Ozark–St. Francis National Forest
The Ozark – St. Francis National Forest is a United States National Forest, located in the state of Arkansas, it is composed of Ozark National Forest in the Ozark Mountains. Each forest has distinct biological and geological differences. Together, the two forests are home to 23 developed campgrounds, include nine swimming areas, 395 miles of hiking trails, 370 miles of streams for fishing; the majority of the trails in what are now the Ozark National Forest and St. Francis National Forest were constructed under the Works Progress Administration and Civilian Conservation Corps; the Forest contains 11,000 acres of old-growth forests. The old-growth forests occur in the southern portion of the Forest on ridges and steep south-facing slopes and are dominated by Shortleaf Pine and various oaks, including Post Oak, Blackjack Oak, Eastern Black Oak, White Oak, Northern Red Oak; the Forest is home to six different endangered species. Several National Scenic Byways cross the Ozark–St. Francis National Forest, including the Scenic 7 Byway which runs from Missouri to Louisiana, 60 miles of which are within the Ozark National Forest.
Scenic 7 Byway offers the greatest variety of Ozark topography and scenic vistas. The Ozark Highlands Byway provides access to the Mulberry River, Big Piney Creek, Buffalo National River for fisherman and canoeists; the Mount Magazine Byway offers scenic overlooks of the Arkansas River Valley, the Sylamore Scenic Byway offers a scenic drive to the Blanchard Springs Caverns. Forest headquarters are located in Arkansas; the Ozark National Forest encompasses 1,200,000 acres in the scenic Ozark Mountains in northern Arkansas. The forest contains the tallest mountain in Arkansas, Mount Magazine, Blanchard Springs Caverns; the southern section of the forest lies along the Arkansas River Valley south to the Ouachita Mountains. The forest was created in 1908 by proclamation of President Theodore Roosevelt; the forest is home to over 500 species of trees and woody plants. Hardwoods, predominantly oak and hickory, comprise the majority of the forest; the forest contains several Wildlife Management Areas. The Ozark Highlands Trail and maintained by over 3,000 volunteers, is the longest hiking trail in the forest and extends for 165 miles from the Buffalo National River to Lake Fort Smith State Park in the far western portion of the state.
The forest contains several multi-use trails including the Pedestal Rock Trail and the Alum Cove Natural Bridge Trail and a few wheelchair-accessible trails. In addition to the hiking trails, the forest provides trails designated for horseback riding, mountain biking, all-terrain vehicles; the longest horse trail is the Sylamore Trail with a length of 80 miles. This trail passes over rocky bluffs, into deep hollows, across mountain streams; the Huckleberry Mountain Horse Trail has a stop at the Sorghum Hollow Horse Camp, built and maintained by local horsemen. Ozark National Forest is located in parts of 16 counties. In descending order of forestland they are Newton, Johnson, Crawford, Baxter, Madison, Van Buren, Washington, Benton and Marion counties. There are local ranger district offices located in Clarksville, Jasper, Mountain View and Paris. There are five designated wilderness areas lying within Ozark National Forest that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System. East Fork Wilderness Hurricane Creek Wilderness Leatherwood Wilderness Richland Creek Wilderness Upper Buffalo Wilderness The St. Francis National Forest was established on November 8, 1960 by President Dwight D. Eisenhower.
It covers 22,600 acres in eastern Arkansas along the Mississippi River, in Lee and Phillips counties, is one of the smallest national forests in the United States. There are local ranger district offices located in Marianna; the majority of the Forest is situated on Crowley's Ridge, but it extends into the low, flat lands along the Mississippi and St. Francis Rivers. St. Francis National Forest is the only place in the National Forest System where the public can enjoy the Mississippi River from the shoreline. While lacking the broad range of recreational activity available in other national forests, St. Francis National Forest is known for its fishing; the two largest lakes, Bear Creek Reservoir and Storm Creek Lake, enjoy large populations of Largemouth bass, Crappie and Channel catfish. Ouachita National Forest Ozark Mountain forests Sam's Throne Tom's Mill Fire An Illustrated History of the Ozark-St. Francis National Forests, 1908-1978 Wildernet: Ozark-St. Francis National Forest The National Forest Foundation's Conservation Plan for the Ozark National Forest
Stone County, Arkansas
Stone County is located in the Ozark Mountains in the U. S. state of Arkansas. The county is named for rocky area terrain of the Ozarks. Created as Arkansas's 74th county on April 21, 1873, Stone County has two incorporated cities: Mountain View, the county seat and most populous city, Fifty-Six; the county is the site of numerous unincorporated communities and ghost towns. Most of the county is sparsely populated forested Ozark hills; the remainder of the county is used for poultry and timber production. The White River runs along the eastern boundary of Stone County; the county contains six protected areas in addition to the Ozark National Forest: Blanchard Springs Caverns within the Ozark National Forest, two Natural Areas, two Wildlife Management Areas and the Ozark Folk Center, which preserves and interprets Ozark cultural heritage traditional mountain folk music and crafts. Other features such as log cabins, one-room school houses, community centers, museums, as well as annual cultural events, preserve the history and culture of Stone County.
