A spiral is a technique employed by railways to ascend steep hills. A railway spiral rises on a steady curve until it has completed a loop, passing over itself as it gains height, allowing the railway to gain vertical elevation in a short horizontal distance, it is an alternative to a zig-zag, avoids the need for the trains to stop and reverse direction while ascending. If the train is longer than the length of each loop it may be possible to view it looping above itself; the term "loop" is often used for a railway that curves and goes back on itself: if the railway crosses itself it forms a spiral. 2 spirals between Tacuara and Meseta at 24°26′10″S 65°50′28″W and 24°23′17″S 65°51′01″W on the heritage Tren a las Nubes section of the Salta–Antofagasta railway part of the General Manuel Belgrano Railway. Spiral on the uphill track at Bethrunga 34°45′17″S 147°52′13″E on the Main Southern railway line, New South Wales; the downhill track remains on the original steep plain 1 in 40 gradient. Spiral on the single track at Cougal 28°21′16″S 152°57′51″E on the North Coast railway line, New South Wales.
Four Spirals on the Rhodope Mountain Line between Septemvri to Dobrinishte railway between Velingrad and Cherna Mesta at 42°02′36″N 23°51′12″E, 42°02′27″N 23°50′30″E, 42°02′14″N 23°44′48″E and 42°02′53″N 23°44′10″E. Spiral just outside Klisura at 42°42′02″N 24°27′35″E on the Sofia to Tulovo railway. Spiral just outside Radevtsi at 42°47′46″N 25°32′38″E on the Ruse to Dimitrovgrad railway. Spiral and horseshoe bends just outside Raduntsi at 42°40′37″N 25°35′41″E on the Ruse to Dimitrovgrad railway. Double spiral at Big Hill at 51°25′28″N 116°25′17″W on the approach to Kicking Horse Pass on the Canadian Pacific Railway route. There used to be a spiral at 48°21′57″N 53°23′45″W at Trinity, Newfoundland on the former Newfoundland Railway. There used to be a spiral at Rogers Pass at 51°18′05″N 117°47′29″W, superseded when the Connaught Tunnel was built. Spiral South of Baoji at 34°16′39″N 106°58′09″E on the Baoji–Chengdu Railway. Spiral South of Baishiyan at 28°46′05″N 102°34′25″E on the Chengdu–Kunming Railway.
Spiral at Lewu at 28°17′52″N 102°37′21″E on the Chengdu–Kunming Railway. Spiral at Wazu at 28°11′54″N 102°33′58″E on the Chengdu–Kunming Railway. Spiral at Tiekou at 28°13′49″N 102°31′54″E on the Chengdu–Kunming Railway. 2 spirals near Heijing at 25°26′15″N 101°44′52″E on the Chengdu–Kunming Railway. Spiral at Shangshali at 48°47′36″N 121°43′39″E on the Harbin–Manzhouli Railway. There used to be a series of spirals on the Southern Xinjiang Railway between Korla; this line was rebuilt on a shorter route in 2014. There used to be a spiral at Guanjiao at 37°05′04″N 98°52′25″E on the Qinghai–Tibet Railway.. Replica of the Brusio Spiral Viaduct at 10°28′44″N 84°49′25″W on the Tren Turistico Arenal, 10 km east of Nuevo Arenal, Guanacaste. Spiral between Rijeka-Brajdica and Sušak-Pećine at 45°19′23″N 14°26′57″E on the Rijeka–Karlovac railway, part of International corridor V; the spiral is in a 1838 m long tunnel. Three spirals on the Col de Tende line between Ventimiglia to Cuneo as it passes through France, a further spiral on this line is in Italy.
Just North of Fontan at 44°00′58″N 7°33′58″E. Saint Dalmas-de-Tende at 44°03′28″N 7°35′38″E. Tende at 44°05′55″N 7°35′44″E. Spiral at Moûtiers at 45.485628°N 6.540444°E / 45.485628. There used to be a spiral in the Sayerce tunnel at 42°50′54″N 0°32′46″W on the former Pau–Canfranc railway line between Pau and Zaragoza in the Pyrenees; this spiral is now a footpath. The proposed spirals between The Gravenne and Montpezat at 44.695047°N 4.21797°E / 44.695047. Spiral, known as the Rendsburg Loop, on the northern approach to the Rendsburg High Bridge, a railway viaduct and transporter bridge crossing the Kiel Canal in Rendsburg, Schleswig-Holstein at 54°17′58″N 9°40′37″E. Spiral on the Wutach Valley Railway at 47°47′30″N 8°30′07″E; the line was built for strategic reasons and had to be built to a reasonable gradient in order to haul heavy military trains over it. The alternative, shorter Singen–Waldshut route was not available for this traffic, since it crossed Swiss territory; the line is now a heritage railway.
