Taum Sauk Mountain
Taum Sauk Mountain in the Saint Francois Mountains is the highest natural point in the U. S. state of Missouri at 1,772 feet. The topography of Taum Sauk is that of an elongated ridge with a NNW-SSE orientation rather than a peak. While low in terms of elevation at 1,772 feet compared to other peaks, Taum Sauk and the St. Francois range are true mountains, being the result of a volcanic orogeny. Whereas vertical relief in the rest of the Ozarks region is the result of erosion of sedimentary strata, the St. Francois are an ancient Precambrian igneous uplift several times older than the Appalachians. Geologists believe that Taum Sauk and its neighbors may be among the few areas in the US never to have been submerged in ancient seas; the peaks of the St. Francois range existed as islands in the shallow seaway throughout most of the Paleozoic Era as the sandstones and shales typical of the Ozarks were deposited. Weathering and erosion of these ancient peaks provided the clastic sediments of the surrounding rock layers.
Taum Sauk is said to be named for a Piankeshaw chief named Sauk-Ton-Qua. Though Taum Sauk Mountain is the highest mountain in Missouri, it is not the most prominent. Taum Sauk rises 522 feet from an elevated base. Mudlick Mountain rises 693 feet from a lower base to an elevation of 1,313 feet. Black Mountain, in Madison County, has the highest rise in elevation in Missouri. From its base, along the St. Francis River to its summit, Black Mountain rises just under 1,000 feet in elevation from the valley below. In 1991 Missouri created Taum Sauk Mountain State Park, a 7,448-acre state park on the mountain: it has a rustic campground, a paved trail to the highpoint marked by a polished granite plaque, a lookout tower from which a good view can be had. Taum Sauk State Park is in a common jurisdiction with nearby Johnson's Shut-ins State Park, together they comprise the second largest state park in Missouri with a total area of 15,961.5 acres. These parks and the adjacent Bell Mountain Wilderness Area make up part of a large wilderness area, popular with hikers and backpackers.
The 33-mile Taum Sauk section of the Ozark Trail is considered by the Ozark Trail Association to be one of the finest trails in Missouri. Mina Sauk Falls, the highest waterfall in Missouri, is on Taum Sauk and can be visited by hiking a rugged trail that makes a 3-mile loop from the highpoint parking area; these falls have water cascading over them only during times of wet weather. At other times they are reduced to a trickle or less; the Taum Sauk pumped storage plant, which failed on December 14, 2005 sending a flash flood 20 feet deep down the Black River, is not on Taum Sauk Mountain. It is on Proffit Mountain, about five miles southwest. List of mountain peaks of Missouri List of U. S. states by elevation "Taum Sauk Mountain". SummitPost.org
Hoosier Hill is the highest natural point in the state of Indiana at 1,257 feet above sea level. It is in the rural area of Wayne County to the northwest of Bethel; the nearest intersection to the high point is County Line Road. The nearest major landmark is Interstate 70 and Richmond 11 miles to the south; the Hill sits on private property. In 2005, an Eagle Scout candidate named Kyle Cummings, in cooperation with the property owner, built a trail and picnic area at the high point. Geologically, the hill sits in the Dearborn Upland, an area of high terrain in southeast Indiana that sits on top of the geologic structure known as the Cincinnati Arch. However, Hoosier Hill is located in a portion of the upland buried underneath glacial debris known as the Tipton Till Plain; as a result, while the average elevation of this upland region is 1100 +/-100 feet above sea level, the topographic relief is gentle where the "hill" is no more than 30 feet higher than the surrounding landscape of rolling farmland.
