A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form and alignment that have arisen from the same cause an orogeny. Mountain ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain ranges are found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System and are a feature of most terrestrial planets. Mountain ranges are segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not have the same geologic structure or petrology, they may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, volcanic landforms resulting in a variety of rock types. Most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earth's land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt.
The Pacific Ring of Fire includes the Andes of South America, extends through the North American Cordillera along the Pacific Coast, the Aleutian Range, on through Kamchatka, Taiwan, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, to New Zealand. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the world's longest mountain system; the Alpide belt includes Indonesia and Southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, Caucasus Mountains, Balkan Mountains fold mountain range, the Alps, ends in the Spanish mountains and the Atlas Mountains. The belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges; the Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, 8,848 metres high and traverses the border between China and Nepal. Mountain ranges outside these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Great Dividing Range, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains. If the definition of a mountain range is stretched to include underwater mountains the Ocean Ridges form the longest continuous mountain system on Earth, with a length of 65,000 kilometres.
The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, where mountain ranges can contain sub-ranges. The sub-range relationship is expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains. Equivalently, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians; the parent-child expression extends to the sub-ranges themselves: the Sandwich Range and the Presidential Range are children of the White Mountains, while the Presidential Range is parent to the Northern Presidential Range and Southern Presidential Range. The position of mountains influences climate, such as snow; when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the leeward side, it warms again and is drier, having been stripped of much of its moisture.
A rain shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are subjected to erosional forces which work to tear them down; the basins adjacent to an eroding mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted until the mountains are reduced to low hills and plains; the early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example. As the uplift was occurring some 10,000 feet of Mesozoic sedimentary strata were removed by erosion over the core of the mountain range and spread as sand and clays across the Great Plains to the east; this mass of rock was removed as the range was undergoing uplift. The removal of such a mass from the core of the range most caused further uplift as the region adjusted isostatically in response to the removed weight. Rivers are traditionally believed to be the principal cause of mountain range erosion, by cutting into bedrock and transporting sediment.
Computer simulation has shown that as mountain belts change from tectonically active to inactive, the rate of erosion drops because there are fewer abrasive particles in the water and fewer landslides. Mountains on other planets and natural satellites of the Solar System are isolated and formed by processes such as impacts, though there are examples of mountain ranges somewhat similar to those on Earth. Saturn's moon Titan and Pluto, in particular exhibit large mountain ranges in chains composed of ices rather than rock. Examples include the Mithrim Montes and Doom Mons on Titan, Tenzing Montes and Hillary Montes on Pluto; some terrestrial planets other than Earth exhibit rocky mountain ranges, such as Maxwell Montes on Venus taller than any on Earth and Tartarus Montes on Mars, Jupiter's moon Io has mountain ranges formed from tectonic processes including Boösaule Montes, Dorian Montes, Hi'iaka Montes and Euboea Montes. Peakbagger Ranges Home Page Bivouac.com
Italo disco is a music genre which originated in Italy and was produced from the late 1970s to the late 1980s. Italo disco evolved from the then-current underground dance and electronic music, both domestic and foreign and developed into a diverse genre; the genre employs drum machines and vocoders. It is sung in English, to a lesser extent in Italian and Spanish; the origin of the genre's name is tied to marketing efforts of the ZYX record label, which began licensing and marketing the music outside Italy in 1982. Italo disco faded in the early 1990s; the term "Italo", a generic prefix meaning Italian, had been used on pop music compilation albums in Germany as early as 1978, such as Italo Top Hits on the K-Tel label and the first volume of Italo Super Hits on the Ariola label. There is no documentation of where the term "Italo-Disco" first appeared, but its origins are traced to Italian and other European disco recordings released in the German market. Examples include the phrase "Original Italo-Disco" on the sleeve of the German edition of "Girl On Me" by Amin-Peck in 1982, the 1983 compilation album The Best of Italo-Disco.
These records, along with the Italo Boot Mix megamix, were released by Bernhard Mikulski on his ZYX label. The Best of and Boot Mix compilations each became a 16-volume series that culminated in 1991. Both series featured disco music of Italian origin licensed from independent Italian labels which had limited distribution outside Italy, as well as songs in a similar style by other European artists; the presenters of the Italian music show Discoring referred to Italo disco tracks as "rock elettronico" or "balli da discoteca" before the term "Italo disco" came into existence. The entry of synthesizers and other electronic effects into the disco genre produced electronic dance music, including America's Hi-NRG and Europe's space disco. Italo disco's influences include Italian producer Giorgio Moroder, French musician Didier Marouani, a couple of hits by the French drummer Cerrone, the early Hi-NRG albums of San Francisco producer Patrick Cowley with such singers as Sylvester and Paul Parker. Although disco music was reviled and shunned in the USA during the 1980s, dance music was still popular in Europe.
Italian disco DJs' desire for new music was frustrated because new songs were imports and therefore too expensive. So Italian producers and musicians filled the void with their own new music; as with all musical styles, Italo disco incorporated different subgenres, overlapped with other styles, evolved rather than appearing and disappearing, so there are conflicting points of view on what the "first" Italo disco record was and when the genre began. What can be said is that disco music was being produced by Italian producers since at least 1977. Italo disco featured electronic sounds, drum machines, catchy melodies, vocoders and accented English lyrics. By 1983, Italo disco's instrumentation was predominantly electronic. Along with love, Italo disco themes deal with robots and space, sometimes combining all three in songs like "Robot Is Systematic" by'Lectric Workers and "Spacer Woman" by Charlie. Although the genre was successful in Europe during the 1980s, it was never successful in the United Kingdom, although several Italo disco songs did become hits there, such as Ryan Paris's "Dolce Vita", Laura Branigan's "Self Control", Baltimora's "Tarzan Boy", Spagna's "Call Me" and Sabrina's "Boys".