There are three spirals on the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway: Chunbati Loop at 26°50′30″N 88°20′28″E. Agony Point at 26°51′28″N 88°19′40″E. Batasia Loop at 27°01′00″N 88°14′50″E; the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway had five or six spirals but only five in operation at any one time. The line has six reverses or zig-zags. There used to be a spiral at Dhulghat at 21°16′58″N 76°45′41″E between Khandwa and Hingoli on the metre gauge railway, the spiral was removed when the track was upgraded to broad gauge. Spirals near Dowgal station at 35°52′34″N 52°57′20″E and extensive horseshoe curves in the Alborz Mountains on the Trans-Iranian Railway; the St. James's Gate Brewery, Ireland had an internal 1 ft 10 in gauge railway with a loop in a tunnel to gain height between buildings. Spiral at Bortigiadas 40°53′31″N 9°03′23″E on the Sassari-Palau railway on Sardinia. Spiral near Lanusei 39°52′21″N 9°32′27″E on the Mandas–Gairo–Arbatax railway on Sardinia. Varzo Spiral Tunnel near Iselle di Trasquera 46°12′45″N 8°13′37″E on the Swiss Federal Railways just South of the Southern Portal of the Simplon Tunnel.
Spiral near Vernante 44°14′12″N 7°32′25″E on the Col de Tende railway from Ventimiglia to Cuneo. There are a further three spirals on this line in French territory. Spiral close to Savona at
Nilgiri Mountain Railway
The Nilgiri Mountain Railway is a 1,000 mm metre gauge railway in Tamil Nadu, built by the British in 1908. The railway is the only rack railway in India; the railway relies on its fleet of steam locomotives. NMR switched to diesel locomotives on the section between Udhagamandalam. Local people and visitors led a campaign to return to steam locomotives in this section. In July 2005, UNESCO added the Nilgiri Mountain Railway as an extension to the World Heritage Site of Darjeeling Himalayan Railway; the site became known as Mountain Railways of India. In 1854, plans were made to build a mountain railway from Mettupalayam to the Nilgiri Hills. However, it took the decision-makers 45 years to cut through the bureaucratic red tape and complete the construction; the line was completed and opened for traffic in June 1899. It was operated first by the Madras Railway under an agreement with the government; the Madras Railway Company continued to manage the railway line on behalf of the government for a long time until the South Indian Railway company purchased it.
Coonoor was the final station on the line. In September 1908, the line was extended to Fernhill. By October 15, 1908, it was extended to Udagmandalam; these extensions from Coonoor on the same gauge over a distance of 11 and 3/4 miles were done at a cost of Rs. 24,40,000/-. The NMR and all of its assets, including the stations, the line, the track vehicles, belong to the Government of India and are managed by the Ministry of Railways; the Southern Railway performs the day-to-day maintenance and management, but several programs and departments of the Indian Railways are responsible for operating and repairing the NMR. Between Mettupalayam and Coonoor, the line uses the Abt rack and pinion system to climb the steep gradient. NMR is the only rack railway in India. NMR uses'X' Class steam rack locomotives, manufactured by the Swiss Locomotive and Machine Works of Winterthur in Switzerland, on the rack and pinion section of its tracks; the X Class locomotives are six to eight decades old. These locomotives give NMR a distinct charm, taking scores of passengers to Coonoor and Udhagamandalam, crossing 45.8 kilometres, 108 curves, 16 tunnels and 250 bridges.