While the high topography seen at Brown County State Park, which sits in the Norman Upland in south central Indiana, can be mistaken to be a high point, the elevations of hilltops ranges from 800–1050 feet. A. H. Marshall was the first person to climb each U. S. state highpoint. He completed the task in 1936 after standing atop Hoosier Hill. According to local government, the wooden sign with the words INDIANA'S HIGHEST POINT would be stolen, so in 2016 the wooden sign was permanently replaced by an engraved boulder. Outline of Indiana Index of Indiana-related articles List of U. S. states by elevation Sand Hill, Indiana's second highest named point Weed Patch Hill, Indiana's third highest named point "Landscapes of Indiana". Indiana Geological Survey. Retrieved 2009-02-17
Colorado is a state of the Western United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains. It is the 8th most extensive and 21st most populous U. S. state. The estimated population of Colorado was 5,695,564 on July 1, 2018, an increase of 13.25% since the 2010 United States Census. The state was named for the Colorado River, which early Spanish explorers named the Río Colorado for the ruddy silt the river carried from the mountains; the Territory of Colorado was organized on February 28, 1861, on August 1, 1876, U. S. President Ulysses S. Grant signed Proclamation 230 admitting Colorado to the Union as the 38th state. Colorado is nicknamed the "Centennial State" because it became a state one century after the signing of the United States Declaration of Independence. Colorado is bordered by Wyoming to the north, Nebraska to the northeast, Kansas to the east, Oklahoma to the southeast, New Mexico to the south, Utah to the west, touches Arizona to the southwest at the Four Corners.
Colorado is noted for its vivid landscape of mountains, high plains, canyons, plateaus and desert lands. Colorado is part of the western and southwestern United States, is one of the Mountain States. Denver is most populous city of Colorado. Residents of the state are known as Coloradans, although the antiquated term "Coloradoan" is used. Colorado is notable for its diverse geography, which includes alpine mountains, high plains, deserts with huge sand dunes, deep canyons. In 1861, the United States Congress defined the boundaries of the new Territory of Colorado by lines of latitude and longitude, stretching from 37°N to 41°N latitude, from 102°02'48"W to 109°02'48"W longitude. After 158 years of government surveys, the borders of Colorado are now defined by 697 boundary markers and 697 straight boundary lines. Colorado and Utah are the only states that have their borders defined by straight boundary lines with no natural features; the southwest corner of Colorado is the Four Corners Monument at 36°59'56"N, 109°2'43"W.
This is the only place in the United States where four states meet: Colorado, New Mexico and Utah. The summit of Mount Elbert at 14,440 feet elevation in Lake County is the highest point in Colorado and the Rocky Mountains of North America. Colorado is the only U. S. state that lies above 1,000 meters elevation. The point where the Arikaree River flows out of Yuma County and into Cheyenne County, Kansas, is the lowest point in Colorado at 3,317 feet elevation; this point, which holds the distinction of being the highest low elevation point of any state, is higher than the high elevation points of 18 states and the District of Columbia. A little less than half of Colorado is flat and rolling land. East of the Rocky Mountains are the Colorado Eastern Plains of the High Plains, the section of the Great Plains within Nebraska at elevations ranging from 3,350 to 7,500 feet; the Colorado plains are prairies but include deciduous forests and canyons. Precipitation averages 15 to 25 inches annually. Eastern Colorado is presently farmland and rangeland, along with small farming villages and towns.
Corn, hay and oats are all typical crops. Most villages and towns in this region boast both a grain elevator. Irrigation water is available from subterranean sources. Surface water sources include the South Platte, the Arkansas River, a few other streams. Subterranean water is accessed through artesian wells. Heavy use of wells for irrigation caused underground water reserves to decline. Eastern Colorado hosts considerable livestock, such as hog farms. 70% of Colorado's population resides along the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains in the Front Range Urban Corridor between Cheyenne and Pueblo, Colorado. This region is protected from prevailing storms that blow in from the Pacific Ocean region by the high Rockies in the middle of Colorado; the "Front Range" includes Denver, Fort Collins, Castle Rock, Colorado Springs, Pueblo and other townships and municipalities in between. On the other side of the Rockies, the significant population centers in Western Colorado are the cities of Grand Junction and Montrose.
The Continental Divide of the Americas extends along the crest of the Rocky Mountains. The area of Colorado to the west of the Continental Divide is called the Western Slope of Colorado. West of the Continental Divide, water flows to the southwest via the Colorado River and the Green River into the Gulf of California. Within the interior of the Rocky Mountains are several large parks which are high broad basins. In the north, on the east side of the Continental Divide is the North Park of Colorado; the North Park is drained by the North Platte River, which flows north into Nebraska. Just to the south of North Park, but on the western side of the Continental Divide, is the Middle Park of Colorado, drained by the Colorado River; the South Park of Colorado is the region of the headwaters of the South Platte River. In southmost Colorado is the large San Luis Valley, where the headwaters of the Rio Grande are located; the valley sits between the Sangre De Cristo Mountains and San Juan Mountains, consists of large desert lands that run into the mountains.