Nonetheless, several British electronic acts such as the Pet Shop Boys and New Order are said to have been influenced by the genre. In 1983, there were frequent hit singles, labels such as American Disco, Merak, Sensation and X-Energy appeared; the popular label Disco Magic released more than thirty singles within the year. It was the year that the term "Italo disco" became known outside Italy, with the release of the first volumes of The Best of Italo Disco compilation series on the German record label ZYX. After 1983, Italo disco was produced outside Italy. Canada Quebec, produced several remarkable Italo disco acts, including Trans X, Rational Youth, Pluton & the Humanoids, Purple Flash Orchestra, Tapps; those productions were called "Canadian disco" during 1980–1984 in Europe and Hi-NRG disco in the U. S. In Germany, Italo disco is known as discofox. In English-speaking countries, it was called Italo disco and Hi-NRG. German productions were sung in English and were characterized by an emphasis on melody, exaggerated production, a more earnest approach to the themes of love.
Catch, Blue System and London Boys. During the mid-1980s, Spacesynth, a subgenre of Italo disco, developed, it was instrumental, featured space sounds, was exemplified by musicians such as Koto, Rofo, Cyber People, Hipnosis and Mike Mareen. As Italo disco declined in Europe and German producers adapted the sound to Japanese tastes, creating "Eurobeat". Music produced in this style is sold in Japan due to the country's Para Para culture, produced by Italian producers for the Japanese market; the two most famous Eurobeat labels are A-Beat-C Records and Time Records. One traditional Italo disco label, S. A. I. F. A. M. Still produce
The Eden Prairie Library is located in Eden Prairie, Minnesota and is one of 41 libraries of the Hennepin County Library system. The 40,000 square foot building houses a collection of 150,000 items, an automated materials handling system for check in and rough sortation of materials, 82 public computers, two meeting rooms, a reading lounge with fireplace, a teen area, a children's area with a Family Reading Lounge, several installations of artwork. At the time of its opening in 2004, the Eden Prairie Library was the first public building in Minnesota to incorporate a hydrogen fuel cell to produce electricity, it is closed for remodeling, is set to open in November. The Eden Prairie Library has the highest circulation of all the Hennepin County libraries. Eden Prairie's first community library was located in the Eden Prairie Consolidated School, which opened in 1924; the school board contracted with Hennepin County Library to use the school library space, the first librarians were responsible for managing both the school and county library collections.
The school collection increased to the point that there was no space for the county collection and the partnership with the school library was dissolved in the 1950s. The Hennepin County Bookmobile served the community until the 1970s; the first independent location of the community library opened in 1972 as the Eden Prairie Reading Center, a 1540 square foot double Quonset hut located at 7420 Eden Prairie Road, with a collection of 12,000 items. In 1986 a new 15,000 square foot building was completed on Prairie Center Drive at a cost of $1.58 million. This new location became known as the Eden Prairie Community Library, with an expanded collection of 47,000 items. Eden Prairie experienced rapid growth during the next two decades, growing from a population of 16,000 in 1980 to a population of 54,000 in 2000. Hennepin County Library saw the need for a larger facility in the community, a new location became available one block away in a former Lund's grocery store space. Groundbreaking for the $17.6 million renovation project, designed by Minneapolis-based architects Bentz/Thompson/Rietow, took place in July 2002, but the project was put on hold in March 2003 when general contractor Oakwood Builders defaulted on construction work due to financial problems.
The project suffered a six-month shut down until The Keystone Group was chosen to complete the construction. Water damage occurring during the shut down required remediation work, adding $1 million in cost to the county. After a delay of nearly a year the new Eden Prairie Library opened its doors to the public on August 12, 2004. A hydrogen fuel cell installed in the Eden Prairie Library facility in 2004 was the first of its kind to be installed in a public building in Minnesota; the fuel cell project was funded by the Minnesota State Office of Environmental Assistance with additional support from CenterPoint Energy and 3M, was incorporated into the building as a demonstration project of the county's “Green Building and Energy Conservation Initiatives.” Five kilowatts of electricity could be produced by the library's fuel cell, enough to power a typical home. The purpose of the demonstration project was to provide information on the fuel cell's operation to the Office of Environmental Assistance and to educate the public about fuel cell technology and potential applications.
Hennepin County Library incorporates public artwork into many of its locations. Through the One Percent for Art program, one percent of the project costs for building projects of $1 million or more is dedicated to the selection and installation of public artwork; the Eden Prairie Library installations of public artwork funded by the One Percent for Art program, include: Spiral by David Culver. Masonry treatment of stone and brick, located on the north-facing exterior wall Untitled by David Culver. Masonry treatment of tile and stone, located on interior pillars Sleeping Man and Chants of the Prairie by Craig David. Masonry treatment of stone and brick, located on outdoor planters at front entrance; the planters include the following carved poem:To Make a Prairie by Emily DickinsonTo make a prairie it takes a clover and one bee, One clover, a bee. And revery; the revery alone will do, If bees are few. Blackboard by Shari Cornish. Pigment painted industrial felt colored forms, 100% New Zealand wool knotted area, located in Children's Area ABC’s/Do You Know Them by Melissa Carden Bean.