Mount Rainier known as Tahoma or Tacoma, is a large active stratovolcano located 59 miles south-southeast of Seattle, in the Mount Rainier National Park. With a summit elevation of 14,411 ft, it is the highest mountain in the U. S. state of Washington, of the Cascade Range of the Pacific Northwest, it is the second topographically prominent mountain in the continental United States and the first in the Cascade Volcanic Arc. Mt. Rainier is considered one of the most dangerous volcanoes in the world, it is on the Decade Volcano list; because of its large amount of glacial ice, Mt. Rainier could produce massive lahars that could threaten the entire Puyallup River valley. "About 80,000 people and their homes are at risk in Mount Rainier’s lahar-hazard zones." Mount Rainier was first known by Tacoma or Tahoma. One hypothesis of the word origin is, in the Lushootseed language spoken by the Puyallup people. Another hypothesis is that "Tacoma" means "larger than Mount Baker" in Lushootseed: "Ta", plus "Koma", Mount Baker.
Other names used include Tahoma and Pooskaus. The current name was given by George Vancouver, who named it in honor of his friend, Rear Admiral Peter Rainier; the map of the Lewis and Clark expedition of 1804-1806 refers to it as "Mt. Regniere". Although "Rainier" had been considered the official name of the mountain, Theodore Winthrop, in his posthumously published 1862 travel book The Canoe and the Saddle, referred to the mountain as "Tacoma" and for a time, both names were used interchangeably, although "Mt. Tacoma" was preferred in the city of Tacoma. In 1890, the United States Board on Geographic Names declared that the mountain would be known as "Rainier". Following this in 1897, the Pacific Forest Reserve became the Mount Rainier Forest Reserve, the national park was established three years later. Despite this, there was still a movement to change the mountain's name to "Tacoma" and Congress was still considering a resolution to change the name as late as 1924. In the lead-up to Super Bowl XLVIII, the Washington State Senate passed a resolution on Friday, January 31, 2014, temporarily renaming the mountain Mount Seattle Seahawks until the midnight after the Super Bowl, February 3, 2014, in response to the renaming of 53 mountains in Colorado after the 53 members of the Denver Broncos by Governor of Colorado John Hickenlooper.
After the 2015 restoration of the original name Denali from Mount McKinley in Alaska, debate over Mount Rainier's name intensified. Mount Rainier is the tallest mountain in the Cascade Range; this peak is located just southeast of Seattle and Tacoma. Mount Rainier is ranked third of the 128 ultra-prominent mountain peaks of the United States. Mount Rainier has a topographic prominence of 13,210 ft, greater than that of K2, the world's second-tallest mountain, at 13,189 ft. On clear days it dominates the southeastern horizon in most of the Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area to such an extent that locals sometimes refer to it as "the Mountain." On days of exceptional clarity, it can be seen from as far away as Corvallis and Victoria, British Columbia. With 26 major glaciers and 36 sq mi of permanent snowfields and glaciers, Mount Rainier is the most glaciated peak in the lower 48 states; the summit is topped by two volcanic craters, each more than 1,000 ft in diameter, with the larger east crater overlapping the west crater.
Geothermal heat from the volcano keeps areas of both crater rims free of snow and ice, has formed the world's largest volcanic glacier cave network within the ice-filled craters, with nearly 2 mi of passages. A small crater lake about 130 by 30 ft in size and 16 ft deep, the highest in North America with a surface elevation of 14,203 ft, occupies the lowest portion of the west crater below more than 100 ft of ice and is accessible only via the caves; the Carbon, Mowich and Cowlitz Rivers begin at eponymous glaciers of Mount Rainier. The sources of the White River are Winthrop and Fryingpan Glaciers; the White and Mowich join the Puyallup River, which discharges into Commencement Bay at Tacoma. The broad top of Mount Rainier contains three named summits; the highest is called the Columbia Crest. The second highest summit is Point Success, 14,158 ft, at the southern edge of the summit plateau, atop the ridge known as Success Cleaver, it has a topographic prominence of about 138 ft, so it is not considered a separate peak.
