Mountain warfare refers to warfare in the mountains or rough terrain. This type of warfare is called Alpine warfare, after the Alps mountains. Mountain warfare is one of the most dangerous types of combat as it involves surviving not only combat with the enemy but the extreme weather and dangerous terrain. Mountain ranges are of strategic importance since they act as a natural border, may be the origin of a water source. Attacking a prepared enemy position in mountain terrain requires a greater ratio of attacking soldiers to defending soldiers than a war conducted on level ground. Mountains at any time of year are dangerous – lightning, strong gusts of wind, rock falls, snow pack, extreme cold, glaciers with their crevasses and the general uneven terrain and the slow pace of troop and material movement are all additional threats to combatants. Movement and medical evacuation up and down steep slopes and areas where pack animals cannot reach involves an enormous exertion of energy; the term mountain warfare is said to have come about in the Middle Ages after the monarchies of Europe found it difficult to fight the Swiss armies in the Alps because the Swiss were able to fight in smaller units and took vantage points against a huge unmaneuverable army.
Similar styles of attack and defence were employed by guerrillas and irregulars who hid in the mountains after an attack, making it challenging for an army of regulars to fight back. In Bonaparte's Italian campaign, the 1809 rebellion in Tyrol, mountain warfare played a large role. Another example of mountain warfare was the Crossing of the Andes carried out by the Argentinean Army of the Andes commanded by Gen José de San Martín in 1817. One of the divisions surpassed 5000 m in height. In 218 BC the Carthaginian army commander Hannibal marched troops and African elephants across the Alps in an effort to conquer Rome by approaching it from north of the Italian peninsula; the Roman government was complacent because the Alps were a secure natural obstacle to would-be invaders. In December 218 BC the Carthaginian forces defeated Roman troops, in the north, with the use of elephants. Many elephants did not survive the cold weather and disease, typical of the European climate. Hannibal's army failed to conquer Rome.
Carthage was defeated by Roman general Scipio Africanus at Zama in north Africa in 202 BC. Mountain warfare came to the fore once again during World War I, when some of the nations involved in the war had mountain divisions that had hitherto not been tested; the Austro-Hungarian defence repelled Italian attacks as they took advantage of the mountainous terrain in the Julian Alps and the Dolomites, where frostbite and avalanches proved deadlier than bullets. During the summer of 1918, the Battle of San Matteo took place on the Italian front. In December 1914, another offensive was launched by the Turkish supreme commander Enver Pasha with 95,000–190,000 troops against the Russians in the Caucasus. Insisting on a frontal attack against Russian positions in the mountains in the heart of winter, the end result was devastating and Enver lost 86% of his forces; the Italian Campaign in World War II, Siachen conflict were large-scale mountain warfare examples. Battles of Narvik Kokoda Track campaign Operation Rentier Operation Gauntlet Operation Encore Since the Partition of India in 1947, India and Pakistan have been in conflict over the Kashmir region.
They have fought border conflicts in the region. Kashmir is located in the highest mountain range in the world; the first hostilities between the two nations, in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947, showed that both were ill-equipped to fight in biting cold, let alone at the highest altitudes in the world. During the Sino-Indian War of 1962, hostilities broke out between China in the same area; the subsequent Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 between India and Pakistan was fought in Kashmir's valleys rather than the mountains themselves, although several mountain battles took place. In the Kargil War Indian forces sought to flush out opponents; the proxy warfare in 1999 was the only modern war, fought on mountains. Following the Kargil War, the Indian Army implemented specialist training on artillery use in the mountains, where ballistic projectiles have different characteristics than at sea level. Most of the Falklands War took place on hills in semi-Arctic conditions on the Falkland Islands. However, during the opening stage of the war, there was military action on the bleak mountainous island of South Georgia, when a British expedition sought to eject occupying Argentine forces.
South Georgia is a periantarctic island, the conflict took place during the southern winter, so Alpine conditions prevailed down to sea level. The operation was unusual, in that it combined aspects of long-range amphibious warfare, arctic warfare and mountain warfare, it involved special forces troops and helicopters. Throughout history but since 1979, many mountain warfare operations have taken place throughout Afghanistan. Since the coalition invasion of Afghanistan in 2001 these have been in the eastern provinces of Kunar and Nuristan. Kunar and eastern Nuristan are strategic terrain; the area constitutes a major infiltration route into Afghanistan, insurgents can enter these provinces from any number of places along the Pakistani border to gain access to a vast
Peter Gunn is a 1989 American made-for-television crime drama film directed by Blake Edwards. It was intended as a pilot to relaunch the Peter Gunn franchise starring Peter Strauss in the Craig Stevens role; the pilot was aired on ABC on April 23, 1989. The idea of a revival began in 1977 when E. Jack Neuman was approached to script a made for TV movie to bring back Craig Stevens to the role; the project collapsed because of Blake Edwards' film schedule. Edwards once again announced a TV movie version in 1984, intended to star Robert Wagner in the role; this became the 1989 TV movie with Peter Strauss. Detective Peter Gunn is asked by a mob boss to find the murderer of a friend's brother. Although he is working outside from the mob, Gunn is nonetheless pursued by mobsters, the cops and interested women; the story heats up. Peter Gunn on IMDb Peter Gunn at AllMovie
The 2016 Munster Senior Hurling League was the inaugural staging of the Munster Senior Hurling League. The fixtures were announced on 4 December 2015; the league began on 3 January 2016 and ended on 23 January 2016. On 23 January 2016, Clare won the league following an 0-18 to 0-17 defeat of Limerick in the final. Limerick's Declan Hannon was the league's top scorer with 1-21; the league attracted 12,000 spectators in total, an average of 1,192 per match. Five of the six Munster teams compete with Tipperary opting not to participate. Unlike its predecessor, the Waterford Crystal Cup, the league is confined to inter-county teams only; this means. Each team plays the other teams in its group once, earning 1 for a draw; the top two teams were to play each other in the final, but as both Clare and Limerick won their first three games, it was decided that the last group game would double up as the Munster Senior Hurling League final. Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Round 4 Round 5 Final First goal of the championship: David Reidy for Limerick against Kerry Widest winning margin: 25 points Clare 2-27 – 0-8 Kerry Most goals in a match: 4 Waterford 1-17 – 3-16 Limerick Most points in a match: 41 Limerick 2-23 – 0-18 Kerry Most goals by one team in a match: 3 Limerick 3-16 - 1-17 Waterford Highest aggregate score: 47 Limerick 2-23 – 0-18 Kerry Lowest aggregate score: 31 Clare 1-14 - 1-14 Cork Most goals scored by a losing team: 1 Waterford 1-9 – 1-20 Clare Waterford 1-17 – 3-16 Limerick OverallSingle gameClean sheets Initially intended to be a final group game, with Limerick and Clare through to the final of the competition it was decided to double this fixture up as the final.
Both sides advanced having won each of their three group games. 2016 Munster Senior Hurling League fixtures