collections and Botanical Gardens on his former estate in San Marino near Pasadena. Other legacies in California include the cities of Huntington Beach and Huntington Park, as well as Huntington Lake. In greater Los Angeles are the Huntington Hospital in Pasadena, Henry E. Huntington Middle School in San Marino, the grand boulevard, Huntington Drive, running eastbound from downtown Los Angeles.
Its landscaped central parkway was the right-of-way for the Norther
The Serra Cross, sometimes known as the Cross on the Hill or the Grant Park Cross, is a Christian cross on a hill known as "La Loma de la Cruz" in Ventura, California. The site is in Serra Cross Park, a one-acre parcel within the larger Grant Park that overlooks downtown Ventura, the Santa Barbara Channel, Anacapa and Santa Cruz Islands. According to some accounts, the first cross was erected at the site in 1782 at the time of the founding of the Mission San Buenaventura; the cross has been replaced several times, including known instances in the early 1860s under the supervision of Father John Campala, in 1912 by the E. C. O. Club, in 1941 by the Alice M. Bartlett Club; the site was designated as California Historical Landmark No. 113 in 1933. In 2003, the threat of litigation over the city's use of public funds to maintain a religious symbol on city-owned land resulted in a settlement pursuant to which the city agreed to dim the lighting of the cross and sold a one-acre site underlying the cross to a private, non-profit organization, now known as the Serra Cross Conservancy.
The Mission San Buenaventura was founded by Junípero Serra on March 30, 1782. According to E. M. Sheridan's "History of Cross On Hill", written in 1928, the erection of a cross at a visible point was "the first act of the Mission Fathers", seeking to establish a guide-post to those coming to the Mission by land or sea. According to Sheridan's account, Father Serra himself erected and blessed the cross on what was thereafter called "La Loma de la Cruz". According to the traditional story, the cross was erected before the Mission itself was built. However, some contend that the story about Father Serra erecting the cross in 1782 is not factual. In his 1930 history, "San Buenaventura: The Mission by the Sea", Father Zephyrin Engelhardt rejected the traditional story:"The first Cross was planted there, so the settlers will say, by Fr. Junipero Serra, the founder of Mission San Buenaventura. However, an error; when Fr. Serra started the Mission, he planted and blessed the Cross on the spot where the altar of the church would be located.
Such was the rule for all occasions. He was not in physical condition to climb to the top of the hill, nor is there any record of the raising of the Cross on the mount. Fr. Palou would have noted the incident." Engelhardt was unable to ascertain when the first cross was raised on the hill. The first cross became decayed and collapsed in the early 1860s. Shortly thereafter, the cross was rebuilt under the supervision of Father John Campala known as Padre Juan, the presiding priest at the Mission San Buenaventura; the second cross collapsed in a windstorm on November 2, 1875. An article published four days in the Ventura Free Press noted: "Fallen--the wooden cross, which stood on the summit of the hill back of town, after having stood the storms of a decade, succumbed to the elements on Tuesday night and fell. A cross placed on the same spot when the Mission was founded, the emblem of Christianity has always been replaced whenever it fell."For more than 35 years after Father John Campala's cross collapsed, no cross was erected at the site.
After the 1875 storm, Ventura de Arnaz approximately 16 years old, climbed the hill with her father to survey the damage. The girl retrieved the headpiece from the cross, the portion bearing the inscription "INRI", retained it as a souvenir. Arnaz donated the headpiece to the Ventura Pioneer Museum, predecessor to The Museum of Ventura County. According to Sheridan's account, the headpiece discovered by Arnaz had been attached to the cross with wooden pegs and was a remnant of the original cross erected by Father Serra in 1782; the headpiece remains "one of the prized possessions" of The Museum of Ventura County. In 1912, a movement to rebuild the cross on the hill was led by Myrtle Francis, head of the Landmarks Committee, Sol N. Sheridan, secretary of the Chamber of Commerce, Alice Bartlett, head of the E. C. O. Club. Sheridan led a party to cut down Jeffrey pine trees in Santa Paula canyon to build the new cross, R. E. Brakey cut the trees and hauled them back to Ventura; the logs were hewn and cured at the Peoples' Lumber Company under the supervision of Selwyn Shaw, a local builder who designed the mount for the new cross.
On September 9, 1912, the new cross was erected on the site of Father Serra's original cross. The 26-foot replacement cross was dedicated in a ceremony that included speeches; the Ventura Free Press described the ceremony at length on its front page and concluded: "Never has the town seen such an outpouring of people. The event was an unusual one for any community, it has never happened before, nor anything just like it, nor, is it to happen again within the next hundred years." The ceremony began at the Mission with the ringing of the old Mission bells, including a vesper bell, silent for years. A procession up the hill, accompanied by Santa Barbara's St. Aloysius Band, was led by grand marshal, Francisco Camarillo, followed by the Franciscan fathers of Santa Barbara, E. C. O. Club members, Ventura County Pioneers, Native Daughters of the Golden West and county officials, school children from throughout the county "carrying an immense American flag." A large crowd of 3,000 to 4,000 persons gathered at the site of the cross for its dedication.