The steam locomotives can be used on any part of the line, while the diesel locomotives can operate only on the section between Coonoor and Udagamandalam. This signals the beginning of the phasing out of the steam engines; each diesel engine weighs a little over cost Rs. 10 crore. They have primary burners. Separate tanks hold 2,250 litres of furnace oil; the hauling capacity of this new engine is 97.6 tonnes. It can run at a speed of 30 kilometres per hour on plains and at 15 kilometres an hour climbing a gradient; the arrival of the new engines eliminated the disruptions in service. The steam locomotives are marshalled at the downhill end of the train; the average gradient in this rack section is 1 in 24.5, with a maximum of 1 in 12. Between Coonoor and Udagamandalam, the train is operated by a YDM4 diesel locomotive using conventional rail adhesion principles. On this section, the locomotive is always at the Coonoor end of the train as although the line is not steep enough to need a rack rail, the ruling gradient out of Coonoor is steep at 1 in 25.
Southern Railway carries out the majority of the locomotive repairs at the Coonoor shed but has rebuilt many of the steam locomotives at the Golden Rock Workshops. Many carriage repairs take place at Mettupalayam. Like the locomotives, major work on the carriages takes place at one of the larger railway workshops; the uphill journey takes around 290 minutes, the downhill journey takes 215 minutes. It has the steepest track in Asia with a maximum gradient of 8.33%. As of 2007, a daily train crosses the rack section, which starts from Mettupalayam at 07:10 and reaches Udhagamandalam at noon; the return train starts from Udhagamandalam at 14:00, reaches at 17:35. The train is scheduled to connect to the Nilgiri Express, which travels from Mettupalayam to Chennai via Coimbatore. A summer special service runs in April and May, starting from Mettupalayam at 09:30 and from Udhagamandalam at 12:15. Between Coonoor and Udagamandalam, four daily trains run each way. Though the NMR supplies networked computerized ticketing systems for onward journeys, it still issues Edmondson style manual tickets for the Udhagamandalam-Mettupalayam journey to preserve its'World Heritage Site' status.
Ticket booking can be done via the Indian Railway website. It is advisable to book tickets well in advance during peak season. Mettupalayam has the 5 ft 6 in line near to Coimbatore Junction. Passengers cross the platform to board the NMR. A small locomotive shed is there and the carriage workshops for the line. Leaving Mettupalayam, the line is adhesion-worked and drops for a short distance before crossing the Bhavani River, after which it starts to climb gently. Kallar is closed as a passenger station; as the train leaves the station, the gradient is 1 in 12. Adderly is used only as a water stop. Hillgrove is a block water stop with passenger refreshments. Runnymede is used only as a water stop. Kateri Road: trains no longer not stop there. Coonoor is the main intermediate station, sited near the locomotive workshops as well as the top end of the rack rail. Trains must reverse a short distance before continuing their climb to Udhagamanda
Zig zag (railway)
A railway zig zag called a switchback, is a method of climbing steep gradients with minimal need for tunnels and heavy earthworks. For a short distance, the direction of travel is reversed. Not all switchbacks come in pairs, in which case the train may need to travel backwards for a considerable distance. A location on railways constructed by using a zig-zag alignment at which trains have to reverse direction in order to continue is a reversing station. One of the best examples is the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway, a UNESCO World Heritage site railway in India, that has six full zig zags and 3 spirals. Zig zags tend to be cheaper to construct. Civil engineers can find a series of shorter segments going back and forth up the side of a hill more and with less grading than they can a continuous grade which has to contend with the larger scale geography of the hills to be surmounted. Zig zags suffer from a number of limitations: The length of a train is limited to what will fit on the shortest stub track in the zig zag.