The Rio Grande drains due south into New Mexico and Texas. Across the Sangre de Cristo Range to the east of the S
Little Free Library
Little Free Library is a 501 nonprofit organization that aims to inspire a love of reading, build community, spark creativity by fostering neighborhood book exchanges around the world. More than 75,000 public book exchanges are registered with the organization and branded as Little Free Libraries. Through Little Free Libraries, present in 88 countries, millions of books are exchanged each year, with the aim of increasing access to books for readers of all ages and backgrounds; the Little Free Library nonprofit organization is based in Hudson, United States. Inspired by the micro-library movement in Portland, Oregon, initiated by the City Repair Project in 1996, the first Little Free Library in Wisconsin was built in 2009 by the late Todd Bol in Hudson, Wisconsin. Bol mounted a wooden container designed to look like a one-room schoolhouse on a post on his lawn and filled it with books as a tribute to his mother, a book lover and school teacher and had died. Bol shared his idea with his partner, Rick Brooks, together they built more of them in different areas of the Midwestern United States.
Bol set a goal of establishing 2,510 libraries. After a while, the idea started to spread. Little Free Library incorporated as a nonprofit organization on May 16, 2012, the Internal Revenue Service recognized Little Free Library as a 501 nonprofit organization that year. Bol's original goal was the creation of 2,510 Little Libraries, which would surpass the number of libraries founded by Andrew Carnegie; that goal was met in 2012. As of November 2016, there were 50,000 registered Little Free Libraries in 85 countries worldwide; as of August 2018 the number of Little Free Libraries has expanded to include more than 75,000 libraries in 88 countries around the world. The 75,000th one was established at Jenks East Elementary in Jenks, Oklahoma, on August 30, 2018; the Little Free Library nonprofit has been honored by the National Book Foundation, the Library of Congress, Library Journal, others for its work promoting literacy and a love of reading. Margret Aldrich wrote The Little Free Library Book to chronicle the movement.
The Little Free Library organization has used funds raised to donate book exchanges and create a reading program called the Action Book Club. Like other public book exchanges, a passerby can take a book to read or leave one for someone else to find; the organization relies on volunteer "stewards" to construct and maintain book exchange boxes. For a book exchange box to be registered, use the Little Free Library brand name, stewards must purchase a finished book exchange, a kit or, for a DIY project, a charter sign, which contains the "Little Free Library" text and official charter number. Registered Little Free Libraries can appear on the Little Free Library World Map, which lists locations with GPS coordinates and other information. Little Free Libraries are located around the world. Little Free Libraries of all shapes and sizes exist, from small, brightly painted wooden houses to a larger library based on Doctor Who's TARDIS. In September 2016, LFL announced a collaboration with the World Peace Prayer Society on its Peace Pole Project to offer a new Peace Pole Library.
It features the standard Peace Pole message of peace - "May Peace Prevail on Earth” - in a six-foot library. Some of these new libraries were installed at locations significant to the civil rights movement, such as the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama. Little Free Libraries are welcomed by communities. In late 2012, the village of Whitefish Bay, denied permission to potential Little Free Library projects and required that an existing Little Free Library be removed because of a village ordinance that prohibited structures in front yards. Village trustees worried about inappropriate material being placed in the boxes. However, in August 2013, the village approved a new ordinance that allowed Little Free Library boxes to be put up on private property. On June 17, 2015 Portland, Oregon Mayor Charlie Hales announced a major liberalization of public space when he declared it "Little Community Kiosk day". On that day, he and the Portland City Council unanimously established a new "encroachment" code providing automatic permits and insurance coverage for every person that installs a community kiosk on either side of a public sidewalk and within the public right of way.
The two sides are known as either a "furnishing strip" or "frontage strip". The ordinance provides height and setback guidelines that address certain ADA requirements related to detection by walking sticks used by alter-abled people; as of that date, every residential block is able to feature installations of a widest possible spectrum of interactive kiosks including libraries. This was accomplished as a means to fight youth gang violence, shortly afterwards three gangs in North Portland participated in the design and installation of one hundred and fifty little libraries located in public space; the number was established to honor the 150th anniversary of Portland's public library system. In June 2014, city officials in Leawood, Kansas shut down a Little Free Library under a city ordinance prohibiting detached structures; the family of the nine-year-old boy who built the structure created a Facebook page to support the amendment of Leawood's city code. Another resident of the city who erected a Little Free Library was threatened with a $25 fine.
