Mount Vesuvius

Mount Vesuvius is a somma-stratovolcano located on the Gulf of Naples in Campania, about 9 km east of Naples and a short distance from the shore. It is one of several volcanoes. Vesuvius consists of a large cone encircled by the steep rim of a summit caldera caused by the collapse of an earlier and much higher structure; the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79 destroyed the Roman cities of Pompeii, Herculaneum and Stabiae, as well as several other settlements. The eruption ejected a cloud of stones and volcanic gases to a height of 33 km, erupting molten rock and pulverized pumice at the rate of 6×105 cubic metres per second releasing 100,000 times the thermal energy released by the Hiroshima-Nagasaki bombings. More than 1,000 people died in the eruption; the only surviving eyewitness account of the event consists of two letters by Pliny the Younger to the historian Tacitus. Vesuvius has erupted many times since and is the only volcano on the European mainland to have erupted within the last hundred years.

Today, it is regarded as one of the most dangerous volcanoes in the world because of the population of 3,000,000 people living near enough to be affected, with 600,000 in the danger zone, making it the most densely populated volcanic region in the world, as well as its tendency towards violent, explosive eruptions of the Plinian type. Vesuvius has a long literary tradition, it was considered a divinity of the Genius type at the time of the eruption of AD 79: it appears under the inscribed name Vesuvius as a serpent in the decorative frescos of many lararia, or household shrines, surviving from Pompeii. An inscription from Capua to IOVI VESVVIO indicates; the Romans regarded Mount Vesuvius to be devoted to Hercules. The historian Diodorus Siculus relates a tradition that Hercules, in the performance of his labors, passed through the country of nearby Cumae on his way to Sicily and found there a place called "the Phlegraean Plain", "from a hill which anciently vomited out fire... now called Vesuvius."

It was inhabited by bandits, "the sons of the Earth,". With the assistance of the gods he went on; the facts behind the tradition, if any, remain unknown, as does whether Herculaneum was named after it. An epigram by the poet Martial in 88 AD suggests that both Venus, patroness of Pompeii, Hercules were worshipped in the region devastated by the eruption of 79. Vesuvius was a name of the volcano in frequent use by the authors of the late Roman Republic and the early Roman Empire, its collateral forms were Vesaevus, Vesevus and Vesvius. Writers in ancient Greek used Οὐεσούιον or Οὐεσούιος. Many scholars since have offered an etymology; as peoples of varying ethnicity and language occupied Campania in the Roman Iron Age, the etymology depends to a large degree on the presumption of what language was spoken there at the time. Naples was settled by Greeks, as "New City", testifies; the Oscans, a native Italic people, lived in the countryside. The Latins competed for the occupation of Campania. Etruscan settlements were in the vicinity.

Other peoples of unknown provenance are said to have been there at some time by various ancient authors. Some theories about its origin are: From Greek οὔ = "not" prefixed to a root from or related to the Greek word σβέννυμι = "I quench", in the sense of "unquenchable". From Greek ἕω = "I hurl" and βίη "violence", "hurling violence", *vesbia, taking advantage of the collateral form. From an Indo-European root, *eus- < *ewes- < *wes-, "shine" sense "the one who lightens", through Latin or Oscan. From an Indo-European root *wes = "hearth" Vesuvius is a "humpbacked" peak, consisting of a large cone encircled by the steep rim of a summit caldera caused by the collapse of an earlier and much higher structure called Mount Somma; the Gran Cono was produced during the A. D. 79 eruption. For this reason, the volcano is called Somma-Vesuvius or Somma-Vesuvio; the caldera started forming during an eruption around 17,000-18,000 years ago, was enlarged by paroxysmal eruptions, ending in the one of AD 79. This structure has given its name to the term "somma volcano", which describes any volcano with a summit caldera surrounding a newer cone.

