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A mousetrap is a specialised type of animal trap designed to catch and kill mice. Mousetraps are set in an indoor location where there is a suspected infestation of rodents. Larger traps are designed to catch other species of animals, such as rats, other small rodents, or other animals; the trap, credited as the first patented lethal mousetrap was a set of spring-loaded, cast-iron jaws dubbed "Royal No. 1". It was patented on 4 November 1879 by James M. Keep of New York, US patent 221,320. From the patent description, it is clear that this is not the first mousetrap of this type, but the patent is for this simplified, easy-to-manufacture design, it is the industrial-age development of the deadfall trap, but relying on the force of a wound spring rather than gravity. The jaws operated by a coiled spring, the triggering mechanism is between the jaws, where the bait is held; the trip snaps. Lightweight traps of this style are now constructed from plastic; these traps do not have a powerful snap like other types.

They are safer for the fingers of the person setting them than other lethal traps, can be set with the press on a tab by a single finger or by foot. The spring-loaded mousetrap was first patented by William C. Hooker of Abingdon, who received US patent 528671 for his design in 1894. A British inventor, James Henry Atkinson, patented a similar trap called the "Little Nipper" in 1898, including variations that had a weight-activated treadle as the trip. In 1899, Atkinson patented a modification of his earlier design that transformed it from a trap that goes off by a step on the treadle into one that goes off by a pull on the bait; the similarity of the latter design with Hooker's of 1894 may have contributed to a common mistake of giving priority to Atkinson. It is a simple device with a spring-loaded bar and a trip to release it. Cheese may be placed on the trip as bait, but other food such as oats, bread, meat and peanut butter are used; the spring-loaded bar swings down and with great force when anything a mouse, touches the trip.

The design is such that the mouse's neck or spinal cord will be broken, or its ribs or skull crushed, by the force of the bar. The trap can be held over the dead mouse released into it by pulling the bar. In the case of rats, which are much larger than mice, a much larger version of the same type of trap is used to kill them; some spring mousetraps have a plastic extended trip. The larger trip has two notable differences over the smaller traditional type: increased leverage, which requires less force from the rodent to trip it; the exact latching mechanism holding the trip varies, some need to be set right at the edge in order to be sensitive enough to catch the mouse. In 1899, John Mast of Lititz, filed a U. S. patent for a modification of Hooker's design that can be "readily set or adjusted with absolute safety to the person attending thereto, avoiding the liability of having his fingers caught or injured by the striker when it is prematurely or accidentally freed or released." He obtained the patent on 17 November 1903.

After William Hooker had sold his interest in the Animal Trap Company of Abingdon and founded the new Abingdon Trap Company in 1899, the Animal Trap Company moved to Lititz and fused with the J. M. Mast Manufacturing Company in 1905; the new and bigger company in Lititz retained the name Animal Trap Company. Compounding these different but related patents and companies may have contributed to the widespread mis-attribution of priority to Mast rather than Hooker. An electric mousetrap delivers a lethal dose of electricity when the rodent completes the circuit by contacting two electrodes located either at the entrance or between the entrance and the bait; the electrodes are housed in an insulated or plastic box to prevent accidental injury to humans and pets. They can be designed for large multiple-catch commercial use. See U. S. Patent 4,250,655 and U. S. Patent 4,780,985. An early patented mousetrap is a live capture device patented in 1870 by W K Bachman of South Carolina; these traps have the advantage of allowing the mouse to be released into the wild, or the disadvantage of having to kill the captured animal if release is not desired.

To ensure a live capture, these traps need to be checked as captured mice can die from stress or starvation. Mice would need to be released some distance away. House mice tend to not survive away from human settlements in areas where other small mammals, such as wood mice, are present. There are many methods to live trap mice. One of the simplest designs consists of a drinking glass placed upside down above a piece of bait, its rim elevated by a coin stood on edge. If the mouse attempts to take the bait, the coin is displaced and the glass traps the mouse. Another method of live trapping is to make a half-oval shaped tunnel with a toilet paper roll, put bait on one end of the roll, place the roll on a counter or table with the baited end sticking out over the edge, put a deep bin under the edge; when the mouse enters the toilet paper roll to take the bait, the roll will tip over the edge and fall into the bin below. See bucket trap. A style of trap, used extensively by researchers in the biological sciences for capturing animals such as mice is the Sherman trap.

