A park is an area of natural, semi-natural or planted space set aside for human enjoyment and recreation or for the protection of wildlife or natural habitats. Urban parks are green spaces set aside for recreation inside cities. National parks and Country parks are green spaces used for recreation in the countryside. State parks and Provincial parks are administered by sub-national government agencies. Parks may consist of grassy areas, rocks and trees, but may contain buildings and other artifacts such as monuments, fountains or playground structures. Many parks have fields for playing sports such as soccer and football, paved areas for games such as basketball. Many parks have trails for walking and other activities; some parks are built adjacent to bodies of water or watercourses and may comprise a beach or boat dock area. Urban parks have benches for sitting and may contain picnic tables and barbecue grills; the largest parks can be vast natural areas of hundreds of thousands square kilometers, with abundant wildlife and natural features such as mountains and rivers.
In many large parks, camping in tents is allowed with a permit. Many natural parks are protected by law, users may have to follow restrictions. Large national and sub-national parks are overseen by a park ranger or a park warden. Large parks may have areas for canoeing and hiking in the warmer months and, in some northern hemisphere countries, cross-country skiing and snowshoeing in colder months. There are amusement parks which have live shows, fairground rides and games of chance or skill. English deer parks were used by the aristocracy in medieval times for game hunting, they had walls or thick hedges around them to keep game animals in and people out. It was forbidden for commoners to hunt animals in these deer parks; these game preserves evolved into landscaped parks set around mansions and country houses from the sixteenth century onwards. These may have served as hunting grounds but they proclaimed the owner's wealth and status. An aesthetic of landscape design began in these stately home parks where the natural landscape was enhanced by landscape architects such as Capability Brown.
As cities became crowded, the private hunting grounds became places for the public. With the Industrial revolution parks took on a new meaning as areas set aside to preserve a sense of nature in the cities and towns. Sporting activity came to be a major use for these urban parks. Areas of outstanding natural beauty were set aside as national parks to prevent their being spoiled by uncontrolled development. Park design is influenced by the intended purpose and audience, as well as by the available land features. A park intended to provide recreation for children may include a playground. A park intended for adults may feature walking paths and decorative landscaping. Specific features, such as riding trails, may be included to support specific activities; the design of a park may determine, willing to use it. Walkers may feel unsafe on a mixed-use path, dominated by fast-moving cyclists or horses. Different landscaping and infrastructure may affect children's rates of use of parks according to sex.
Redesigns of two parks in Vienna suggested that the creation of multiple semi-enclosed play areas in a park could encourage equal use by boys and girls. Parks are part of the urban infrastructure: for physical activity, for families and communities to gather and socialize, or for a simple respite. Research reveals that people who exercise outdoors in green-space derive greater mental health benefits. Providing activities for all ages and income levels is important for the physical and mental well-being of the public. Parks can benefit pollinators, some parks have been redesigned to accommodate them better; some organisations, such as Xerces Society are promoting this idea. City parks play a role in improving cities and improving the futures for residents and visitors - for example, Millennium Park in Chicago, Illinois or the Mill River Park and Green way in Stamford, CT. One group, a strong proponent of parks for cities is The American Society of Landscape Architects, they argue that parks are important to the fabric of the community on an individual scale and broader scales such as entire neighborhoods, city districts or city park systems.