Stone County occupies 609.43 square miles and contained a population of 12,394 people in 5,325 households as of the 2010 Census, ranking it 57th in both size and population among the state's 75 counties. Stone County is located in one of the six ecoregions of Arkansas; the Ozarks are a mountainous subdivision of the U. S. Interior Highlands, Stone County contains the Springfield Plateau, Salem Plateau, the steeper Boston Mountains subsets; the county is split along an east-west line near Mountain View, the centrally located county seat, with areas north within the Springfield Plateau, areas south within the Boston Mountains. Areas along the White River, which forms the county's northeastern boundary, are dissected bluffs of the Salem Plateau rather than riparian floodplains. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 609.43 square miles, of which 606.59 square miles is land and 2.84 square miles is water. The county is located 105 miles north of Little Rock, 151 miles northwest of Memphis, 278 miles southwest of St. Louis, Missouri.
Stone County is surrounded by three Ozark counties, Searcy County to the west, Baxter County to the northwest, Izard County to the northeast, three border counties with the Arkansas River Valley, Van Buren County to the southwest, Cleburne County to the south, Independence County to the east. Ozark National Forest As of the 2010 census, there were 12,394 people, 5,325 households, 3,590 families residing in the county; the population density was 20 people per square mile. There were 6,712 housing units at an average density of 11 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.8% White, 0.1% Black or African American, 0.7% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 0.4% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races. 1.3% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 5,325 households out of which 26.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 67.4% were married couples living together, 7.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.6% were non-families.
28.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 36.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.81. In the county, the population was spread out with 20.6% under the age of 18, 6.2% from 18 to 24, 19.4% from 25 to 44, 31.0% from 45 to 64, 22.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37.2 years. For every 100 females there were 97.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.2 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,380, the median income for a family was $36,765. Males had a median income of $28,258 versus $25,341 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,090. About 16.6% of families and 23.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 35.7% of those under age 18 and 20.6% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2000 census, there were 11,499 people, 4,768 households, 3,461 families residing in the county; the population density was 19 people per square mile.
There were 5,715 housing units at an average density of 9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.27% White, 0.08% Black or African American, 0.77% Native American, 0.05% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.15% from other races, 1.64% from two or more races. 1.08% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,768 households out of which 26.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.30% were married couples living together, 7.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.40% were non-families. 24.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.82. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.20% under the age of 18, 7.10% from 18 to 24, 23.60% from 25 to 44, 28.50% from 45 to 64, 18.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females there were 96.90 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $22,209, the median income for a family was $28,009. Males had a median income of $20,904 versus $16,118 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,134. About 14.10%
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
White River (Arkansas–Missouri)
The White River is a 722-mile long river that flows through the U. S. states of Missouri. Originating in the Boston Mountains of northwest Arkansas, it flows northwards into southern Missouri, turns back into Arkansas, flowing southeast to its mouth at the Mississippi River; the source of the White River is in the Boston Mountains of northwest Arkansas, in the Ozark–St. Francis National Forest southeast of Fayetteville; the river flows northwards from its source in northwest Arkansas, loops up through southwest Missouri through Branson, Missouri. In Branson the river forms Lake Taneycomo; the Powersite was the first dam on the White River. The flow into this comes from Table Rock Lake, down stream it flows into Bull Shoals Lake, from where it travels back into Arkansas, heads southeast to its mouth at the Mississippi River. On entering the Mississippi River Valley region near Batesville, the river becomes navigable to shallow-draft vessels, its speed decreases considerably; the final 10 miles of the river serves as the last segment of the McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System.