The Sherman trap folds flat for storage and distribution and when deployed in the field captures the animal, without injury, for exami

312th Cavalry Regiment (United States)

The 312th Cavalry Regiment was a cavalry unit of the United States Army during World War I and the interwar period. It was activated in early 1918 but broken up that year to form new artillery units; the unit was recreated as an Oklahoma, New Mexico, Colorado Organized Reserve unit during the interwar period. It was converted into a signal aircraft warning regiment after the United States entered World War II. Shortly after the United States entered World War I, the regiment was constituted in the National Army on 18 May 1917, organized in separate elements in early 1918. Elements of the 312th were organized on 12 February at Fort Sheridan, Illinois, on 13 March at Fort Myer, on 23 March at Fort D. A. Russell; the Fort Myer elements became the 60th Field Artillery Regiment on 13 August, the Fort Sheridan elements became the 61st Field Artillery Regiment on 14 August, the Fort D. A. Russell element became the 28th Trench Mortar Battery on 14 August; the 28th Trench Mortar Battery was assigned to the 90th Division and was demobilized on 17 December 1918 at Camp Jackson.

On 15 October 1921, the 60th and 61st Field Artillery and the 28th Trench Mortar Battery were reconstituted in the Organized Reserve as the 312th Cavalry Regiment, part of the 63rd Cavalry Division in the Second Corps Area. It was transferred to the Eighth Corps Area on 14 November; the 312th was initiated on 23 August 1922 with regimental headquarters and 1st Squadron at Oklahoma City, 2nd Squadron at Douglas, Arizona. The regiment joined the division's 156th Cavalry Brigade. In 1925, the 2nd Squadron relocated to Arizona, it was reorganized on 1 July 1929 as a three-squadron regiment, with the new 3rd Squadron activated at Denver from personnel of the disbanded 156th Machine Gun Squadron. On 22 August, the 2nd Squadron moved yet again to Oklahoma; the 2nd Squadron was relocated to Tucson, Arizona in March 1937 and its subordinate troops were reorganized in Arizona, New Mexico, west Texas with men from the 3rd Squadron, 311th Cavalry Regiment, concurrently moved to Dallas. The regiment's 3rd Squadron held its inactive training period meetings at the Kitteridge Building or the Argonaut Hotel in Denver.

Regular equestrian training was conducted by officers in central and western Oklahoma at the Fort Reno Remount Depot on the depot's horses. The regiment, except 2nd Squadron, conducted summer training at Fort Bliss with the 7th Cavalry Regiment. From 1929 to 1936, the 2nd Squadron conducted summer training at Fort Huachuca with the 10th Cavalry Regiment, its designated mobilization training station was Fort McIntosh, while the 2nd Squadron's was Fort Ringgold. The 312th's primary ROTC feeder schools were the Oklahoma Military Academy, the New Mexico Military Institute, the University of Arizona; the 312th provided 30 officers to the 1st Cavalry Division and the 111th Cavalry Regiment for the 1938 Third Army maneuver at Fort Bliss. Several regimental officers observed the 7th Cavalry Brigade in the September 1939 annual Fifth Corps Area maneuver at Fort Knox. After the United States entered World War II, the regiment was converted into the 548th Signal Aircraft Warning Regiment on 30 January 1942.