The height of the main cone has been changed by eruptions but was 1,281 m in 2010. Monte Somma is 1,132 m high, separated from the main cone by the valley of Atrio di Cavallo, 5 km long; the slopes of the volcano are scarred by lava flows, while the rest are vegetated, with scrub and forests at higher altitudes and vineyards lower down. Vesuvius is still regarded as an active volcano, although its current activity produces little more than sulfur-rich steam from vents at the bottom and walls of the crater. Vesuvius is a stratovolcano at the convergent boundary where the African Plate is being subducted beneath the Eurasian Plate. Layers of lava, ash and pumice make up the volcanic peak, their mineralogy is variable, but silica-undersaturated and rich in potassium, with phonolite produced in the more explosive eruptions. Vesuv

Marco Barba

Marco Antonio Barba López is a Spanish racing driver and brother to Álvaro Barba. Barba began his racing career in 2003 in the Spanish Formula Junior 1600 series, taking a single podium and two pole positions to finish the year in 12th place, he stayed in the championship the following year, taking eight podiums, including six race wins to finish runner–up behind current GP2 Series driver Michael Herck. In 2004, Barba made his debut in the Spanish Formula Three Championship, racing in the rounds at Valencia and Barcelona; the following year, he stepped up to the championship full-time with Campos Racing, competing in the Copa de España class for older generation Dallara chassis. He took nine class podiums, including two class wins, to finish third in the standings, with team–mate Arturo Llobell winning the title. In the overall championship standings he finished in 10th place, he contested two races in the Italian Formula Three Championship for Team Ghinzani. Despite only taking part in two races, he scored enough points to be classified 10th in the final standings.

In 2006 and 2007 he raced in the main class of the series, firstly with Campos Racing before moving on to the TEC Auto team. During this period, he secured 14 podium places, including four race wins, finished as runner–up to team–mate Máximo Cortés in the 2007 season, losing out on the title by just four points. For 2010, Barba rejoined the series, now known as the European F3 Open Championship. Driving for Cedars Motorsport, he won the title at the penultimate round of the season in Jerez. In September 2006, Barba made his debut in the Formula Renault 3.5 Series at Donington Park, driving for Jenzer Motorsport alongside his older brother Álvaro. He failed to score a point. Barba graduated to the Formula Renault 3.5 Series full-time in 2008, racing for the Italian Draco Racing squad alongside fellow team newcomer Bertrand Baguette. Although he failed to take a podium place, he finished in the points in nine races and was classified 14th in the championship standings. Barba remained with the team for the 2009 season, along with Baguette earned Draco the team championship, with Baguette winning the driver's championship.

Barba ended up ninth overall, recording a best result of two second places, with both coming at the Hungaroring. In July 2008, Barba teamed up with his brother Álvaro to race a Mosler MT900R in the International GT Open event held at the newly constructed Valencia Street Circuit. In July 2010, Barba made his debut in the GP3 Series at the Hungaroring, replacing the injured Simon Trummer at Jenzer Motorsport. After retiring from the feature race, he recovered to finish 19th in the sprint event. In March 2011, it was announced that Barba would join the Auto GP championship, racing for his former Formula Three team Campos Racing. † Driver did not finish the race, but was classified as he completed more than 90% of the race distance. Official site Career details from Driver Database


Sineoamphisbaena is an extinct genus of squamate of uncertain phylogenetic placement. Its fossils are known from the Late Cretaceous deposits in China. Wu et al. Wu et al. and Gao argued that it was the oldest known amphisbaenian. A large-scale study of fossil and living squamates published in 2012 by Gauthier et al. did not find evidence for a close relationship between amphisbaenians and Sineoamphisbaena. The primary analysis of Gauthier et al. did not support a close relationship between Sineoamphisbaena and polyglyphanodontians either. Gauthier et al. considered it possible. World Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures: The Ultimate Visual Reference To 1000 Dinosaurs And Prehistoric Creatures Of Land, Air And Sea... And Cretaceous Eras by Dougal Dixon Conrad J. "Phylogeny and systematics of Squamata based on morphology". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 310: 1–182. Doi:10.1206/310.1. Hdl:2246/5915. Gao K 1997. Sineoamphisbaena phylogenetic relationships discussed. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences.

34: 886-889. Online article Gauthier, J. A.. B.. "Assembling the Squamate Tree of Life: Perspectives from the Phenotype and the Fossil Record". Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History. 53: 3–308. Doi:10.3374/014.053.0101. Kearney M 2003; the phylogenetic position of Sineoamphisbaena hexatabularis reexamined. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23, 394-403. Doi:10.1671/0272-46340232.0. CO. Oldest known amphisbaenian from the Upper Cretaceous of Chinese Inner Mongolia. Nature, 366: 57 – 59. Wu X-C Brinkman DB and Russell AP 1996. Sineoamphisbaena hexatabularis, an amphisbaenian from the Upper Cretaceous redbeds at Bayan Mandahu, comments on the phylogenetic relationships of the Amphisbaenia. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 33: 541-577