Despite being much shorter than the Arkansas River, it carries nearly as much water—normally more than 20,000 cubic feet per second, more than 100,000 cubic feet per second during floods. Lake Taneycomo was created in 1913 when the Empire District Electric Company built a dam just south of Forsyth, Missouri. Beaver Lake, Bull Shoals Lake, Table Rock Lake are man-made lakes or reservoirs created by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers under the authority of the Flood Control Act of 1938. A total of eight dams impound six in Arkansas and two in Missouri; the White River National Wildlife Refuge lies along the lower part of the river. The tributaries of the White River include Cache River, Bayou des Arc, Little Red River, Black River, North Fork River, Crooked Creek, Buffalo River, Kings River, James River, Roaring River; some cities that lie on the White River are Newport, Calico Rock, Batesville, all in Arkansas, as well as Branson and Hollister in Missouri. Fishing for trout is popular in the upper portions of the river from the Beaver Lake tailwaters in northwestern Arkansas, through its course through southwest Missouri, back down through Arkansas to the Highway 58 bridge in Guion.
The river has long been ranked one of the top trout fisheries in the country. Fishing is popular in these waters for a number of trout species including rainbow and cutthroat trout. A number of trout fishing resorts lie on the tailwaters of Bull Shoals Lake and the North Fork River. Fishing for white bass is popular in these waters. Cotter Bridge Grand Prairie Area Demonstration Project List of rivers of Arkansas List of longest rivers of the United States List of rivers of Missouri Whitewater Development Corporation White River Monster Cushing, Charles Phelps. "Floating Through The Ozarks". The Outing Magazine. LVIII: 537–547. Retrieved 2009-08-16. Media related to White River at Wikimedia Commons
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
Blanchard Springs Caverns
Blanchard Springs Caverns is a cave system located in the Ozark–St. Francis National Forest in Stone County in northern Arkansas, 2 miles off Highway 14 a short distance north of Mountain View, it is the only tourist cave owned by the United States Forest Service and the only one owned by the Federal government outside the National Park System. Blanchard Springs Caverns is a three-level cave system; the Dripstone Trail runs through the uppermost level of caverns for about a half-mile and opened in 1973. The Discovery Trail opened in 1977 and loops through a 1.2-mile section of the cavern, descending to the lower level of the cave, 366 feet underground, as well as to the Natural Entrance, about 100 feet below ground at that point, following the stream bed of the springs that created the cavern. This trail includes the Rimstone Dams, which create pools along the stream bed, the Ghost Room, a small but well decorated room in the uppermost level, with its huge white flowstone. Offered is a "Wild Cave" tour which allows access to undeveloped parts of the cave to more adventurous visitors.
It follows the upstream section of the cave, allowing visitors to see all three levels as the original explorers did, continuing beyond where the Discovery Trail ends. Local residents called it Half-Mile Cave; the first systematic exploration of the cave began in the 1950s and continued sporadically through the 1960s. Additionally, in 1955, explorers discovered a Native American skeleton in the cave; the skeletal remains were incomplete and a cause of death could not be ascertained. How this explorer entered the cave is unknown; the caverns were opened to the public in 1973 after 10 years of development on the Dripstone Trail. Blanchard Springs Caverns received its name from Blanchard Springs; the springs, in turn, were named for John Blanchard, who owned about 160 acres of land, downstream from the spring, used to power a cotton gin and grist mill that Mr. Blanchard owned and operated. Blanchard died in 1914. With 8.1 miles of surveyed passage, Blanchard is the second longest cave in Arkansas and the largest in volume.
The limestone rock from which the caves and their formations developed was laid down in an ancient sea more than 350 million years ago. The cave is in middle Ordovician to lower Mississippian rocks and extends through six stratigraphic formations; the cave has shown over 5 levels of passage development but the upper two levels have eroded away as deepening valleys on the surface cut into them. The cave's formation was phreatic in nature and passages have elliptical cross-sections typical of these formations. During the cave's development, active streams have been pirated from one level down to another without much vadose erosion occurring; the present stream rises from the cave at Blanchard Springs itself, at the same temperature as the cave, a constant, year-round 58 °F. Most of the lower-level Discovery Route is in the 100-foot thick Plattin limestone whereas the Dripstone tour route in the uppermost level of the cave spans 3 units, the Boone Chert, Cason Shale, the Fernvale Limestone. Blanchard remains a "living" cave in part because of the care given by visitors and the United States Forest Service.
