A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form and alignment that have arisen from the same cause an orogeny. Mountain ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain ranges are found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System and are a feature of most terrestrial planets. Mountain ranges are segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not have the same geologic structure or petrology, they may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, volcanic landforms resulting in a variety of rock types. Most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earth's land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt.
The Pacific Ring of Fire includes the Andes of South America, extends through the North American Cordillera along the Pacific Coast, the Aleutian Range, on through Kamchatka, Taiwan, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, to New Zealand. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the world's longest mountain system; the Alpide belt includes Indonesia and Southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, Caucasus Mountains, Balkan Mountains fold mountain range, the Alps, ends in the Spanish mountains and the Atlas Mountains. The belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges; the Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, 8,848 metres high and traverses the border between China and Nepal. Mountain ranges outside these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Great Dividing Range, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains. If the definition of a mountain range is stretched to include underwater mountains the Ocean Ridges form the longest continuous mountain system on Earth, with a length of 65,000 kilometres.
The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, where mountain ranges can contain sub-ranges. The sub-range relationship is expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains. Equivalently, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians; the parent-child expression extends to the sub-ranges themselves: the Sandwich Range and the Presidential Range are children of the White Mountains, while the Presidential Range is parent to the Northern Presidential Range and Southern Presidential Range. The position of mountains influences climate, such as snow; when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the leeward side, it warms again and is drier, having been stripped of much of its moisture.
A rain shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are subjected to erosional forces which work to tear them down; the basins adjacent to an eroding mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted until the mountains are reduced to low hills and plains; the early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example. As the uplift was occurring some 10,000 feet of Mesozoic sedimentary strata were removed by erosion over the core of the mountain range and spread as sand and clays across the Great Plains to the east; this mass of rock was removed as the range was undergoing uplift. The removal of such a mass from the core of the range most caused further uplift as the region adjusted isostatically in response to the removed weight. Rivers are traditionally believed to be the principal cause of mountain range erosion, by cutting into bedrock and transporting sediment.
Computer simulation has shown that as mountain belts change from tectonically active to inactive, the rate of erosion drops because there are fewer abrasive particles in the water and fewer landslides. Mountains on other planets and natural satellites of the Solar System are isolated and formed by processes such as impacts, though there are examples of mountain ranges somewhat similar to those on Earth. Saturn's moon Titan and Pluto, in particular exhibit large mountain ranges in chains composed of ices rather than rock. Examples include the Mithrim Montes and Doom Mons on Titan, Tenzing Montes and Hillary Montes on Pluto; some terrestrial planets other than Earth exhibit rocky mountain ranges, such as Maxwell Montes on Venus taller than any on Earth and Tartarus Montes on Mars, Jupiter's moon Io has mountain ranges formed from tectonic processes including Boösaule Montes, Dorian Montes, Hi'iaka Montes and Euboea Montes. Peakbagger Ranges Home Page Bivouac.com
Taman Negara is in Peninsular Malaysia. It was established in 1938/1939 as the King George V National Park after Theodore Hubback lobbied the sultans of Pahang and Kelantan to set aside a piece of land that covers the three states for the creation of a protected area, it was renamed Taman Negara after independence. Taman Negara has a total area of 4,343 km2 and it is one of the world's oldest deciduous rainforest, estimated to be more than 130 million years old. Attractions found near Kuala Tahan include a canopy walkway, Gua Telinga, Lata Berkoh. Visitors can enjoy the tropical rainforest, birdwatching or jungle trekking and the river views along the Tahan River; the park encompasses three states, Pahang and Terengganu, each with its own legislation. The Taman Negara Enactment No. 2 of 1939 is enforced in the state of Pahang, the Taman Negara Enactment No. 14 of 1938 in the state of Kelantan and the Taman Negara Enactment No. 6 of 1939 in the state of Terengganu. The enactments have similar contents.