The lowest of the three summits is Liberty Cap, 14,112 ft, at the northwestern edge, which overlooks Liberty Ridge, the Sunset Amphitheater, the dramatic Willis Wall. Liberty Cap has a prominence of 492 ft, so would qualify as a separate peak under most prominence-based rules. A prominence cutoff of 400 ft is used in Washington state. High on the eastern flank of Mount Rainier is a peak known as Little Tahoma Peak, 11,138 ft, an eroded remnant of the earlier, much higher, Mount Rainier, it has a prominence of 858 ft, it is never climbed in direct conjunction with Columbia Crest, so it is considered a separate peak. If considered separately from Mt. Rainier, Little Tahoma Peak would be the third highest mountain peak in Washington. Mount Rainier is a stratovolcano in the Cascade Volcanic Arc that consists of lava flows, debris flows, pyroclastic ejecta and flows, its early volcanic deposits are estimated
Mount Fairweather, is the highest mountain in the Canadian province of British Columbia, with an elevation of 4,671 metres. It is located 20 km east of the Pacific Ocean on the border of Alaska, United States and western British Columbia, Canada. Most of the mountain lies within Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve in the City and Borough of Yakutat, though the summit borders Tatshenshini-Alsek Provincial Park, British Columbia, it is designated as Boundary Peak 164 or as US/Canada Boundary Point #164. The mountain was named on May 3, 1778 by Captain James Cook for the unusually good weather encountered at the time; the name has been translated into many languages. It was called "Mt. Beautemps" by La Perouse, "Mte. Buen-tiempo" by Galiano, "Gor-Khoroshy-pogody" on Russian Hydrographic Dept. Chart 1378 in 1847, "G Fayerveder" by Captain Tebenkov, Imperial Russian Navy, it was called "Schönwetterberg" by Constantin Grewingk in 1850 and "Schönwetter Berg" by Justus Perthes in 1882. Fairweather was first climbed in 1931 by Allen Carpé and Terris Moore.
Mount Fairweather is located right above Glacier Bay in the Fairweather Range of the Saint Elias Mountains. Mount Fairweather marks the northwest extremity of the Alaska Panhandle. Like many peaks in the St. Elias Mountains, Mount Fairweather has great vertical relief due to its dramatic rise from Glacier Bay. However, due to poor weather in the area, this effect is obscured with the clouds which hides the summit from view. Known in the Tlingit language as Tsalxhaan, it is said this mountain and Yaas'éit'aa Shaa were next to each other but had an argument and separated, their children, the mountains in between the two peaks, are called Tsalxhaan Yatx'i Despite its name, Mount Fairweather has harsh weather conditions. It receives over 100 inches of precipitation each year and sees temperatures of around -50 °F. 1926 Allen Carpe, Andy Taylor and W. S. Ladd reached 2,890 m on the West Ridge, but were forced back due to a steep notch in the ridge that made ferrying supplies difficult. 1930 Bradford Washburn made an attempt on the West Ridge but traveling conditions forced a retreat at 2,040 metres.
1931 Allen Carpe and Terris Moore summited via the Southeast Ridge on June 8, 1931 1958 Paddy Sherman and 7 other Canadians reached the summit via the SE Ridge on June 26, 1958. 1968 West Ridge, Loren Adkins, Walter Gove, Paul Myhre, John Neal and Kent Stokes - summit reached June 12, 1968 1973 Southwest Ridge, Peter Metcalf, Henry Florschutz, Toby O'Brien and Lincoln Stoller. Summit reached on July 10, 1973. After failing to reach the summit in 1926 due to terrain difficulty on their chosen route, Allen Carpe, W. S. Ladd, Andy Taylor returned in 1931 along with a new member Terry Moore. In early April the group began their approach by boat but stormy weather delayed them rounding Cape Fairweather until April 17, they unloaded their supplies on the beach. Backtracking 21 kilometres along the coast, they made their way to the Fairweather Glacier. From base camp in a spot they called Paradise Valley, they decided to attempt the mountain from the south rather than via the west ridge. Due to deep snow, they realized that skis and snowshoes would be of great help so Carpe and Moore made the 80 km round trip to fetch them from Lituya Bay.