Parks need to feel safe for people to use them. Research shows that perception of safety can be more significant in influencing human behavior than actual crime statistics. If citizens perceive a park as unsafe, they might not make use of it at all. A study done in four cities. There are a number of features. Elements in the physical design of a park, such as an open and welcoming entry, good visibility, appropriate lighting and signage can all make a difference. Regular park maintenance, as well as programming and community involvement can contribute to a feeling of safety. While Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design has been used in facility design, use of CPTED in parks has not been. Iqbal and Ceccato performed a study in Stockholm, Sweden to determine if it would be useful to apply to parks, their study indicated that while CPTED could be useful, due to the
William E. Brainard House
The William E. Brainard House is a historic house in Portland, United States; the Mount Tabor neighborhood was one of Portland's prestigious residential districts in the late 19th century, this 1888 Italianate structure is one of the few stately homes remaining from that period. It was occupied by a series of residents prominent in business, including farmer, real estate investor, banker William E. Brainard. Welch; the house was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1979. National Register of Historic Places listings in Southeast Portland, Oregon Media related to William E. Brainard House at Wikimedia Commons National Register of Historic Places photographic file
Western Seminary is an evangelical theological seminary with physical campuses in Portland, San Jose, Sacramento and Seattle, Washington. Western Seminary has online-only degrees and programs; the seminary offers Master's Degrees in Divinity, Intercultural Studies and Theology along with Doctoral Programs in Ministry and Intercultural Studies. Western Seminary provides non-credit classes through the Center for Leadership Development. Western Seminary is dedicated to "gospel-centered transformation." The seminary centers all experience - in and out of the classroom - on the gospel. Though Western Seminary students come from a large number of Christian denominations and non-denominational churches, the faculty teaches a conservative and evangelical Christian doctrine, with a philosophy of ministry in and alongside the Church. Western Seminary regards the Bible as the inerrant word of God. Western Seminary is accredited to award master's and doctorate degrees by the Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities and is an accredited member of the Association of Theological Schools in the United States and Canada.
The seminary is a partner with Jerusalem University College in Jerusalem, Israel, as well as a charter member of the Institute of Theological Studies. Portland Baptist Bible Institute was organized in the winter of 1925 through the work of Walter B. Hinson. In the following year, further efforts were begun to establish a graduate-level seminary to provide a theological education of greater depth in the Northwestern United States; the Western Baptist Theological Seminary was dedicated on October 4, 1927. The board acquired a mansion and 5 acres of land on the west slope of Portland's Mt. Tabor in 1944. Additional structures were built and classes convened at the new site in the fall of that year; the Portland campus continues to operate at this site at the crest of the Hawthorne District. The Western Baptist Theological Seminary became Western Seminary. Western Seminary has opened several extension campus locations in the Western United States; the first branch campus was launched in San Jose, California in 1986, followed by another in Phoenix, Arizona in 1988.
A Sacramento, California campus was opened in 1991, as was the former Seattle, Washington campus in 1992. The Phoenix campus has become Phoenix Seminary. Western Seminary's former Seattle campus is now The Seattle School of Psychology. Western's presidents have been reputable leaders in theological education, including Earl D. Radmacher and Bert Downs; the current president is Randal Roberts. Western has developed many solutions to help non-residential students complete their coursework. Western was one of the earliest institutions to offer the Doctor of Ministry degree, with modular scheduling for easy out of state access. In 1981, Western began an online-only program that served hundreds of students per year in study centers across America and overseas through interactive video curriculum. In adapting courses to DVD and online streaming formats, the Western Seminary Online Campus offers distance learning courses and programs. In 2005, Western expanded its training sites along the west coast by establishing learning cohorts in such cities as Seattle and Richland, Reno and Bakersfield, California.