Taman Negara Pahang is the largest at 2,477 km2, followed by Taman Negara Kelantan at 1,043 km2 and Taman Negara Terengganu at 853 km2. At an estimated age of more than 130 million years old, it is reputed to be the "oldest tropical rainforest", although the title more belongs to the Daintree Rainforest in Queensland, estimated to be between 135 million years old and 180 million years old; the park has been developed into a famous ecotourism destination in Malaysia. There are several geological and biological attractions in the park. Gunung Tahan is the highest point of the Malay Peninsula. All visitors to the park must get permits from the Department of National Parks. Taman Negara is home to some rare mammals, such as the Malayan tiger, Malayan gaur and Asian elephant; as well as birds such as the great argus, red junglefowl, the rare Malayan peacock-pheasant are still found here in some numbers. Tahan River has been preserved to protect a type of game fish. Keretapi Tanah Melayu's KTM Intercity and Express trains stop at Jerantut railway station.
Visitors to Taman Negara can disembark here. Local tour operators arrange transportation from Kuala Lumpur to the entrance of the Park at Kuala Tahan; this may involve a 3-4 hour bus journey to Jerantut and Kuala Tembeling Jetty followed by a 2.5 hour river boat ride to Kuala Tahan. Entrance permits and park tours are included in the package. From Kuala Lumpur, buses may depart from Terminal Bersepadu Selatan and Hentian Pekeliling going to the nearest town, Jerantut. From here travel to Kuala Tembeling Kuala Tahan. List of national parks of Malaysia Gunung Tahan highest point in peninsula Malaysia. Taman Negara travel guide from Wikivoyage Tourism Malaysia - Taman Negara Department of Wildlife and National Parks Jerantut KTM Railway Station
Rafflesia is a genus of parasitic flowering plants. It contains 28 species, all found in Southeast Asia in Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines, it was first discovered by Louis Deschamps in Java between 1791 and 1794, but his notes and illustrations, seized by the British in 1803, were not available to western science until 1861. It was found in the Indonesian rainforest in Bengkulu, Sumatra by an Indonesian guide working for Joseph Arnold in 1818, named after Sir Stamford Raffles, the leader of the expedition; the plant has no stems, roots. It is a holoparasite of vines in the genus Tetrastigma, spreading its absorptive organ, the haustorium, inside the tissue of the vine; the only part of the plant that can be seen outside the host vine is the five-petalled flower. In some species, such as Rafflesia arnoldii, the flower may be over 100 centimetres in diameter, weigh up to 10 kilograms. One of the smallest species, R. baletei, has 12 cm diameter flowers. The flowers look and smell like rotting flesh, hence its local names which translate to "corpse flower" or "meat flower".
The foul odor attracts insects such as flies. Most species have separate male and female flowers. Little is known about seed dispersal. However, tree shrews and other forest mammals disperse the seeds. Rafflesia is the official state flower of Indonesia, where it is known as puspa langka or padma paksasa, of Sabah state in Malaysia, of Surat Thani Province in Thailand. In Thailand, Rafflesia can be observed in Khao Sok National Park where the flowers are numbered and monitored by the park rangers. Rafflesia are remarkable for showing a large horizontal transfer of genes from their host plants; this is well known among bacteria, but not higher organisms. The name "corpse flower" applied to Rafflesia can be confusing because this common name refers to the titan arum of the family Araceae. Moreover, because Amorphophallus has the world's largest unbranched inflorescence, it is sometimes mistakenly credited as having the world's largest flower. Both Rafflesia and Amorphophallus are flowering plants.
Rafflesia arnoldii has the largest single flower of any flowering plant, at least in terms of weight. Amorphophallus titanum has the largest unbranched inflorescence, while the talipot palm forms the largest branched inflorescence, containing thousands of flowers. Comparison of mitochondrial DNA sequences of Rafflesia with other angiosperm mtDNA indicated this parasite evolved from photosynthetic plants of the order Malpighiales. Another study from that same year confirmed this result using both mtDNA and nuclear DNA sequences, showed the three other groups traditionally classified in Rafflesiaceae were unrelated. A more recent study more found Rafflesia and its relatives to be embedded within the family Euphorbiaceae, surprising, as members of that family have small flowers. According to their analysis, the rate of flower size evolution was more or less constant throughout the family except at the origin of Rafflesiaceae, where the flowers evolved to become much larger before reverting to the slower rate of change.