They ascended the glacier from base setup camp at 1,520 m on the mountain's south face. On May 25, they established high camp at 2,740 m after making significant progress up a ridge on a rare day of good weather. However, the weather turned and they were forced to descend after an overnight coating of snow. After waiting out the snowstorm for six days at lower camp, they made their way back up to high camp on June 2, they left for the summit at 1:30 am on June 3 and having reached the southeast shoulder by mid-morning, they were feeling so confident that they left the willow wands behind. However, higher altitude and the weeks of hard effort slowed their progress and the weather changed. By 1 pm not far from the summit, they decided to retreat and had to descend without the wands to guide them, they managed to reach the tents by 4 pm. Ladd and Taylor volunteered to descend due to dwindling supplies at high camp with the hope that Carpe and Moore would be able to make another attempt in good weather.
The storm raged for four days before it cleared in the evening on June 7. At 10 pm, Carpe and Moore set out for the summit and with no further difficulties made it to the top. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of Canada List of mountain peaks of the United States List of Boundary Peaks of the Alaska-British Columbia/Yukon border NOAA Ship Fairweather Sherman, Paddy. Cloud Walkers. MacMillan. ISBN 0-916890-79-1
A mountain is a large landform that rises above the surrounding land in a limited area in the form of a peak. A mountain is steeper than a hill. Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism; these forces can locally raise the surface of the earth. Mountains erode through the action of rivers, weather conditions, glaciers. A few mountains are isolated summits. High elevations on mountains produce colder climates than at sea level; these colder climates affect the ecosystems of mountains: different elevations have different plants and animals. Because of the less hospitable terrain and climate, mountains tend to be used less for agriculture and more for resource extraction and recreation, such as mountain climbing; the highest mountain on Earth is Mount Everest in the Himalayas of Asia, whose summit is 8,850 m above mean sea level. The highest known mountain on any planet in the Solar System is Olympus Mons on Mars at 21,171 m. There is no universally accepted definition of a mountain.
Elevation, relief, steepness and continuity have been used as criteria for defining a mountain. In the Oxford English Dictionary a mountain is defined as "a natural elevation of the earth surface rising more or less abruptly from the surrounding level and attaining an altitude which to the adjacent elevation, is impressive or notable."Whether a landform is called a mountain may depend on local usage. Mount Scott outside Lawton, Oklahoma, USA, is only 251 m from its base to its highest point. Whittow's Dictionary of Physical Geography states "Some authorities regard eminences above 600 metres as mountains, those below being referred to as hills." In the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland, a mountain is defined as any summit at least 2,000 feet high, whilst the official UK government's definition of a mountain, for the purposes of access, is a summit of 600 metres or higher. In addition, some definitions include a topographical prominence requirement 100 or 500 feet. At one time the U.
S. Board on Geographic Names defined a mountain as being 1,000 feet or taller, but has abandoned the definition since the 1970s. Any similar landform lower. However, the United States Geological Survey concludes that these terms do not have technical definitions in the US; the UN Environmental Programme's definition of "mountainous environment" includes any of the following: Elevation of at least 2,500 m. Using these definitions, mountains cover 33% of Eurasia, 19% of South America, 24% of North America, 14% of Africa; as a whole, 24% of the Earth's land mass is mountainous. There are three main types of mountains: volcanic and block. All three types are formed from plate tectonics: when portions of the Earth's crust move and dive. Compressional forces, isostatic uplift and intrusion of igneous matter forces surface rock upward, creating a landform higher than the surrounding features; the height of the feature makes it either a hill or, if steeper, a mountain. Major mountains tend to occur in long linear arcs, indicating tectonic plate boundaries and activity.
Volcanoes are formed when a plate is pushed at a mid-ocean ridge or hotspot. At a depth of around 100 km, melting occurs in rock above the slab, forms magma that reaches the surface; when the magma reaches the surface, it builds a volcanic mountain, such as a shield volcano or a stratovolcano. Examples of volcanoes include Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines; the magma does not have to reach the surface in order to create a mountain: magma that solidifies below ground can still form dome mountains, such as Navajo Mountain in the US. Fold mountains occur when two plates collide: shortening occurs along thrust faults and the crust is overthickened. Since the less dense continental crust "floats" on the denser mantle rocks beneath, the weight of any crustal material forced upward to form hills, plateaus or mountains must be balanced by the buoyancy force of a much greater volume forced downward into the mantle, thus the continental crust is much thicker under mountains, compared to lower lying areas.
