A boarding school provides education for pupils who live on the premises, as opposed to a day school. The word "boarding" is used in i.e. lodging and meals. As they have existed for many centuries, now extend across many countries, their function and ethos varies greatly. Traditionally, pupils stayed at the school for the length of the term; some are for either girls while others are co-educational. In the United Kingdom, which has a rich history of such schools, many independent schools offer boarding, but so do a few dozen state schools, many of which serve children from remote areas. In the United States, most boarding schools cover grades seven or nine through grade twelve—the high school years; some American boarding schools offer a post-graduate year of study to help students prepare for college entrance. In some times and places boarding schools are the most elite educational option, whereas in other contexts, they serve as places to segregate children deemed a problem to their parents or wider society.
Notoriously and the United States tried to assimilate indigenous children in the Canadian Indian residential school system and American Indian boarding schools respectively. Some function as orphanages, e.g. the G. I. Rossolimo Boarding School Number 49 in Russia. Tens of millions of rural children are now educated at boarding schools in China. Therapeutic boarding schools offer treatment for psychological difficulties. Military academies provide strict discipline. Education for children with special needs has a long association with boarding; some boarding schools offer an immersion into democratic education, such as Summerhill School. Others are determinedly international, such as the United World Colleges; the term boarding school refers to classic British boarding schools and many boarding schools around the world are modeled on these. A typical boarding school has several separate residential houses, either within the school grounds or in the surrounding area. A number of senior teaching staff are appointed as housemasters, dorm parents, prefects, or residential advisors, each of whom takes quasi-parental responsibility for anywhere from 5 to 50 students resident in their house or dormitory at all times but outside school hours.
Each may be assisted in the domestic management of the house by a housekeeper known in U. K. or Commonwealth countries as matron, by a house tutor for academic matters providing staff of each gender. In the U. S. boarding schools have a resident family that lives in the dorm, known as dorm parents. They have janitorial staff for maintenance and housekeeping, but do not have tutors associated with an individual dorm. Older students are less supervised by staff, a system of monitors or prefects gives limited authority to senior students. Houses develop distinctive characters, a healthy rivalry between houses is encouraged in sport. Houses or dorms include study-bedrooms or dormitories, a dining room or refectory where students take meals at fixed times, a library and study carrels where students can do their homework. Houses may have common rooms for television and relaxation and kitchens for snacks, storage facilities for bicycles or other sports equipment; some facilities may be shared between several dorms.
In some schools, each house has students of all ages, in which case there is a prefect system, which gives older students some privileges and some responsibility for the welfare of the younger ones. In others, separate houses accommodate needs of different classes. In some schools, day students are assigned to a dorm or house for social activities and sports purposes. Most school dormitories have an "in your room by" and a "lights out" time, depending on their age, when the students are required to prepare for bed, after which no talking is permitted; such rules may be difficult to enforce. International students may take advantage of the time difference between countries to contact friends or family. Students sharing study rooms are less to disturb others and may be given more latitude; as well as the usual academic facilities such as classrooms, halls and laboratories, boarding schools provide a wide variety of facilities for extracurricular activities such as music rooms, sports fields and school grounds, squash courts, swimming pools and theatres.
A school chapel is found on site. Day students stay on after school to use these facilities. Many North American boarding schools are located in beautiful rural environments, have a combination of architectural styles that vary from modern to hundreds of years old. Food quality can vary from school to school, but most boarding schools offer diverse menu choices for many kinds of dietary restrictions and preferences; some boarding schools have a Dress Code for specific meals like Dinner or for specific days of the week. Students are free to eat with friends, teammates, as well as with faculty and coaches. Extra curricular activities groups, e.g. the French Club, may have meals together. The Dining Hall serves a central place where lessons and learning can continue between students and teachers or
State schools are primary or secondary schools mandated for or offered to all children without charge, funded in whole or in part by taxation. While such schools are to be found in every country, there are significant variations in their structure and educational programs. State education encompasses primary and secondary education, as well as post-secondary educational institutions such as universities and technical schools that are funded and overseen by government rather than by private entities; the position before there were government-funded schools varied: in many instances there was an established educational system which served a significant, albeit elite, sector of the population. The introduction of government-organised schools was in some cases able to build upon this established system, both systems have continued to exist, sometimes in a parallel and complementary relationship and other times less harmoniously. State education is inclusive, both in its treatment of students and in that enfranchisement for the government of public education is as broad as for government generally.