In July, the city council unanimously approved a temporary moratorium to permit Little Free Libraries on private property. On January
Mount Washington (New Hampshire)
Mount Washington, called Agiocochook by some Native American tribes, is the highest peak in the Northeastern United States at 6,288.2 ft and the most topographically prominent mountain east of the Mississippi River. The mountain is notorious for its erratic weather. On the afternoon of April 12, 1934, the Mount Washington Observatory recorded a windspeed of 231 miles per hour at the summit, the world record from 1934 until 1996. However, Mt. Washington still holds the record for highest measured wind speed not associated with a tornado or tropical cyclone; the mountain is located in the Presidential Range of the White Mountains, in the township of Sargent's Purchase, in Coös County, New Hampshire. While nearly the whole mountain is in the White Mountain National Forest, an area of 60.3 acres surrounding and including the summit is occupied by Mount Washington State Park. The Mount Washington Cog Railway ascends the western slope of the mountain, the Mount Washington Auto Road climbs to the summit from the east.
The mountain is visited by hikers, the Appalachian Trail crosses the summit. Other common activities include glider flying, backcountry skiing, annual cycle and running races such as the Auto Road Bicycle Hillclimb and Road Race. Before European settlers arrived in the region, the mountain was known by various indigenous peoples as Kodaak Wadjo or Agiochook or Agiocochook; the Algonquians called it Waumbik, "white rocks". The first European to mention the mountain was Giovanni da Verrazzano. Viewing it from the Atlantic Ocean in 1524, he described what he saw as "high interior mountains." The Abenaki people inhabiting the region at the time of European contact believed that the tops of mountains were the dwelling place of the gods, so among other reasons did not climb them out of religious deference to their sanctity. Darby Field claimed to have made the first ascent of Mt. Washington in 1642. Field climbed the mountain in June of that year to demonstrate to the Abenaki chief Passaconaway that the Europeans bargaining for tribal land were not subject to the gods believed to inhabit the summit, a political move that facilitated colonists' northern expansion.
Field again summited Agiocochook in October 1642 on an early surveying expedition that created maps of land as far as Maine, maps which assisted the delegations from the Massachusetts colony seeking to acquire the more arable coastal regions. A geology party, headed by Manasseh Cutler, named the mountain in 1784; the Crawford Path, the oldest mountain hiking trail in the United States, was laid out in 1819 from Crawford Notch to the summit and has been in use since. Ethan Allen Crawford built a house on the summit in 1821, which lasted until a storm in 1826. Little occurred on the summit itself until the mid-19th century, when it was developed into one of the first tourist destinations in the nation, with construction of more bridle paths and two hotels; the Summit House opened in 1852, a 64-foot-long stone hotel anchored by four heavy chains over its roof. In 1853, the Tip-Top House was erected to compete. Rebuilt of wood with 91 rooms in 1872–1873, the Summit House burned in 1908 was replaced in granite in 1915.
The Tip-Top House alone survived the fire. Other Victorian era tourist attractions include a coach road —now the Mount Washington Auto Road—and the Mount Washington Cog Railway, both of which are still in operation. For forty years, an intermittent daily newspaper, called Among the Clouds, was published by Henry M. Burt at the summit each summer, until 1917. In November 2010, it was revealed that Orlando, Florida-based CNL Financial Group, which owns the Mount Washington Hotel at the foot of the mountain, had formally filed to trademark the "Mount Washington" name. CNL officials said they were directing their efforts against other hotels that use the mountain's name and not the numerous businesses in the area that use it. CNL's application at the U. S. Patent and Trademark Office seeks registration of the trademark "Mount Washington" for any retail service, any restaurant service, any entertainment service; the summit station of Mount Washington has an alpine climate or tundra climate, although it receives an high amount of precipitation, atypical for most regions with such cold weather.