Rock can fold either asymmetrically. The upfolds are anticlines and the downfolds are synclines: in asymmetric folding there may be recumbent and overturned folds; the Balkan Mountains and the Jura Mountains are examples of fold mountains. Block mountains are caused by faults in the crust: a plane; when rocks on one side of a fault rise relative to the other, it can form a mountain. The uplifted blocks are block horsts; the intervening dropped blocks are termed graben: these can be small or form extensive rift valley systems. This form of landscape can be seen in East Africa, the Vosges, the Basin and Range Province of Western North America and the Rhine valley; these areas occur when the regional stress is extensional and the crust is thinned. During and following uplift, mountains are subjected to the agents of erosion which wear the uplifted area down. Erosion causes the surface of mountains to be younger than the rocks that form the mountains themselves. Glacial processes produce characteristic landforms, such as pyramidal peaks, knife-edge arêtes, bowl-shaped cirques that can contai
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Kluane Lake is located in the southwest area of the Yukon. It is the largest lake contained within Yukon at 408 km2, 81 km long; until 2016, Kluane Lake was fed by the A'ay Chu, composed of meltwater from the Kaskawulsh Glacier, located within Kluane National Park. It drains into the Kluane River, whose waters flow into the Donjek River, White River, Yukon River, the Bering Sea; the lake is known for its fishing. Kluane Lake is located 60 km northwest of Haines Junction; the lake has a mean depth of 31 m and a maximum depth of 91 m The Alaska Highway follows most of Kluane Lake's southern border, the drive offers views of the lake. The Yukon communities of Burwash Landing and Destruction Bay are located on the southern shore of the lake; the Aishihik and Kluane caribou herds migrate in the area surrounding Aishihik Lakes. They are a distinct ecotype of the woodland caribou. In 2009 there were 2044 caribou in the Aishihik herd; the Kluane herd was declining while the Aishihik herd was increasing
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
Mount Hunter (Alaska)
Mount Hunter or Begguya is a mountain in Denali National Park in Alaska. It is eight miles south of Denali, the highest peak in North America. "Begguya" means child in the Dena'ina language. Mount Hunter is the third-highest major peak in the Alaska Range. Mount Hunter has a complex structure: it is topped by a large, low-angled glacier plateau, connecting the North Summit and the South Summit. Long, corniced ridges extend in various directions; the native name for the mountain is Begguya, meaning "Denali's Child". Early prospectors referred to the mountain as Mount Roosevelt. In 1903, Robert Dunn, a reporter for the New York Commercial Advertiser, visited the area as part of Frederick Cook's attempt to climb Mount McKinley, he bestowed the name of his aunt Anna Falconnet Hunter, who financed his trip, on a high nearby mountain, prominent from the northwest. This was, in a different peak, now known as Kahiltna Dome; the name Hunter was mistakenly applied to the present-day Mount Hunter by a government surveyor in 1906.
In October 2010, the South Summit was named Mount Stevens, after Ted Stevens, a former senator of Alaska. Despite being much lower in elevation than Denali, Mount Hunter is a more difficult climb, due to its steep faces and corniced ridges. Fred Beckey, Heinrich Harrer and Henry Meybohm completed the first ascent in 1954, via the long West Ridge. Beginning in 1977, with Michael Kennedy and George Lowe's climb of a route on the northwest face of Mount Hunter, this steep rock and ice face has been the scene of many landmark hard climbs. 1954 West Ridge - first ascent of peak by Fred Beckey, Heinrich Harrer and Henry Meybohm 1977 Lowe-Kennedy, on the north face. 1979 South Spur by John Mallon Waterman 1981 Moonflower Buttress first ascent to last rock band by Mugs Stump and Paul Aubry. 1983 Moonflower Buttress to summit, first complete ascent by Todd Bibler and Doug Klewin. 1985 "Diamond Arete" first ascent by Jack Tackle and Jim Donini 1989 Northwest Face first ascent by Conrad Anker and Seth'S.
T.' Shaw, summit attained July 3, 1989. 1994 Deprivation, first ascent by Scott Backes and Mark Francis Twight. 1994 Wall of Shadows, first ascent by Greg Child and Michael Kennedy. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of the United States List of mountain peaks of Alaska List of the highest major summits of the United States List of the most prominent summits of the United States ^ This is excluding the North Peak and other sub-summits of Denali