The Lithgow Zig Zag stub was extended at great cost in 1908, only to be deviated in 1910. Reversing a locomotive-hauled train without running an engine around to the rear of the train is hazardous. Top and tail or push pull; the process is slow due to the need to reverse the switch. If wagons in a freight train are marshalled poorly, with a light vehicle located between heavy ones, the move on the middle road of a zig zag can cause derailment of the light wagon. Argentina Tren a las Nubes Australia Lithgow Zig Zag, New South Wales preserved - see Zig Zag Railway Out of use: Thornleigh Zig Zag, New South Wales Yarraglen Kalamunda Zig Zag, Western Australia – two reversals Lake Margaret Tram, Tasmania, 610 mm Lapstone Zig Zag, New South Wales – two reversals Mundaring Weir Branch Railway, Western Australia Yarloop, Western Australia Myanmar Passenger line between Thazi and Kalaw, with four switchbacks. In reality only half a'Z' as only one reversal is needed. Ecuador Sibambe on the Quito-Guayaquil line France Froissy Dompierre Light Railway Germany In use: Rauenstein Lauscha Ernstthal am Rennsteig: created by close of the Ernstthal–Probstzella railway Lüttmoorsiel-Nordstrandischmoor island railway Rennsteig Michaelstein Wurzbach Altenkirchen station, Limburg–Altenkirchen railway out of use Schillingsfürst Lenzkirch in the Black Forest Elm (replaced in 1914 by Distelrasen Tunnel, but the structure is conserved within the Frankfurt-Fulda and Fulda-Gemünden railways and the connecting curve between the stations at Elm and Schlüchtern Steinhelle-Medebach railway Mainspitze station in Frankfurt am Main, used from 1846–1848 to reach the provisional Frankfurt terminal of the Main-Neckar Railway Hungary The Szob-Nagybörzsöny forest railway has a simple zig zag at the middle of the railway line between Kisirtás and Tolmács-hegy stations, with a loop in the middle of the Z shape India Darjeeling Himalayan Railway has six full zig zags and 3 spirals, most are from the construction of the current railway but one was added in the 1940s and at least one other was used temporarily following storm damage Italy Saline-Volterra Ferrovia Genova-Casella has one zig zag in regular use at Casella Deposito.
Japan Hakone Tozan Line has three zig zags, namely at Deyama S. B. Ōhiradai Station, Kami-Ōhidradai S. B. Hōhi Main Line at Tateno Station Kisuki Line at Izumo-Sakane Station Hisatsu Line at Okoba and Masaki stations Tateyama Sabō Erosion Control Works Service Train, the work train for an erosion control construction, is not open to general public, but deserves a mention for its 38 zig zags, 18 of them in a row. Niyama Station on Hakodate Main Line Obasute Station on the Shinonoi Line in Chikuma, Nagano is on a switchback. North Korea Kanggye Line, between Hwangp'o and Simrip'yŏng stations Kŭmgangsan Electric Railway, between Tanballyŏng and Malhwiri stations. Entire line destroyed during the Korean War and not rebuilt. Paengmu Line, between Yugok and Rajŏk stations, at Samyu station in addition, there are numerous switchbacks on spurs into underground facilities located off main lines. South Korea Yeongdong Line, between Heungjeon station and Nahanjeong station; this section replaced by Solan tunnel.
Mexico Ferrocarril Noroeste de México, between Juan Mata Ortiz to Chico. New Zealand Driving Creek Railway, Coromandel Pakistan Khyber Pass Peru Seven full Zigzags and one single reverse on the Central Railway of Peru PeruRail between Cuzco to Machu Picchu – Five switchbacks Slovakia Historical Logging Switchback Railway in Vychylovka Sweden Lövsjöväxeln on Hällefors-Fredriksbergs Järnvägar Switzerland Chambrelien required the use of a turntable to allow large tender locomotives to be turned as they ran-roun
A broad-gauge railway is a railway with a track gauge broader than the 1,435 mm standard-gauge railways. Broad gauge was first used in Great Britain in Scotland for two short, isolated lines, the Dundee and Arbroath Railway and the Arbroath and Forfar Railway. Both the lines were built in 5 ft 6 in. Both the lines were subsequently converted to standard gauge and connected to the emerging Scottish rail network; the Great Western Railway, was designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, in 1838, with a gauge of 7 ft 1⁄4 in, retained this gauge until 1892. Some harbours used railways of this gauge for construction and maintenance; these included Portland Harbour and Holyhead Breakwater, which used a locomotive for working sidings. As it was not connected to the national network, this broad-gauge operation continued until the locomotive wore out in 1913; the gauge proposed by Brunel was 7 ft but this was soon increased by 1⁄4 in to 7 ft 1⁄4 in to accommodate clearance problems identified during early testing.