It is organised and operated to be a deliberate model of the civil community in which it functions. Although provided to groups of students in classrooms in a central school, it may be provided in-home, employing visiting teachers, and/or supervising teachers, it can be provided in non-school, non-home settings, such as shopping mall space. State education is available to all. In most countries, it is compulsory for children to attend school up to a certain age, but the option of attending private school is open to many. In the case of private schooling, schools operate independently of the state and defray their costs by charging parents tuition fees; the funding for state schools, on the other hand, is provided by tax revenues, so that individuals who do not attend school help to ensure that society is educated. In poverty stricken societies, authorities are lax on compulsory school attendance because child labour is exploited, it is these same children whose income-securing labour cannot be forfeited to allow for school attendance.
The term "public education" when applied to state schools is not synonymous with the term "publicly funded education". Government may make a public policy decision that it wants to have some financial resources distributed in support of, it may want to have some control over, the provision of private education. Grants-in-aid of private schools and vouchers systems provide examples of publicly funded private education. Conversely, a state school may rely on private funding such as high fees or private donations and still be considered state by virtue of governmental ownership and control. State primary and secondary education involves the following: compulsory student attendance. In some countries, private associations or churches can operate schools according to their own principles, as long as they comply with certain state requirements; when these specific requirements are met in the area of the school curriculum, the schools will qualify to receive state funding. They are treated financially and for accreditation purposes as part of the state education system though they make decisions about hiring and school policy, which the state might not make itself.
Government schools are free to attend for Australian citizens and permanent residents, whereas independent schools charge attendance fees. They can be divided into two categories: selective schools; the open schools accept all students from their government-defined catchment areas. Government schools educate 65% of Australian students, with 34% in Catholic and independent schools. Regardless of whether a school is part of the Government or independent systems, they are required to adhere to the same curriculum frameworks of their state or territory; the curriculum framework however provides for some flexibility in the syllabus, so that subjects such as religious education can be taught. Most school students wear uniforms. Public or Government funded; these schools teach students from Year 1 to 10, with examinations for students in years 5, 8, 10. All public schools follow the National Board Curriculum. Many children girls, drop out of school after completing the 5th Year in remote areas. In larger cities such as Dhaka, this is uncommon.
Many good public schools conduct an entrance exam, although most public schools in the villages and small towns do not. Public schools are the only option for parents and children in rural areas, but there are large numbers of private schools in Dhaka and Chittagong. Many Bangladeshi private schools teach their students in English and follow curricula from overseas, but in public schools lessons are taught in Bengali. Per the Canadian constitution, public-school education in Canada is a provincial responsibility and, as such, there are many variations among the provinces. Junior kindergarten exists as an official program in only Ontario and Quebec while kindergarten is available in every province, but provincial funding and the level of ho
John Scottus School
John Scottus School comprises a primary and secondary school in Dublin, Ireland. The schools are named after John Scottus Eriugena, the Platonist philosopher and poet of Early Medieval Ireland; the school ethos is influenced by Platonic philosophy. The schools were founded in 1986 to provide education in philosophical principles, it is a sister school of the St James Independent School in the United Kingdom and is under the patronage of the John Scottus Educational Trust. The Schools’ curriculum teaches the standard primary curriculum with a strong focus on Philosophy; the Secondary School curriculum includes subjects such as Latin and Greek alongside the more traditional Leaving Certificate curriculum. The School offers bursaries and scholarships to Sixth Class students going into Secondary school that cover up to half the fees for the Junior Certificate cycle; the Primary School is based on Northumberland Road, while the secondary school operates Old Conna House, Rathmichael
Larry Mullen Jr.
Laurence Joseph Mullen Jr. is an Irish musician and actor, best known as the drummer and co-founder of the rock band U2. Mullen's distinctive drumming style developed from his playing martial beats in a childhood marching band, the Artane Boys Band; some of his most notable contributions to the U2 catalogue include "Sunday Bloody Sunday", "Pride", "Where the Streets Have No Name", "Zoo Station," "Mysterious Ways", "City of Blinding Lights". Mullen was born and raised in Dublin, attended Mount Temple Comprehensive School, where he co-founded U2 in 1976 after posting a message on the school's notice board. A member of the band since its inception, he has recorded 14 studio albums with U2. Mullen has worked on numerous side projects during his career. In 1990, he produced the Ireland national football team's song "Put'Em Under Pressure" for the 1990 FIFA World Cup. In 1996, he worked with U2 bandmate Adam Clayton on a dance re-recording of the "Theme from Mission: Impossible". Mullen has sporadically acted in films, most notably in Man on the Train and A Thousand Times Good Night.