In 2010, the San Jose, California campus relocated to California. In 2013, Western Seminary changed the name of its online learning department to Western Seminary Online Campus as it began to offer its online degree program. In 2014, the seminary launched a Seattle Teaching Site in Bellevue, Washington to offer classes to the Puget Sound Area; the Sacramento, California campus relocated to a new facility in the Sacramento community of Rocklin, California. In 2016, the San Jose, California campus relocated to California. Western Seminary offers the following Master's degrees: Master of Divinity MA in Counseling MA MA in Ministry and Leadership MA in Global Leadership Master of Theology Graduate Studies Diploma Graduate Studies Certificate Addiction Studies CertificateWestern Seminary offers the following Doctoral degrees: Doctor of Intercultural Studies Doctor of Ministry Doctor of Education Western Seminary offers the following non-credit programs: Certificate in Transformational Coaching Lay Leadership Training Certificate Advanced Studies CertificateThe following training programs are no longer offered, but were once offered at various points in the history of the seminary: Bachelor of Divinity Doctor of Psychology Doctor of Missiology Master of Church Leadership Master of Church Music Master of Spiritual Nurture MA in Educational Ministry MA in Exegetical Theology MA in General Ministry MA MA in Marital and Family Therapy MA in Marriage and Child Counseling MA in Music Ministry MA in Specialized Ministry MA in Youth and Family Ministry PhD in Psychology Western Magazine is a print publication produced semi-annually by Western Seminary and is sent to alumni and friends of the Seminary.'Renewal' is an electronic newsletter published by Western Seminary and sent to alumni and friends of the Seminary.'Transformed' is a blog composed by faculty and alumni of Western Seminary, launched in October 2011 to help initiate renewal to the Christian Church community.
Articles address a variety of disciplines, including the Bible, ministry practice, discipleship and reviews of various media that pertain
Portland Sanitarium Nurses' Quarters
The Portland Sanitarium Nurses' Quarters, located at 6012 Southeast Yamhill Street in southeast Portland, are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. National Register of Historic Places listings in Southeast Portland, Oregon Media related to Portland Sanitarium Nurses' Quarters at Wikimedia Commons
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Blaine Smith House
The Blaine Smith House in southeast Portland in the U. S. state of Oregon, is a two-story single dwelling listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Built in 1909 in an Arts and Crafts architectural style, it was added to the register in 1991. Rectangular in plan, the 40-by-60-foot house has an attic. Single-story projections include a porte-cochère, a front entrance, a sun porch. A steeply pitched gable roof, imitation half-timbering on the second floor and stucco surfaces, dormers on the front and rear are among the exterior features of the structure. A circular drive approaches the front of the house, a separate drive on the west enters the porte cochere. Outbuildings on the 0.49-acre property include an historic, three-bay garage and a gazebo of late 20th-century construction. Rooms on the first floor radiate from a central hall that runs through the house to the main staircase. Flanking the central hall toward the front of the house are the living and dining rooms. Behind the dining room are the kitchen and a back hall leading to the maid's stairs, the basement stairs, a door to the back yard.
Behind the living room is a reception room connected to the porte cochere, off this room or foyer is a half-bath. On the second floor, five bedrooms and two bathrooms are arranged around a large landing. At the landing's far end, stairs lead to the attic, which has two additional bedrooms, a bath, a kitchen; the basement has a game room, a work room, a bath. Interior features include oak paneling, coffered ceilings, ceramic tile chimney fronts, other decorations consistent with the Arts and Crafts style. Blaine Smith, a long-time Portland resident, was associated with the Old Western Clay Manufacturing Company, he and his wife, were the original owners of the property and lived in the house with their three children. Smith changed jobs and moved to Seattle in 1914, the Smiths sold the property in 1919. Ellis F. Lawrence, whose Portland firm designed the house, was a prominent architect, city planner, teacher. In 1914, he founded the University of Oregon School of Architecture and Allied Arts, where he taught and served as dean while maintaining his office in Portland.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Southeast Portland, Oregon
Belmont, Portland, Oregon
The Belmont Area is a retail and residential district running along SE Belmont St. in the inner Southeast section of Portland, Oregon in a parallel fashion to the Hawthorne District, 6 blocks to the south. From west to east the area extends 48 blocks, from SE 12th Ave. to SE 60th Ave. passing through the Buckman and Mount Tabor neighborhoods. The area is seven blocks wide, running from SE Belmont St. 4 blocks north to SE Stark St. and 3 blocks south to SE Salmon St. SE Belmont St. between SE 33rd Ave. and SE 35th Ave. in Sunnyside, is the heart of the district. The area developed around the first trolley line in East Portland, established in 1888. Belmont Area Business Association PDF map of Portland Business District Association boundaries