Thus the formations inside continue to grow as calcite is deposited by seeping and dripping water. One of the outstanding examples of formation growth is the Giant Flowstone, one of the largest in the U. S. at 164 feet long, 33 feet wide, 30 feet thick. Blanchard Springs Caverns Website produced by the Stone County Tourist Guide USDA Forest Service Page for Blanchard Springs Caverns
Bluegrass music is a genre of American roots music that developed in the 1940s in the United States Appalachian region. The genre derives its name from the Blue Grass Boys. Bluegrass has roots in traditional English and Scottish ballads and dance tunes, by traditional African-American blues and jazz; the Blue Grass Boys played a Mountain Music style that Bill learned in Asheville, North Carolina from bands like Wade Mainer's and other popular acts on radio station WWNC. It was further developed by musicians who played with him, including 5-string banjo player Earl Scruggs and guitarist Lester Flatt. Bluegrass pioneer Bill Monroe characterized the genre as: "Scottish bagpipes and ole-time fiddlin'. It's Holiness and Baptist. It's blues and jazz, it has a high lonesome sound."Bluegrass features acoustic string instruments and emphasizes the offbeat. Notes are anticipated in contrast to laid back blues where notes are behind the beat, which creates the higher energy characteristic of bluegrass. In bluegrass, as in some forms of jazz, one or more instruments each takes its turn playing the melody and improvising around it, while the others perform accompaniment.
This is in contrast to old-time music, in which all instruments play the melody together or one instrument carries the lead throughout while the others provide accompaniment. Breakdowns are characterized by rapid tempos and unusual instrumental dexterity and sometimes by complex chord changes. There are three major subgenres of bluegrass. Traditional bluegrass has musicians playing folk songs, tunes with traditional chord progressions, using only acoustic instruments, with an example being Bill Monroe. Progressive bluegrass groups may use electric instruments and import songs from other genres rock & roll. Examples include Cadillac Bearfoot. Another subgenre, bluegrass gospel, uses Christian lyrics, soulful three- or four-part harmony singing, sometimes the playing of instrumentals. A newer development in the bluegrass world is Neo-traditional bluegrass. Bluegrass music has attracted a diverse following worldwide. Unlike mainstream country music, bluegrass is traditionally played on acoustic stringed instruments.
The fiddle, five-string banjo, guitar and upright bass are joined by the resonator guitar and harmonica or Jew's harp. This instrumentation originated in rural dance bands and is the basis on which the earliest bluegrass bands were formed; the guitar is now most played with a style referred to as flatpicking, unlike the style of early bluegrass guitarists such as Lester Flatt, who used a thumb pick and finger pick. Banjo players use the three-finger picking style made popular by banjoists such as Earl Scruggs. Fiddlers play in thirds and fifths, producing a sound, characteristic to the bluegrass style. Bassists always play pizzicato adopting the "slap-style" to accentuate the beat. A bluegrass bass line is a rhythmic alternation between the root and fifth of each chord, with occasional walking bass excursions. Instrumentation has been a continuing topic of debate. Traditional bluegrass performers believe the "correct" instrumentation is that used by Bill Monroe's band, the Blue Grass Boys. Departures from the traditional instrumentation have included dobro, harmonica, autoharp, electric guitar, electric versions of other common bluegrass instruments, resulting in what has been referred to as "newgrass."
Apart from specific instrumentation, a distinguishing characteristic of bluegrass is vocal harmony featuring two, three, or four parts with a dissonant or modal sound in the highest voice, a style described as the "high, lonesome sound." The ordering and layering of vocal harmony is called the "stack". A standard stack has the lead in the middle and a tenor at the top. Alison Krauss and Union Station provide a good example of a different harmony stack with a baritone and tenor with a high lead, an octave above the standard melody line, sung by the female vocalist. However, by employing variants to the standard trio vocal arrangement, they were following a pattern existing since the early days of the genre; the Stanley Brothers utilized a high baritone part on several of their trios recorded for Columbia records during their time with that label. Mandolin player Pee Wee Lambert sang the high baritone above Ralph Stanley's tenor, both parts above Carter's lead vocal; this trio vocal arrangement was variously used by other groups as well.
In the 1960s Flatt and Scruggs added a fifth part to the traditional quartet parts on gospel songs, the extra part being a high baritone. The use of a high lead with the tenor and baritone below it was most famously employed by the Osborne Brothers who first employed it during their time with MGM records in the latter half of the 1950s; this vocal arrangement would be the home aspect of the Osbornes' sound with Bobby's high, clear voice at the top of the vocal stack. Bluegrass tunes can be described as narratives on the everyday lives of the people whence the music came. Aside from laments about loves lost, interpersonal tensions and unwanted changes to the region (e.g. the visible effects of moun