Lower elevations have a subarctic climate. The weather of Mount Washington is notoriously erratic; this is due to the convergence of several storm tracks from the Atlantic to the south, the Gulf region and the Pacific Northwest. The vertical rise of the Presidential Range, combined with its north-south orientation, makes it a significant barrier to westerly winds. Low-pressure areas are more favorable to develop along the coastline in the winter due to the relative temperature differences between the Northeastern United States and the Atlantic Ocean. With these factors combined, hurricane-force wind gusts are observed from the summit of the mountain on average of 110 days per year. Mount Washington once held the world record and still holds the Northern Hemisphere and Western Hemisphere record for directly measured surface wind speed, at 231 mph, recorded on the afternoon of April 12, 1934. A new wind speed record was discovered in 2009: on April 10, 1996, Tropical Cyclone Olivia had created a wind gust of 408 km/h at Barrow Island off the coast of Western Australia.
The first regular meteorological observations o
Wallace County, Kansas
Wallace County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kansas. As of the 2010 census, the county population was 1,485, making it the second-least populous county in Kansas, its county seat is Sharon Springs. The county was created in 1868 and named in honor of Brigadier general W. H. L. Wallace, a veteran of the Mexican–American War and a casualty of the Battle of Shiloh. Wallace County has the lowest population of any county in Kansas, it is one of four Kansas counties to practice Mountain Standard Time rather than Central Standard Time. Wallace County is home to the highest point in Kansas at 4,039 feet. Mount Sunflower is located 15 miles north-northwest of Weskan, less than one mile from the Colorado state line. For many millennia, the Great Plains of North America was inhabited by nomadic Native Americans. From the 16th century to 18th century, the Kingdom of France claimed ownership of large parts of North America. In 1762, after the French and Indian War, France secretly ceded New France to Spain, per the Treaty of Fontainebleau.
In 1802, Spain returned most of the land to France. In 1803, most of the land for modern day Kansas was acquired by the United States from France as part of the 828,000 square mile Louisiana Purchase for 2.83 cents per acre. In 1854, the Kansas Territory was organized in 1861 Kansas became the 34th U. S. state. In 1868, Wallace County was established. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 914 square miles, of which 914 square miles is land and 0.05 square miles is water. Sherman County Logan County Wichita County Greeley County Cheyenne County, Colorado Kit Carson County, Colorado As of the census of 2000, there were 1,749 people, 674 households, 477 families residing in the county; the population density was 2 people per square mile. There were 791 housing units at an average density of 1 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 94.63% White, 0.63% Black or African American, 0.80% Native American, 0.17% Asian, 2.52% from other races, 1.26% from two or more races.
4.80% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 674 households out of which 33.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.60% were married couples living together, 4.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.20% were non-families. 27.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.12. In the county, the population was spread out with 29.10% under the age of 18, 6.50% from 18 to 24, 23.60% from 25 to 44, 22.80% from 45 to 64, 18.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 99.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $33,000, the median income for a family was $42,022. Males had a median income of $25,610 versus $18,333 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,016.
About 10.70% of families and 16.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.50% of those under age 18 and 12.70% of those age 65 or over. Wallace has long been one of the most overwhelmingly Republican of all the state's counties. Only two Democratic Presidential nominees have won Wallace County – Woodrow Wilson in 1916 and Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1932. Since 1944 only three Democratic Presidential candidates have won 31 percent of Wallace County's vote – Harry S. Truman in 1948, Lyndon Johnson in 1964 and Jimmy Carter in 1976 – whilst since 1980 only Michael Dukakis during the drought-affected 1988 election has obtained so much as seventeen percent for the Democratic Party. Indeed, in the 2016 election Hillary Clinton recorded less than six percent of the county's vote, whilst the last five Republican nominees have all exceeded 84 percent. Although the Kansas Constitution was amended in 1986 to allow the sale of alcoholic liquor by the individual drink with the approval of voters, Wallace County has remained a prohibition, or "dry", county.