Rafflesia borneensis Rafflesia ciliata Rafflesia titan Rafflesia witkampii Species native to Borneo include Rafflesia arnoldii, Rafflesia cantleyi, Rafflesia hasseltii, Rafflesia keithii, Rafflesia kerrii, Rafflesia pricei, Rafflesia tengku-adlinii. R. arnoldii boasts the world's largest single bloom. Some endemic Borneon species, such as R. keithii, begin blooming at night and start to decompose only two to three days later. The time from bud emergence to flowering is six to nine months. Male and female flowers must be open for pollination to occur, hence successful pollination and fruit production are quite rare. In addition to habitat loss, these reproductive limitations are contributing factors to why many species are endangered. R. keithii is found along the eastern slopes of Mount Kinabalu in the Lohan Valley of Sabah. Rafflesia tuan-mudae is endemic to only Gunung Gading National Park in Sarawak; the Mindanao species is known as Rafflesia schadenbergiana, after the naturalist Alexander Shadenberg, who first discovered the species at the foothills of Mount Apo in 1882.
With a flower of nearly a meter, it is close to the size of a 7 year old child. On Mindanao, the species has been seen in Davao del Sur, South Cotabato and Mount Kitanglad in Bukidnon. Second, Rafflesia mira and Rafflesia magnifica are two names for a single species. Both were discovered at Mount Candalaga in Compostela Valley; the two forms differ in size measurements in which the scientific description of Magnifica came from measurements of flowers in full bloom while that of Mira was from photographs of nearly dead samples. The medium-sized Mira and Magnifica flowers measure about half a meter and they have round or elliptic perigone wart; the third species on Mindanao is the Rafflesia mixta, found so far only in the town of Mainit, Surigao del Norte. It shows a combination of three features of Philippine Rafflesia, namely: the shape and size of the conical process in Rafflesia schadenbergiana, the floral size and sparsely distributed perigone warts of R. speciosa, the overall resemblance, floral size, faint scent and ramenta morphology of R. mira.
Fourth, is Rafflesia verrucosa, found only in Mount Kampalili i
An ultra-prominent peak, or Ultra for short, is a mountain summit with a topographic prominence of 1,500 metres or more. There are 1,524 such peaks on Earth; some peaks, such as the Matterhorn and Eiger, are not Ultras because they are connected to higher mountains by high cols and therefore do not achieve enough topographic prominence. The term "Ultra" originated with earth scientist Stephen Fry, from his studies of the prominence of peaks in Washington in the 1980s, his original term was "ultra major mountain", referring to peaks with at least 1,500 metres of prominence. 1,515 Ultras have been identified above sea level: 637 in Asia, 353 in North America, 209 in South America, 119 in Europe, 84 in Africa, 69 in Australasia and 39 in Antarctica. Many of the world's largest mountains are Ultras, including Mount Everest, K2, Mont Blanc, Mount Olympus. On the other hand, others such as the Eiger and the Matterhorn are not Ultras because they do not have sufficient prominence. Many Ultras lie in visited and inhospitable parts of the world, including 39 in Greenland, the high points of the Arctic islands of Novaya Zemlya, Jan Mayen and Spitsbergen, many of the peaks of the Greater ranges of Asia.