While the parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was prepared to authorise lines built to the broad gauge of 7 ft, it was rejected by the Gauge Commission in favour of all new railways in England and Scotland being built to standard gauge of 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in, this being the gauge with the greatest mileage. Railways which had received their enabling Act would continue at the 7 ft gauge. Ireland, using the same criteria, was allocated a different standard gauge, the Irish gauge, of 5 ft 3 in, used in the Australian states of South Australia and Victoria. Broad-gauge lines in Britain were converted to dual gauge or standard gauge from 1864, the last of Brunel's broad gauge was converted over a single weekend in 1892. In 1839 the Netherlands started its railway system with two broad-gauge railways; the chosen gauge of 1,945 mm was applied between 1839 and 1866 by the Hollandsche IJzeren Spoorweg-Maatschappij for its Amsterdam–The Hague–Rotterdam line and between 1842 and 1855, firstly by the Dutch state, but soon by the Nederlandsche Rhijnspoorweg-Maatschappij, for its Amsterdam–Utrecht–Arnhem line.
But the neighbouring countries Prussia and Belgium used standard gauge, so the two companies had to regauge their first lines. In 1855, NRS regauged its line and shortly afterwards connected to the Prussian railways; the HSM followed in 1866. There are replicas of one broad-gauge 2-2-2 locomotive and three carriages in the Dutch Railway Museum in Utrecht; these replicas were built for the 100th anniversary of the Dutch Railways in 1938–39. Ireland and some states in Australia and Brazil have a gauge of 5 ft 3 in, but Luas, the Dublin light rail system, is built to standard gauge. Russia and the other former Soviet Republics use a 1,520 mm gauge while Finland continues to use the 5 ft gauge inherited from Imperial Russia. Portugal and the Spanish Renfe system use a gauge of 1,668 mm called Ancho Ibérico in Spanish or Bitola Ibérica in Portuguese. In Toronto, the gauge for TTC subways and streetcars was chosen in 1861. Toronto adopted a unique gauge of 4 ft 10 7⁄8 in, an "overgauge" stated to "allow horse-drawn wagons to use the rails", but with the practical effect of precluding the use of standard-gauge equipment in the street.
The Toronto Transit Commission still operates the Toronto streetcar system and three subway lines on its own unique gauge of 4 ft 10 7⁄8 in. The Scarborough RT, uses standard gauge, as will the future light rail lines of the Transit City plan. In 1851 the 5 ft 6 in broad gauge was adopted as the standard gauge for the Province of Canada, becoming known as the Provincial gauge, government subsidies were unavailable for railways that chose other gauges; this caused problems in interchanging freight cars with northern United States railroads, most of which were built to standard gauge or a gauge similar to it. In the 1870s between 1872 and 1874, Canadian broad-gauge lines were changed to standard gauge to facilitate interchange and the exchange of rolling stock with American railroads. Today, all Canadian railways are standard-gauge. In the early days of rail transport in the US, railways tended to be built out from coastal cities into the hinterland, systems did not connect; each builder was free to choose its own gauge, although the availability of British-built locomotives encouraged some railways to be built to standard gauge.
As a general rule, southern railways were built to one or another broad gauge 5 ft, while northern railroads that were not standard gauge tended to be narrow gauge. Most of the original track in Ohio was built in 4 ft 10 in Ohio gauge, special "compromise cars" were able to run on both this track and standard gauge track. In 1848, Ohio passed a law stating "The width of the track or gauge of all roads under this act, shall be four feet ten inches between the rails." When American railroads' track extended to the point that they began to interconnect, it became clear that a single nationwide gauge was desirable. Six-foot-gauge railroads had developed a large regional following in New York State in the first part of the 19th century, due to the influence of the New York and Erie, one of the early pioneering railroads in
Udagamandalam, abbreviated as Udhagai or Ooty, (listen is a town and a municipality in the Indian State of Tamil Nadu. It is located 86 km north of Coimbatore and 128 km south of Mysore and is the capital of the Nilgiris district, it is a popular hill station located in the Nilgiri Hills. Occupied by the Toda people, the area came under the rule of the East India Company at the end of the 18th century; the economy is based on tourism and agriculture, along with the manufacture of medicines and photographic film. The town is connected by Nilgiri Mountain Railway, its natural environment attracts tourists and it is a popular summer destination. In 2011, the town had a population of 88,430; the origin of the name is obscure. The first known written mention of the place is given as Wotokymund in a letter of March 1821 to the Madras Gazette from an unknown correspondent. In early times it was called OttakalMandu. "Mund" is the Anglicised form of the Toda word for Mandu. The first part of the name is a corruption of the local name for the central region of the Nilgiri Plateau.