The regiment was disbanded on 11 November 1944. The 312th was commanded by the following officers: Colonel Francis Le J. Parker Major Phil M. Hunt Lieutenant Colonel Donald R. Bonfoey Colonel Karl E. Linderfelt Lieutenant Colonel Ralph O. Baird Colonel Calvin S. Harrah Lieutenant Colonel Ralph O. Baird The 312th's coat of arms was approved on 18 August 1925 and its distinctive unit insignia was approved on 5 November of that year; the distinctive unit insignia included a 1 1/8 in gold colored metal and enamel device, which consisted of a yellow shield with red borders. The shield was divided by a diagonal green stripe and in its center was an American Indian on horseback brandishing a carbine; the yellow shield symbolized the cavalry, the red represented the 312th's artillery service. The green stripe symbolized New Mexico and the American Indian symbolized Oklahoma and Arizona, where the regiment was based in the interwar period; the regimental motto, "Omnia Virtute", was attached to the bottom of the distinctive unit insignia.

The regimental coat of arms was of a similar design to the distinctive unit insignia but included the Organized Reserve's Minuteman crest above the shield and omitted the motto. Clay, Steven E.. US Army Order of Battle 1919–1941. 2. Fort Leavenworth, Kansas: Combat Studies Institute Press. ISBN 9781780399171. Sawicki, James A.. Cavalry regiments of the US Army. Dumfries, Virginia: Wyvern Publications. ISBN 9780960240463

Alexander Thorburn

Alexander "Alex" Gibbon "Gillion" "Gillan" Thorburn was a real-estate agent and Canadian former politician. He served as a member of the Legislative Assembly of the Northwest Territories from 1888 until 1891. Prior to that he was a school trustee. Thorburn was born on December 1836, in Edinburgh, Scotland, his father was a Manufacturer. He left Scotland when he was 20 years old, arriving in Lower Canada in 1856, he married his wife Elizabeth at Galt, Ontario, on July 1, 1863. After marriage he moved out to the Northwest Territories settling in the town of Broadview, he started his own general store and became a real-estate agent for the Canada North-West Land Company. His first involvement with politics was on the municipal level. Thorburn was elected to the Northwest Territories Legislature in the first Northwest Territories general election held in 1888, he won a hotly contested three-way race in the Whitewood electoral district. In that race he defeated second place Thomas Lyons by eight votes and third place candidate John Hawkes by 63 votes winning the electoral district with 39% of the popular vote.

During his time in office, land was needed for settlement and local infrastructure in his district. On April 16, 1891 Thorburn and a committee petitioned Minister of Interior Edgar Dewdney, visiting the area; the petition called for the surrender of surrounding land, being used by the Kahkewistahaw First Nation. The constituents of Whitewood wanted the land to be opened up for settlement and the development of a Canadian Pacific Railway line; the petition was rejected by Dewdney. Thorburn ran for a second term in office in the 1891 Northwest Territories general election. Despite marginally increasing his popular vote, he was defeated by Daniel Campbell finishing second with 41.5% of the popular vote and 19 votes behind Campbell. He finished well ahead of John Hawkes in the race, whose popular vote collapsed from the last election, he died in 1894 and was buried at Broadview Cemetery

Bioelectrochemical reactor

Bioelectrochemical reactors are a type of bioreactor where bioelectrochemical processes can take place. They are used in bioelectrochemical syntheses, environmental remediation and electrochemical energy conversion. Examples of bioelectrochemical reactors include microbial electrolysis cells, microbial fuel cells and enzymatic biofuel cells and electrolysis cells, microbial electrosynthesis cells, biobatteries; this bioreactor is divided in two parts: The anode. In 1911 M. Potter described how microbial conversions could create reducing power, thus electric current. Twenty years Cohen investigated the capacity of bacteria to produce an electrical flow and he noted that the main limitation is the small capacity of microorganism to current generation, it took until the 60's since Canfield built the first microbial fuel cell. Nowadays the investigation on bioelectrochemical reactors is increasing exponentially; these devices have real applications in fields like water treatment, energy production and storage, resources production and recovery.