In British Columbia, some of the mountains listed do not have recognized names. Thirteen of the fourteen 8,000m summits are Ultras, there are a further 64 Ultras over 7,000 metres in height. There are 90 Ultras with a prominence of over 3,000 metres, but only 22 with more than 4,000 metres prominence. A number of Ultras have yet to be climbed, with Sauyr Zhotasy, Mount Siple, Gangkar Puensum being the most candidates for the most prominent unclimbed mountain in the world. All of the Seven Summits are Ultras by virtue of the fact that they are the high points of large landmasses; each has its key col at or near sea level, resulting in a prominence value equal to its elevation. List of peaks by prominence gives the 125 most prominent peaks worldwide. List of islands by highest point gives the 75 highest island highpoints, all of which are Ultras List of Alpine peaks by prominence List of non-Alpine European Ultras, including Atlantic islands and the Caucasus List of Ultras in West Asia List of Ultras in Central Asia List of Ultras of the Karakoram and Hindu Kush List of Ultras of the Himalayas, including Sino-Nepal Provinces List of Ultras of Tibet, East Asia and neighbouring areas, including India List of Ultras in Northeast Asia List of Ultras in Japan List of Ultras in Southeast Asia List of Ultras in the Philippines List of Ultras of Malay Archipelago List of African Ultras List of Ultras in Oceania, including the Southern Indian Ocean List of ultra-prominent summits of Australia List of ultra-prominent summits of Indonesian New Guinea List of ultra-prominent summits of New Zealand List of ultra-prominent summits of Papua New Guinea List of ultra-prominent summits of the Hawaiian Islands List of ultra-prominent summits of the Pacific Islands List of ultra-prominent summits of the Southern Indian Ocean List of Ultras in Antarctica, including South Atlantic islands List of Ultras in North America List of Ultras in Canada List of Ultras in the United States List of Ultras in Alaska List of Ultras in Greenland List of Ultras in Mexico List of Ultras in Central America List of Ultras in the Caribbean List of Ultras in South America List of mountain lists List of peaks by prominence Prominence
Pahang Pahang Darul Makmur with the Arabic honorific Darul Makmur is a sultanate and a federal state of Malaysia. It is the third largest Malaysian state by area and ninth largest by population; the state occupies the basin of the Pahang River, a stretch of the east coast as far south as Endau. Geographically located in the East Coast region of the Peninsular Malaysia, the state shares borders with the Malaysian states of Kelantan and Terengganu to the north, Perak and Negeri Sembilan to the west, Johor to the south, while South China Sea is to the east; the Titiwangsa mountain range that forms a natural divider between the Peninsula’s east and west coasts is spread along the north and south of the state, peaking at Mount Tahan, 2,187m high. Although two thirds of the state is covered by dense rain forest, its central plains are intersected by numerous rivers, along the coast there is a 32-kilometre wide expanse of alluvial soil that includes the deltas and estuarine plains of the Kuantan, Rompin and Mersing rivers.
The state is divided into 11 administrative divisions called daerah - Pekan, Maran, Jerantut, Raub, Cameron Highlands and Bera. The largest district is Jerantut, the main gateway to the Taman Negara national park. Pahang's capital and largest city, Kuantan, is the eighth largest urban agglomerations by population in Malaysia; the royal capital and the official seat of the Sultan of Pahang is located at Pekan. Pekan was the old state capital which its name translates into'the town', it was known as'Inderapura'. Other major towns include Temerloh and its hills resorts of Genting Highlands and Bukit Tinggi; the head of state is the Sultan of Pahang. The government system is modeled on the Westminster parliamentary system; the state religion of Pahang is Islam, but grants freedom to manifest other religions in its territory. Pahang is categorised as medium ethnically diverse state with 0.36 of ethnic diversity index in 2010. It is ranked 5th least diverse among Malaysian states and territories, after Terengganu, Kelantan and Perlis.
Archaeological evidences revealed the existence of human habitation in the area, today Pahang from as early as the paleolithic age. The early settlements developed into an ancient maritime trading state by the 3rd century. In the 5th century, the Old Pahang sent envoys to the Liu Song court. During the time of Langkasuka and Ligor, Pahang was one of the outlying dependencies. In the 15th century, the Pahang Sultanate became an autonomous kingdom within the Melaka Sultanate. Pahang entered into a dynastic union with Johor Empire in the early 17th century and emerged as an autonomous kingdom in the late 18th century. Following the bloody Pahang Civil War, concluded in 1863, the state under Tun Ahmad of the Bendahara dynasty, was restored as a Sultanate in 1881. In 1895, Pahang became a British protectorate along with the states of Perak and Negeri Sembilan. During the World War II, Pahang and other states of Malaya were occupied by the Empire of Japan from 1941 to 1945. After the war, Pahang became part of the temporary Malayan Union before being absorbed into the Federation of Malayas and gained full independence through the federation.