The stem of the name comes from the local language in which Otha-Cal means "single stone". This is a reference to a sacred stone revered by the local Toda people; the name changed under British rule from Udagamandalam to Ootacamund, was shortened to Ooty. Ooty is in the Nilgiri hills, meaning the "blue mountains", so named due to the Kurunji flower which blooms every twelve years giving the slopes a bluish tinge. Udagamandalam was a tribal land occupied by the Toda and Badagas along with other hill tribes who coexisted through specialisation and trade; the major tribes of Nilgiris area are the Toda, Kota and Kurumba. The Baduga langague is a dilect of Kannada; the Toda in the Nilgiris are first referenced in a record belonging to Hoysala king Vishnuvardhana and his general Punisa, dated 1117 CE. The Toda people were known for raising water buffalo; the Badaga people known for farming activities. Nilgiris was ruled by various dynasties like Satavahanas, Kadambas, Hoysalas, the Vijayanagara empire and the Rajas of Ummattur.
Tipu Sultan captured Nilgiris in the eighteenth century and extended the border by constructing a hideout cave-like structure. The Nilgiris came into possession of British East India Company as part of the ceded lands, held by Tipu Sultan, by the treaty of Srirangapatnam in 1799. In 1818, J. C. Whish and N. W. Kindersley, assistants to John Sullivan Collector of Coimbatore, visited Ooty and submitted a report to him. Sullivan camped at Dimbhatti, north of Kotagiri in January 1819 and was enthralled by the beauty of the place, he wrote to Thomas Munro, "... it resembles Switzerland, more than any country of Europe... the hills beautifully wooded and fine strong spring with running water in every valley." The Toda ceded that part of the town to Sullivan and in May 1819, he began to build his bungalow at Dimbhatti. He started work on a road from Sirumugai to Dimbhatti that year; the road was completed in May 1823, extended up to Coonoor by 1830-32. Aranmore Palace, Ooty served as the summer capital of the Madras Presidency.
Soldiers were sent to nearby Wellington to recuperate. Wellington is the home of the Madras Regiment of the Indian Army. After Independence, it developed into a popular hill resort. Ooty features a subtropical highland climate under Köppen climate classification. Despite its location in the tropics, in contrast with most of South India, Ooty features mild conditions throughout the year. However, night time in the months of January and February is cold; the town appears to be eternally stuck in the spring season. Temperatures are consistent throughout the year; the highest temperature recorded in Ooty was 25 °C, which by South Asian standards is uncharacteristically low for an all-time record high temperature. The rainy season in Ooty is cool and windy with high humidity; the wind chill may fall to as low as 5 °C during the day time. Wind is always high throughout the year; the lowest temperature was −2 °C. The city sees on average about 125 cm of precipitation annually, with a marked drier season from December through March.
Ooty is situated in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. Many of the forested areas and water bodies are off-limits to most visitors to protect this fragile ecosystem; some areas of the Biosphere Reserve have been earmarked for tourism development, steps are being undertaken to open these areas to visitors whilst conserving the area. It is situated at an altitude of 2,240 metres above sea level; the Government Rose Garden is the largest. It is situated on the slopes of the Elk Hill in Vijayanagaram of Ooty town. At an altitude of 2200 meters. Today this garden has one of the largest collection of roses in the country with more than 20,000 varieties of roses of 2,800 cultivars; the collection includes hybrid tea roses, Miniature Roses, Papagena, Ramblers and roses of unusual colours like black and green. The 22-acre Ooty Botanical Gardens was laid out in 1847 and is maintained by the Government of Tamil Nadu; the Botanical Garden is lush and well-maintained. A flower show along with an exhibition of rare plant species is held every May.
The gardens have around a thousand species, both exotic and indigenous
The Kalka–Shimla railway is a 2 ft 6 in narrow-gauge railway in North India which traverses a mostly-mountainous route from Kalka to Shimla. It is known for dramatic views of surrounding villages; the railway was built under the direction of Herbert Septimus Harington between 1898 and 1903 to connect Shimla, the summer capital of India during the British Raj, with the rest of the Indian rail system. Its early locomotives were manufactured by Sharp and Company. Larger locomotives were introduced. Diesel and diesel-hydraulic locomotives began operation in 1970, respectively. On 8 July 2008, UNESCO added the Kalka–Shimla railway to the mountain railways of India World Heritage Site. Shimla, settled by the British shortly after the first Anglo-Gurkha war, is located at 7,116 feet in the foothills of the Himalayas; the idea of connecting Shimla by rail was first raised by a correspondent to the Delhi gazette in November 1847. Shimla became the summer capital of British India in 1864, was the headquarters of the Indian army.