Upon the raising of the cross, the Franciscans blessed it, children from Oxnard's St. Joseph school sang. Several speeches were given, an original poem about the cross was read by John S. McGroarty, designated as California'a poet laureate. In 1915, residents of Ventura be
The Hollywood Bowl is an amphitheater in the Hollywood Hills neighborhood of Los Angeles, California. It was named one of the 10 best live music venues in America by Rolling Stone Magazine in 2018; the Hollywood Bowl is known for its band shell, a distinctive set of concentric arches that graced the site from 1929 through 2003, before being replaced with a larger one beginning in the 2004 season. The shell is set against the backdrop of the Hollywood Hills and the famous Hollywood Sign to the northeast; the "bowl" refers to the shape of the concave hillside. The Bowl is owned by the County of Los Angeles and is the home of the Hollywood Bowl Orchestra, the summer home of the Los Angeles Philharmonic, the host venue to hundreds of musical events each year, it is located at 2301 North Highland Avenue, west of the French Village, north of Hollywood Boulevard and the Hollywood/Highland subway station, south of Route 101. The site of the Hollywood Bowl was chosen in 1919 by William Reed and his son H. Ellis Reed, who were dispatched to find a suitable location for outdoor performances by the members of the newly formed Theatre Arts Alliance headed by Christine Wetherill Stevenson.
The Reeds selected a natural amphitheater, a shaded canyon and popular picnic spot known as'Daisy Dell' in Bolton Canyon, chosen for its natural acoustics and its proximity to downtown Hollywood. The Community Park and Art Association headed by F. W. Blanchard, was the first organization to begin the building the Bowl. One of the earliest performances at the Bowl was Hollywood High School’s Performance of Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night; the Women’s World Peace Concert was held on November 11, 1921. On November 11, 1921 the first Sunrise Service took place at the bowl, in one of its first major events. With the building of the first actual stage, consisting of little more than wooden platforms in and canvas, The Bowl opened on July 11, 1922; the Bowl began as a community space rather than a owned establishment. Proceeds from the early events at the Bowl went to financing the construction of new elements of the bowl such as a stage and seating in 1922 and 1923 respectively. In 1924, a backdrop to the stage was added.
During the early years of the Bowl’s existence, concert tickets were kept at the lowest available price of 25 cents using the slogan popular prices will prevail, coined by F. W. Blanchard. While serving as the venue for concerts by the Los Angeles Philharmonic, the Bowl served as a community space, being used for Easter services, the Hollywood Community Chorus, as well as Young Artists Nights where younger musicians could perform well known classical music. Children were invited to perform at community events with the Los Angeles Philharmonic and the Hollywood Community Chorus, beginning with Sibelius’ Finlandia in 1921; the Bowl was home to much more than western music, hosting a variety of Native American tribal events, as well as international music ensembles. In 1924, the land was deeded to the County of Los Angeles. Many of the key influential figures in the founding of the Hollywood Bowl were women, most notably the pianist Artie Mason Carter, whose connections with the Los Angeles arts patrons were vital in the early days of the Bowls existence.
Christine Wetherill Stevenson and Marie Rankin Clarke, who both donated $21,000 to purchase the land on which the bowl was built. E. J. Wakeman, Leiland Atherton Irish, Harriet Clay Penman, composers Gertrude Ross and Carrie Jacobs Bond all contributed to the Bowl through fundraising drives. Lloyd Wright designed the third band shells; the original 1926 shell, designed by the Allied Architects group, was considered unacceptable both visually and acoustically. Wright's 1927 shell had a pyramidal shape and a design reminiscent of southwest American Indian architecture, its acoustics were regarded as the best of any shell in Bowl history. But its appearance was considered too avant-garde, or only ugly, it was demolished at the end of the season, his 1928 wooden shell had the now-familiar concentric ring motif, covered a 120-degree arc, was designed to be dismantled. It was neglected and ruined by water damage. For the 1929 season, the Allied Architects built the shell that stood until 2003, using a transite skin over a metal frame.
Its acoustics, though not nearly as good as those of the Lloyd Wright shells, were deemed satisfactory at first, its clean lines and white, semicircular arches were copied for music shells elsewhere. As the acoustics deteriorated, various measures were used to mitigate the problems, starting in the 1970s with an inner shell made from large cardboard tubes, which were replaced in the early 1980s by large fiberglass spheres that remained until 2003; these dampened out the unfavorable acoustics, but required massive use of electronic amplification to reach the full audience since the background noise level had risen since the 1920s. The appearance underwent other, purely visual, changes as well, including the addition of a broad outer arch where it had once had only a narrow rim, a reflecting pool in front of the stage that lasted from 1953 till 1972. Sculptor George Stanley, designer of the Oscar statuette, designed the Muse Fountain which has stood outside the Hollywood Bowl's main entrance since 1940.