Electron current is inherent to the microbial metabolism. Microorganisms transfer electrons from an electron donor to an electron acceptor. If the electron acceptor is an external ion or molecule, the process is called respiration. If the process is internal, electron transfer is called fermentation; the microorganism attempt to maximize their energy gain by selecting the electron acceptor with the highest potential available. In nature minerals containing iron or manganese oxides are being reduced. Soluble electron acceptors are depleted in the microbial environment; the microorganism can maximize their energy selecting a good electron donor which can be metabolized. These processes are done by extracellular electron transfer; the theoretical energy gain ΔG for microorganisms relates directly the potential difference between the electron acceptor and the donor. But the inefficiencies like internal resistances will decrease this energy gain; the advantage of these devices is their high selectivity and in high speed processes limited by kinetic factors.

The most studied species are Shewanella oneidensis and Geobacter sulfurreducens. However, more species have been studied in recent years. In March 25, 2013, scientists at the University of East Anglia were able to transfer electrical charge by letting the bacteria touch on a metal or mineral surface; the research shows. In Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within, soldiers use power backpacks based on bacteria. Bioelectrochemistry Bioelectronics Electrochemical cell Electrochemical energy conversion Electrochemical engineering Electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide Electrofuels Electrolytic cell Electromethanogenesis Galvanic cell Sasaki, Kengo. "Methanogenic communities on the electrodes of bioelectrochemical reactors without membranes". Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering. 111: 47–9. Doi:10.1016/j.jbiosc.2010.08.010. PMID 20840887. Ghafari, Shahin. "Nitrate remediation in a novel upflow bio-electrochemical reactor using palm shell activated carbon as cathode material". Electrochimica Acta. 54: 4164–71.

Doi:10.1016/j.electacta.2009.02.062. Goel, Ramesh K.. V.. "Sequential Nitrification and Denitrification in a Divided Cell Attached Growth Bioelectrochemical Reactor". Environmental Engineering Science. 22: 440–9. Doi:10.1089/ees.2005.22.440. Watanabe, T. Water Science and Technology. 50: 111–8. Doi:10.2166/wst.2004.0501. PMID 15566194


BattleBowl was a one-time professional wrestling pay-per-view event and produced by World Championship Wrestling. The show took place on November 1993, at the Pensacola Civic Center in Pensacola, Florida; the event featured only the "BattleBowl Tournament", where the first round consisted of eight tag team matches where the teams were drawn at random in a "Lethal Lottery". Members of the winning teams would advance to the BattleBowl battle royal main event. Vader, the WCW World Heavyweight Champion at the time of the show, received a ring for winning the tournament. WCW had used the Battlebowl concept at Starrcade 1991 and Starrcade 1992, opting to make it a stand-alone show in 1993 as they expanded the number of PPV shows they held that year; the BattleBowl concept would not be used again until the 1996 Slamboree show. WCW closed in 2001 and all rights to their television and PPV shows were bought by WWE, including BattleBowl; when the WWE Network launched in 2014 this show became available "on demand" to network subscribers along with the majority of all WCW PPVs.

The Lethal Lottery/BattleBowl concept was introduced for professional wrestling promotion World Championship Wrestling's 1991 Starrcade pay-per-view show held on December 29, 1991. The concept of the "Lethal Lottery" would see names drawn at random to form tag teams, although as with all professional wrestling this was all staged to appear random; the teams, sometimes consisting of two people who were involved in a storyline feud with each other, would compete against other random teams to see which team would move on to the BattleBowl portion of the tournament. The "BattleBowl" itself was an over-the-top-rope elimination battle royal between all the winning tag teams. In 1991 WCW used the BattleBowl to further a storyline between WCW World Heavyweight Champion Lex Luger and Sting. WCW held; that event was won by The Great Muta. WCW held a total of six PPVs in the continental United States in 1992, but in 1993 they expanded their schedule to seven, adding BattleBowl to their schedule for November, holding the tournament separately from the 1993 Starrcade show.