This meant that twice a year it was necessary to transfer the entire government between Calcutta and Shimla by horse and ox drawn carts. In 1891 the 1,676 mm broad-gauge Delhi–Kalka line opened, which made the construction of a branch line up to Shimla feasible; the earliest survey was made in 1884 followed by another survey in 1885. Based on these two surveys, a project report was submitted in 1887 to the government of British India. Fresh surveys were made in 1892, 1893 which lead to four alternate schemes being suggested - two adhesion lines 67.25 mi and 69.75 mi long and two rack lines. Fresh surveys were again made in 1895 from Kalka to Solan with a view to determine whether a 1 in 12 rack or 1 in 25 adhesion line should be chosen. After much debate an adhesion line was chosen in preference to a rack system. Construction of the Kalka–Shimla railway on 2 ft narrow-gauge tracks was begun by the funded Delhi-Ambala-Kalka Railway Company following the signing of a contract between the secretary of state and the company on 29 June 1898.
The contract specified that the line would be built without any financial aid or guarantee from the government. The government however provided the land free of charge to the company; the estimated cost of 8,678,500 rupees doubled by the time. The Chief Engineer of the project was H. S. Herlington; the 95.68 km line was dedicated by Viceroy Lord Curzon. This line was further extended from Shimla to Shimla Goods on 27 June, 1909 making it 96.60 km. The Indian Army were sceptical about the two feet gauge chosen for the line and requested that a wider standard gauge be used for mountain and light strategic railways; the government agreed that the gauge was too narrow for was a capital city and for military purposes. As a result the contract with the railway company was revised on 15 November 1901 and the line gauge changed to 2 ft 6 in with the track built to date being regauged; some sources however state the regauging wasn't undertaken until 1905. In 1905 the company took delivery of a 10 ton Cowans Sheldon travelling crane to assist with lifting rolling stock back onto the tracks after accidents and for general track maintenance.
Due to the high capital and maintenance costs and difficult working conditions, the railway was allowed to charge higher fares than on other lines. The company had spent 16,525,000 rupees by 1904 with no sign of the line becoming profitable, which lead to it being purchased by the government on 1 January 1906 for 17,107,748 rupees. Once it came under the control of the government the line was managed as an independent unit from the North West Railway office in Lahore until 1926, when it was transferred to Delhi Division. Since July 1987, the line has been managed by the Ambala Division from Ambala Cantt. In 2007, the Himachal Pradesh government declared the railway a heritage property. For about a week, beginning on 11 September 2007, a UNESCO team visited the railway to inspect it for possible selection as a World Heritage Site. On 8 July 2008, it became part of the mountain railways of India World Heritage Site with the Darjeeling Himalayan and Nilgiri Mountain Railways. On 7 July 2011 Indian Railways opened the Baba Bhalku Rail Museum in Shimla to document the history of the railway line and to display related artefacts.
The track has 103 tunnels, 912 curves, 969 bridges and 3 % slope. The 1,143.61 m Bagot tunnel at Barog before the Barog station is longest, a 60 ft bridge is the longest and the sharpest curve has a 123 ft radius of curvature. The train has an average speed of 25–30 km/hr but the railcar is 50–60 km/hr. Both the train and railcar are equipped with vistadomes; the temperature range and annual rainfall are 0 -- 45 200 -- 250 cm respectively. The KSR and its assets, including the stations and vehicles, belong to the government of India under the Ministry of Railways; the Northern Railway handles day-to-day maintenance and management, several programs and departments of Indian Railways are responsible for repairs. The route winds from a height of 656 metres at Kalka in the Himalayan Shivalik Hills foothills, past Dharampur, Kandaghat, Barog, Salogra and Summerhill, to Shimla at an altitude of 2,075 metres; the difference in height between the two ends of line is 1,419 metres. The railway line used 42 lb/yd rail, replaced with 6
South India is the area including the five Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana, as well as the three union territories of Lakshadweep and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area. Covering the southern part of the peninsular Deccan Plateau, South India is bounded by the Bay of Bengal in the east, the Arabian Sea in the west and the Indian Ocean in the south; the geography of the region is diverse with two mountain ranges–the Western and Eastern Ghats, bordering the plateau heartland. Godavari, Kaveri and Vaigai rivers are important non-perennial sources of water. Chennai, Hyderabad, Coimbatore, Visakhapatnam and Kochi are the largest urban areas; the majority of the people in South India speak one of the four major Dravidian languages: Telugu, Tamil and Malayalam. During its history, a number of dynastic kingdoms ruled over parts of South India whose invasions across southern and southeastern Asia impacted the history and culture in those regions.