Shortly after the end of the 2003 summer season the 1929 shell was replaced with a new, somewhat larger, acoustically improved shell, which had its debut in the 2004 summer season. Preservationists fiercely opposed the demolition for many years; however when it was built, the 1929 shell was (at least aco
Frank Augustus Miller
Frank Augustus Miller was the owner and chief developer of the Mission Inn in Riverside, United States, where Frank Augustus Miller Middle School was named after him. He was a civic leader and one of Riverside's strongest promoters. Frank Miller was born in Tomah, Wisconsin in 1857 to Christopher Columbus "CC" Miller and Maryanne Miller, one of four children. CC Miller brought his family to Riverside in 1874; as a surveyor and civil engineer CC was a respected and valuable contributor to the development of Riverside. He paid $250 cash for a one square block parcel of downtown Riverside, he and his family built a home of which the first floor was adobe bricks and the second floor was wood frame construction. They did not like the appearance of the adobe building and drew upon their Midwest values to cover it in wooden clapboards; the 12 room structure had been planned as a home for the Miller family with extra rooms for boarders, since there were no hostelries available for visitors. Both of Frank Miller’s parents had college degrees and they wanted to send him to a college in Ohio.
He pleaded with them stating that he wasn’t a good student anyway and he would live an exemplary life if they would let him stay in Riverside and run the hotel. His parents assented and Maryanne made arrangements for the only teacher in town, Isabella Hardenberg, to tutor her son, Frank. Isabella was a boarder at the Glenwood Inn. After months of tutoring and Isabella hit it off and married in 1880. Since CC did not like managing the boarding house so he sold it and the property to FM for $5K. In 1902 Frank Miller and his architect Arthur Benton built "the Mission Wing", a U-shaped structure in'Mission Revival' style of 84 new rooms as the first major expansion to the Mission Inn, he garnered $250,000 in financial support from Henry Huntington. In 1911 the Cloister Wing was built by architect Arthur Benton. In 1914 the Spanish Wing was completed. In 1931 the Rotunda Wing by architect G Stanley Wilson was completed; some of Frank Miller's accomplishments include: started a trolley service from the Mission Inn Hotel to Arlington along Magnolia Blvd opened the "Blue Front Grocery" named for the bright blue paint on the front of the store managed the 1,000 seat Loring Opera House including arranging for the entertainers was influential in relocating a Native American Indian School from Perris to Riverside named the "Sherman School" after James S. Sherman, the Congressman who helped obtain the funding in 1900 started the Mount Rubidoux Easter Sunrise Service in 1909 which still occurs every Easter was a founding member of the County of Riverside when it separated from San Bernardino County helped arrange for the Federal Government to locate a military airfield, March Field, adjacent to Riverside now known as March Field Air Reserve Base was influential in arranging for a Citrus Testing Station to help citrus growers optimize procedures and defend their crops from diseases.
The Citrus Testing Station became the University of California, aka UCR, which had 22,000 students in 2016He is buried in Riverside's Evergreen Cemetery. Brown Jr, John and James Boyd. History of San Bernardino and Riverside Counties. Lewis Publishing, Chicago. OCLC 8019575 Gale, Zona. Frank Miller of the Mission Inn, New York, D. Appleton-Century Company, 1938. OCLC 2181944 Gunther, Jane Davies. Riverside County, Place Names. LCCN 84-72920. OCLC 12103181 Hodgen, Maurice. Master of the Mission Inn: Frank Miller, a Life. North Charleston, SC, Ashburton Publishing, c2013. ISBN 9780976278511 OCLC 876931972 Patterson, Tom. A Colony for California. Riverside Museum Associates, 1996. ISBN 9780935661248. OCLC 35812626 Patterson, Tom. Landmarks of Riverside, the Stories Behind Them. Press-Enterprise Co. Riverside, CA, 1964. OCLC 3512580 Wenzel, Glenn. "Anecdotes on Frank Miller and the Mount Rubidoux Easter pilgrimages", Journal of the Riverside Historical Society, Riverside, CA, No. 13, February 2009. Wenzel and Wenzel, Seth Anecdotes on Mount Rubidoux and Frank A. Miller, her promoter.
Riverside, CA, 2010 ISBN 9781450705028. OCLC 604994425 Mission Inn Museum, Hands on History, The Miller Family Master of the Inn. "Frank August Miller". Built the Mission Inn. Find a Grave. Retrieved November 30, 2011