Wallace USD 241 Weskan USD 242 Sharon Springs Wallace Weskan Wallace County is divided into four townships. None of the cities within the county are considered governmentally independent, all figures for the townships include those of the cities. In the following table, the population center is the largest city included in that township's population total, if it is of a significant size. Standard Atlas of Wallace County, Kansas. A. Ogle & Co. CountyWallace County - Official Website Wallace County - Directory of Public OfficialsMapsWallace County Maps: Current, Historic, KDOT Kansas Highway Maps: Current, Historic, KDOT Kansas Railroad Maps: Current, 1996, 1915, KDOT and Kansas Historical Society
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates. They are a prominent modern member of the subfamily Bovinae, are the most widespread species of the genus Bos, are most classified collectively as Bos taurus. Cattle are raised as livestock for meat, for milk, for hides, which are used to make leather, they are used as riding animals and draft animals. Another product of cattle is dung, which can be used to create fuel. In some regions, such as parts of India, cattle have significant religious meaning. Cattle small breeds such as the Miniature Zebu, are kept as pets. Around 10,500 years ago, cattle were domesticated from as few as 80 progenitors in central Anatolia, the Levant and Western Iran. According to an estimate from 2011, there are 1.4 billion cattle in the world. In 2009, cattle became one of the first livestock animals to have a mapped genome; some consider cattle the oldest form of wealth, cattle raiding one of the earliest forms of theft. Cattle were identified as three separate species: Bos taurus, the European or "taurine" cattle.
The aurochs is ancestral to both taurine cattle. These have been reclassified as one species, Bos taurus, with three subspecies: Bos taurus primigenius, Bos taurus indicus, Bos taurus taurus. Complicating the matter is the ability of cattle to interbreed with other related species. Hybrid individuals and breeds exist, not only between taurine cattle and zebu, but between one or both of these and some other members of the genus Bos – yaks and gaur. Hybrids such as the beefalo breed can occur between taurine cattle and either species of bison, leading some authors to consider them part of the genus Bos, as well; the hybrid origin of some types may not be obvious – for example, genetic testing of the Dwarf Lulu breed, the only taurine-type cattle in Nepal, found them to be a mix of taurine cattle and yak. However, cattle cannot be hybridized with more distantly related bovines such as water buffalo or African buffalo; the aurochs ranged throughout Europe, North Africa, much of Asia. In historical times, its range became restricted to Europe, the last known individual died in Mazovia, Poland, in about 1627.
Breeders have attempted to recreate cattle of similar appearance to aurochs by crossing traditional types of domesticated cattle, creating the Heck cattle breed. The noun cattle encompasses both sexes; the singular, technically means the female, the male being bull. The plural form cows is sometimes used colloquially to refer to both sexes collectively, as e.g. in a herd, but that usage can be misleading as the speaker's intent may indeed be just the females. The bovine species per se is dimorphic. Cattle did not originate as the term for bovine animals, it was borrowed from Anglo-Norman catel, itself from medieval Latin capitale'principal sum of money, capital', itself derived in turn from Latin caput'head'. Cattle meant movable personal property livestock of any kind, as opposed to real property; the word is a variant of chattel and related to capital in the economic sense. The term replaced earlier Old English feoh ` property', which survives today as fee; the word "cow" came via Anglo-Saxon cū, from Common Indo-European gʷōus = "a bovine animal", compare Persian: gâv, Sanskrit: go-, Welsh: buwch.
The plural cȳ became ki or kie in Middle English, an additional plural ending was added, giving kine, but kies and others. This is the origin of the now archaic English plural, "kine"; the Scots language singular is coo or cou, the plural is "kye". In older English sources such as the King James Version of the Bible, "cattle" refers to livestock, as opposed to "deer" which refers to wildlife. "Wild cattle" may refer to undomesticated species of the genus Bos. Today, when used without any other qualifier, the modern meaning of "cattle" is restricted to domesticated bovines. In general, the same words are used in different parts of the world, but with minor differences in the definitions; the terminology described here contrasts the differences in definition between the United Kingdom and other British-influenced parts of the world such as Canada, New Zealand and the United States. An "intact" adult male is called a bull. A wild, unmarked bull is known as a micky in Australia. An unbranded bovine of either sex is called a maverick in the Canada.
An adult female that has had a calf is a cow. A young female before she has had a calf of her own and is under three years of age is called a heifer. A young female that has had only one calf is called a first-calf heifer. Young cattle of both sexes are called calves until they are weaned weaners until they are a year old in some areas. After that, they are referred to as stirks if between one and two years of age. A castrated male is called a steer in the United States.