Major dynasties that were established in South India include the Cheras, Pandyas, Satavahanas, Chalukyas and Vijayanagara. Europeans entered India through Kerala and the region was colonised by Britain and other nations. After experiencing fluctuations in the decades after Indian independence, the economies of South Indian states have registered higher than national average growth over the past three decades. While South Indian states have improved in some socio-economic metrics, poverty continues to affect the region much like the rest of the country, although it has decreased over the years. HDI in the southern states is high and the economy has undergone growth at a faster rate than most northern states. Literacy rates in the southern states are higher than the national average with 80% of the population capable of reading and writing; the fertility rate in South India is the lowest of all regions in India. South India known as Peninsular India has been known by several other names; the term "Deccan" referring to the area covered by the Deccan Plateau that covers most of peninsular India excluding the coastal areas is an anglicised form of the word Prakrit dakkhin derived from the Sanskrit word dakshina meaning south.
Carnatic derived from "Karnād" or "Karunād" meaning high country has been associated with South India. Carbon dating on ash mounds associated with Neolithic cultures in South India date back to 8000 BCE. Artefacts such as ground stone axes, minor copper objects have been found in the region. Towards the beginning of 1000 BCE, iron technology spread through the region; the region was in the middle of a trade route that extended from Muziris to Arikamedu linking the Mediterranean and East Asia. Trade with Phoenicians, Greeks, Syrians and Chinese began from the Sangam period; the region was part of the ancient Silk Road connecting the Asian continent in the East and the West. Several dynasties such as the Cheras of Karuvur, the Pandyas of Madurai, the Cholas of Thanjavur, the Satavahanas of Amaravati, the Pallavas of Kanchi, the Kadambas of Banavasi, the Western Gangas of Kolar, the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta, the Chalukyas of Badami, the Hoysalas of Belur and the Kakatiyas of Orugallu ruled over the region from 6th century B.
C. to 14th century A. D; the Vijayanagara Empire, founded in 14th century A. D. was the last Indian dynasty. After repeated invasions from the Sultanate of Delhi and the fall of Vijayanagara empire in 1646, the region was ruled by Deccan Sultanates and Nayak governors of Vijayanagara empire who declared independence; the Europeans arrived in the 15th century and by the middle of the 18th century, the French and the British were involved in a protracted struggle for military control over the South India. After the defeat of Tipu Sultan in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War in 1799 and the end of the Vellore Mutiny in 1806, the British consolidated their power over much of present-day South India with the exception of French Pondichéry; the British Empire took control of the region from the British East India Company in 1857. During the British colonial rule, the region was divided into the Madras Presidency, Hyderabad State, Travancore, Vizianagaram and a number of other minor princely states; the region played a major role in the Indian independence movement.
After the independence of India in 1947, the region was organised into four states: Madras State, Mysore State, Hyderabad State and Travancore-Cochin. The States Reorganisation Act of 1956 reorganised the states on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu; as a result of this Act, Madras State retained its name and Kanyakumari district was added to it from the state of Travancore-Cochin. The state was subsequently renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968. Andhra Pradesh was created through the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of the Hyderabad State in 1956. Kerala emerged from the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of the Madras State with Travancore-Cochin. Mysore State was re-organised with the addition of districts of Bellary and South Canara and the Kollegal taluk of Coimbatore district from the Madras State, the districts of Belgaum, North Canara and Dharwad from the Bombay State, the