As a member of the band, he has been involved in philanthropic causes throughout his career, including Amnesty International. As a member of U2, Mullen has received 22 Grammy Awards and has been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. In 2016, Rolling Stone ranked Mullen the 96th-greatest drummer of all time. Laurence Joseph Mullen Jr. was the middle child and only son of Laurence Joseph Mullen Sr. and Maureen Mullen, was born on 31 October 1961 in Artane, Dublin and lived there, on Rosemount Avenue, until his twenties. His father was his mother a homemaker, he has an elder sister and had a younger sister, who died in 1973. He attended the School of Music in Chatham Row to learn piano at the age of eight and began drumming in 1971, at the age of 9, under the instruction of Irish drummer Joe Bonnie. After Joe's death, Bonnie's daughter, took over from him, but Mullen started playing by himself. His mother died in a car accident in 1976. Before founding U2, Mullen was involved for three weeks, on the suggestion of his father, in a Dublin marching band called the Artane Boys Band, contributing to the martial beats common in Mullen's work, such as "Sunday Bloody Sunday".
Mullen left the band after they asked him to cut his shoulder-length hair. He saved money and his father helped him out to buy a drum kit made by a Japanese toy company, for sale by a friend of his sister Cecilia, he set up the kit in his bedroom and his parents gave him certain times to practice. His father got him into the Post Office Workers Band, which played orchestral melodies with percussion, along with marching band standards, he attended Marlborough Street, Dublin. He took the exams for Chanel College and St. Paul's, two Catholic schools his father wanted his son to attend. After the accidental death of Larry's younger sister in 1973, his father gave up the idea of pushing his son into those schools and sent Larry to Mount Temple Comprehensive School, the first interdenominational school in Ireland. Mullen's father suggested that he place a notice on the Mount Temple bulletin board, saying something to the effect of "drummer seeks musicians to form band." U2 was founded on 25 September 1976 in Mullen's kitchen in Artane.
The band consisting of Mullen, Paul "Bono" Hewson, David "The Edge" Evans, his brother Dik Evans, Adam Clayton, Mullen's friends Ivan McCormick and Peter Martin, was known as the "Larry Mullen Band", but the name changed to "Feedback", as, one of the few musical terms they knew. McCormick and Martin soon left, the band's name was changed to "The Hype". Just before they won a talent contest in Limerick, they changed their name again, for the final time, to U2 at a farewell concert for Dik Evans, becoming the 4-piece band they are today. Mullen left school in 1978; the school offered him the chance to complete his Leaving Certificate exams. He and his sister Cecilia worked for an American company in Dublin, involved in oil exploration off the coast of Ireland. Mullen worked there for a year in the purchasing department, with the prospect of becoming a computer programmer in their geology section. In 2016, Rolling Stone ranked Mullen the 96th-greatest drummer of all time. In the early days of U2, his contributions to the band were limited to fills and drum rolls, but he became more involved in the writing of the songs particularly in conjunction with Adam Clayton, his partner in the rhythm section, with whom he has collaborated on solo projects.
When the band was first being signed to CBS Records, they refused to sign the band unless Mullen was fired. He was not, as a result, his drumming became more integrated into the song structures, his experiences in the Artane Boys Band heavily contributed to the martial beat featured in many of U2's songs, helping to evoke military imagery. During the recording of the album Pop in 1996, Mullen suffered from severe back problems. Recording was delayed due to surgery; when he left the hospital, he arrived back in the studio to find the rest of the band experimenting more than with electronic drum machines, something driven by guitarist The Edge's interest in dance and hip-hop music, given his weakness after the operation, he relented, allowing The Edge to continue using drum machines, which contributed to the album's electronic feel. Mullen has had tendinitis problems throughout his career; as a means to reduce inflammation and pain, he began to use specially designed Pro-Mark drumsticks
Alexandra College is an independent day and boarding girls' school located in Milltown, Ireland. The school operates under a Church of Ireland ethos; the school was founded in 1866 and takes its name from Princess Alexandra of Denmark, the school's patron. The school colours and white, were adopted from the Danish flag in her honour. Alexandra College was founded by Anne Jellicoe, a Quaker educationist, in the name of furthering women's education. Under Anne Jellicoe, the school grew from a small establishment focused on providing a governess-style education to Irish Protestant ladies into a pioneering force for women's rights and education, providing an education to women equivalent to that available in boys' schools, with a grounding in mathematics, history and philosophy; as Alexandra settled into its role, Anne Jellicoe was convinced that a major obstacle to the liberal education of women was their exclusion from the university campus. She passionately believed that until women were admitted to Trinity College Dublin, the voice of women would not be heard in politics, literature or in academic debate.