On 16 September 1963, the Malayan federation are being merged into a more larger federation of the Federation of Malaysia with North Borneo and Singapore. The federation was opposed by neighbouring Indonesia, which led to the Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation over three years along with the continuous war against local Communist insurgents. Modern Pahang is an economically important state with main activities in services and agricultural sectors; as part of ECER, it is a key region for the manufacturing sector, with the local logistics support network serving as a hub for the entire east coast region of Peninsular Malaysia. Over the years, the state has attracted much investment, both local and foreign, in the mineral sector. Important mineral exports include iron ore, gold and bauxite. Malaysia’s substantial oil and natural gas fields lie offshore in the South China Sea. At one time, timber resources brought much wealth to the state. Large-scale development projects have resulted in the clearing of hundreds of square miles of land for oil palm and rubber plantations and the resettling of several hundred thousand people in new villages under the federal agencies and institutions like FELDA, FELCRA and RISDA.
The naming of Pahang relates to the ancient practice in Malayic culture of defining territorial definitions and apportioning lands by water-sheds. The term'Pahang' in referring to the kingdom thus, is thought to originate from the name of Pahang River. There have been many theories on the origin of the name. According to Malay legend, across the river at Kampung Kembahang where the present stream of the Pahang parts company with the Pahang Tua, in ancient time stretched a huge mahang tree from which the river and kingdom derived their name; this legend agrees with oral tradition among Proto-Malay Jakun peoples that say their forefathers called the country Mahang. Other notable theory was espoused by William Linehan, that relates the early foundation of the kingdom to the settlers from ancient Khmer civilisation, claims its naming origin to the word saamnbahang meaning'tin', based on the discovery of prehistoric tin mines in the state. There were many variations of the name Pahang in history.
The Book of Song referred to the kingdom as Panhuang. The Chinese
Peninsular Malaysia known as Malaya or West Malaysia, is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula and surrounding islands. Its area is 132,265 square kilometres, nearly 40% of the total area of the country - or bigger than England and South Korea, it shares a land border with Thailand in the north. To the south is the island of Singapore. Across the Strait of Malacca to the west lies the Sumatra Island and across the South China Sea to the east lies the Natuna Islands. Peninsular Malaysia accounts for the majority of Malaysia's economy. Peninsular Malaysia consists of the following 11 states and two federal territories: Northern Region: Perlis, Penang, Perak East Coast Region: Kelantan, Pahang Central Region: Selangor, federal territories of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya Southern Region: Negeri Sembilan, Johor Peninsular Malaysia is known as West Malaysia or the States of Malaya; the majority of people on Peninsular Malaysia are ethnic Malays, predominantly Muslim. Large Chinese and Indian populations exist.
The Orang Asli are the indigenous people of Peninsular Malaysia. The term East Coast is used in Malaysia to describe the following states in Peninsular Malaysia facing the South China Sea, a component of the Pacific Ocean: Kelantan Pahang TerengganuThe term West Coast refers informally to a collection of states in Peninsular Malaysia situated towards the western coast facing the Strait of Malacca, a component of the Indian Ocean, as opposed to the East Coast. Unlike the East Coast, the West Coast is partitioned further into three regions, including: The Northern Region: Perlis, Kedah and Perak; the Central Region: Selangor and the federal territories of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya. The Southern Region: Negeri Sembilan and Johor. Though Johor has a coastline facing the South China Sea on the Pacific Ocean, it is not regarded as an East Coast state, since the main coastline of the state is located on the Straits of Johor of the Indian Ocean; the distinction between West and East Malaysia is significant beyond the sphere of geography, because as well as they were separate regions before the formation of The Federation of Malaysia, thus having a different court structure, the eastern states have more autonomy than the original States of Malaya, for example, autonomy in immigration.
These rights were granted as part of Sarawak's 18-point agreement and Sabah's 20-point agreement with Federation of Malaya in forming the Federation of Malaysia. Malaya Malayan dollar Media related to Peninsular Malaysia at Wikimedia Commons Peninsular Malaysia travel guide from Wikivoyage
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List