The Royal University of Ireland Act 1879 allowed females to take university degrees on the same basis as males. Students were prepared for the examinations of the Royal University. Susan Parkes, co-author of Gladly Learn and Gladly Teach, a history of Alexandra College, is quoted as saying: "In the late 1800s, lecturers from Trinity College Dublin provided tuition for ladies on the Alexandra campus, and the first women to receive degrees in Ireland or Britain were Alex pupils — six of them studied at Dublin's Royal University from 1891 and at Trinity College Dublin, once it opened its doors to women in 1903."The school was situated in the historic Earlsfort Terrace, across from what is now the National Concert Hall. By 1879, a new hall and theatre were constructed alongside. Over time, the school acquired several more houses and by 1889 a new building by William Kaye-Parry was constructed next door to the college as Alexandra School; the school moved out to its sports grounds in the 1960s. The original buildings were subsequently demolished and the site remained vacant for over two decades.
The Conrad Hotel and office buildings were erected on the site. The Irish Ladies Hockey Union was established following a meeting at Alexandra College. On 2 March 1896 the college hosted the first women's international field hockey match when Ireland defeated England 2–0; the patriot and leading figure in the Easter 1916 uprising Patrick Pearse was once employed as an Irish language teacher. Alexandra College is under Church of Ireland management, the Archbishop of Dublin acts as chairman of the school council; the students are addressed weekly by a female minister, a school assembly is held daily at which Church of Ireland hymns are sung and which finish with the extended version of The Lord's Prayer. The attendance fees for the primary school are in fact higher than the secondary school due to the high number of teachers of specialized subjects for students with learning disabilities which are not subsidized by the government on the payroll; the preparatory department classes wear a red tracksuit, which the older classes wear only for sports, wearing the brown uniform of the secondary school for normal classes along with a red tie.
The majority of Junior School pupils go on to study at the Senior School. A wide range of subjects is available to study; the school crest reflects this, featuring a cross with a book, a ball, a lyre and a palette in its corners. The school was benefited in 2004 with the opening of the Milltown Luas stop at the back gate of the college. In the senior school, 1st-4th years wear the traditional brown uniform. 5th and 6th year students do not wear the school uniform. For one day in 6th year the girls put back on their brown uniforms, this is for the summer funday which has become a tradition in the school as fundays are'non-uniform' days with themes; this day is just before graduation. There is a Halloween fun day; each year gets a different theme for the funday. The teacher dress up; the school had a great interest in sports. The most popular being hockey. Students have to take part in one sport in winter hockey, football or basketball and in summer cricket, tennis or athletes; the school was ranked seventh in Ireland in terms of the number of students who progressed to third level and by the types of institutions to which the students progressed.
Undertaking charitable initiatives has always been a feature of school activities in Alexandra College. In the spring of 2005 a group of teachers decided to support the work of the Irish Nepalese Educational Trust, in trying to build a new primary school in Phuleli, a remote village in Nepal just 50 km south of Mount Everest. At Easter 2006 a group of teachers from Alex travelled to Nepal and visited Phuleli and were present at the foundation stone laying ceremony at the site of the new school; as one villager said: “We must educate our children: education is wealth.” The prestigious Children of Ireland award was last year awarded by the president Mary McAleese to five Alex students who went to work in Calcutta to work with the Hope foundation charity. The school devotes up to five full days per school year to raising money for a range of charities decided by the student body. These'Charity Fun Days' are student-run and successful, raising up to €4000 per day; these days are run by the Sixth Years and have themes to
The Northside is the part of Dublin city that lies to the north of the River Liffey. The Northside is not an official or administrative area and the unofficial definition of what constitutes the Northside varies, it includes those parts of Dublin city which lie north of the River Liffey. County Dublin settlements, north of the M50 motorway, such as Swords and Malahide, that have developed into suburbs of Dublin city, are sometimes included. James Joyce set several of the Dubliners stories on the Northside, reflecting his childhood sojourns in Drumcondra and Fairview. Other best selling authors who have written extensively about the Northside include Dermot Bolger and Booker-Prize-winning author Roddy Doyle, who set several novels in the fictional Northside area of Barrytown; the soap opera Fair City is set in a fictional suburb within Dublin's Northside. According to the RTÉ Guide, Carrigstown is bounded by Drumcondra to the north, the city centre to the south, East Wall to the east and Phibsboro to the west.
The Northside includes Dublin city centre north of the Liffey, of whose many streets some are noted below, districts such as Smithfield and Summerhill. Some older districts, such as Oxmantown, no longer exist. Beyond the centre, areas of the Northside include the below, most of the names being of long heritage, though until many were rural townlands; some are distinct suburbs or villages, others are parts of larger areas: The'area' is administered both by Dublin City Council and Fingal County Council, responsible for 84% and 16% of the land area which lies inside the M50 motorway and north of the river Liffey respectively. In general, Dublin postal districts on the Northside are odd numbers, while Southside codes are even. One exception is the Phoenix Park, on the Northside but forms part of an even-numbered district; the reason behind this is explained by eminent Dublin historian Pat Liddy: "Long before there were postal codes the James's St Postal Sorting Office looked after the Phoenix Park because it was considered to be closer and more convenient than Phibsborough.
James's St continued in this role when the postal codes were introduced so Dublin 8 it had to be." Well known places and sights on the Northside include: Major transport hubs include Connolly Station, Busáras and Dublin Airport. Many state bodies such as the national meteorological office, Met Éireann, the Central Fisheries Board, the national enterprise and trade board, Enterprise Ireland, the National Standards Authority of Ireland, Sustainable Energy Ireland, the Department of Education and Skills, the Department of the Environment and Local Government, the National Food Centre, the Irish Marine Institute in Corduff and the Department of Defence are based on the Northside; the main shopping area in the north inner city, busiest shopping street in Ireland, is Henry Street/Mary Street, just off O'Connell street. Four of the six city centre shopping centres are located on the Northside, these are the Jervis Centre, the Ilac Shopping Centre, Irish Life Shopping Mall and the Moore Street Mall, along with Dublin's largest out-of-town centre, at Blanchardstown, others at Swords, Charlestown in northern Finglas, Donaghmede.
The Cineworld cinema on Parnell Street is the largest cinema in Ireland with seventeen screens, while the Savoy, located on O'Connell Street and operated by IMC, is one of Ireland's oldest cinemas. Dublin City University, Dublin's youngest university, is located in Glasnevin and Drumcondra
Richard G. "Dik" Evans is an English-born Irish musician best known as a founder of the band Virgin Prunes and an early member of U2. Dik and his brother, David "The Edge" U2's guitarist, were among the group's co-founders. Evans was born in England to Welsh parents. At a young age, the family moved to Ireland, he is the older brother of David "The Edge" Evans, guitarist for rock band U2. He first began to learn how to play guitar with an acoustic guitar bought by his brother, which the two shared; the band that would be named U2 formed in Dublin on 25 September 1976. Dik and his brother Dave were two of six people to respond to a note that Larry Mullen Jr. posted on the notice board at Mount Temple Comprehensive School in search of musicians for a new band. The group set up in Mullen's kitchen, with the Evans brothers on guitar—at the first meeting, the duo shared a single home-made instrument between them, they soon whittled down the lineup to a five-piece and settled on the name "Feedback" because it was one of the few technical terms they knew.
Most of their initial material consisted of cover songs, which the band admitted was not their forte. Some of the earliest influences on the band were emerging punk rock acts, such as the Jam, the Clash and Sex Pistols; the popularity of punk rock convinced the group that musical proficiency was not a prerequisite to success. In April 1977, Feedback played their first gig for a paying audience at St. Fintan's High School. Shortly after, the band changed their name to "The Hype". Dik, older than the other band members and by this time at college, was becoming the odd man out; the rest of the band was leaning towards the idea of a four-piece ensemble. In March 1978, the group changed their name to "U2"; that same month, U2, as a four-piece without Dik, won a talent contest in Limerick sponsored by Harp Lager and the Evening Press. The win was an important affirmation for the fledgling band. Within a few days, Dik was phased out of the band with a farewell concert at the Presbyterian Church Hall in Howth.
During the show, which featured the group playing cover songs as the Hype, Dik ceremonially walked offstage. The remaining four band members returned in the concert to play original material as U2. Evans was a founding member of Dublin-based band The Virgin Prunes and their guitarist from 1977 to 1984, he co-founded the band The Kid Sisters known as The Screech Owls, along with the American musician Deborah "Debbie" Schow. Recent solo work includes contributions to Snakes & Ladders - A Festival of New Irish Music, curated by composer and former Virgin Prunes' band member, Daniel Figgis. Footnotes Bibliography