The event storylines. Wrestlers portrayed villains, heroes, or less distinguishable characters in the scripted events that built tension and culminated in a wrestling match or series of matches. Tony Schiavone provided the play-by-play commentary for the show, while Jesse Ventura provided the color commentary, providing a counter-point by siding with the heel wrestlers. Prior to each match Gene Okerlund and Fifi stood by a large lottery drum pulling names at random, though the names were never displayed to the viewers; as the names were announced WCW showed two side-by-side live feeds, one from the heel locker room and one from the face locker room. The first team announced consisted of WCW World Heavyweight Champion and Cactus Jack. Vader and Cactus Jack had been on opposite sides in the main event of WCW's last PPV Halloween Havoc, thus pairing rivals together for the first match. Okerlund announced that Harlem Heat member Kole was part of the opposite team, but instead of Kole leaving the locker room his brother Kane left the locker room and came to the ring.

Kane helped Vader attack Cactus Jack, during which Schiavone commented that it was the wrong brother and stated, "I guess it doesn't matter". Moments the last participant, Charlie Norris, came to the ring and the match started. Vader and Cactus Jack would hit each other during the match but started to get along enough to double team their opponents. In the end, Vader pinned Charlie Norris to advance to the BattleBowl main event. For the second match one-half of the WCW World Tag Team Championship team the Nasty Boys, Brian Knobbs was paired up with Johnny B. Badd for a match against Erik Watts and Paul Roma, who were both faces leading up to the match. After 13 minutes of wrestling Brian Knobbs pinned Eric Watts by holding onto Watts' tights for extra leverage to win the match. For the third match of the night long-time rivals Ricky Steamboat and Lord Steven Regal were forced to team together, much to the dismay of Regal, vocal in his displeasure with Steamboat. While their opponents, Paul Orndorff and The Shockmaster, were not on friendly terms they worked better together than Regal and Steamboat, allowing the Shockmaster to pin Regal.

After the third match WCW showed a segment announcing that Starrcade would take place in Charlotte, North Carolina. During the segment Ric Flair approached WCW World Heavyweight Champion Vader with a contract. First Vader denied signing it, but when Flair revealed he would risk his career and retire if he lost the match, Vader agreed to the match, signing the contract for the main event of Starrcade. For the next match Dustin Rhodes was teamed up with King Kong to take on King Kong's regular partner Awesome Kong and The Equalizer, leaving Rhodes as the lone face against three heels. During the match all three heels attacked Dustin throughout the match, leaving Rhodes at a disadvantage throughout. In the end Awesome Kong accidentally landed on both King Kong and the Equalizer, leaving him vulnerable to Dustin Rhodes' Running bulldog move, which led to Rhodes pinning Awesome King. For the fifth match of the night rivals Sting and Jerry Sags were teamed up to take on Ron Simmons and Keith Cole.

During the match Simmons started beating Sting down repeatedly. When he tagged in his partner Cole would wrestle a more basic matc

Danish Golden Age

The Danish Golden Age covers a period of exceptional creative production in Denmark during the first half of the 19th century. Although Copenhagen had suffered from fires and national bankruptcy, the arts took on a new period of creativity catalysed by Romanticism from Germany; the period is most associated with the Golden Age of Danish Painting from 1800 to around 1850 which encompasses the work of Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg and his students, including Wilhelm Bendz, Christen Købke, Martinus Rørbye, Constantin Hansen and Wilhelm Marstrand, as well as the sculpture of Bertel Thorvaldsen. It saw the development of Danish architecture in the Neoclassical style. Copenhagen, in particular, acquired a new look, with buildings designed by Christian Frederik Hansen and Michael Gottlieb Bindesbøll. In relation to music, the Golden Age covers figures inspired by Danish romantic nationalism including J. P. E. Hartmann, Hans Christian Lumbye, Niels W. Gade and the ballet master August Bournonville.

Literature centred on Romantic thinking, introduced in 1802 by the Norwegian-German philosopher Henrik Steffens. Key contributors were Adam Oehlenschläger, Bernhard Severin Ingemann, N. F. S. Grundtvig and, last but not least, Hans Christian Andersen, the proponent of the modern fairytale. Søren Kierkegaard furthered philosophy while Hans Christian Ørsted achieved fundamental progress in science; the Golden Age thus had a profound effect not only on life in Denmark but, with time, on the international front too. The origins of the Golden Age can be traced back to around the beginning of the 19th century, a rough period for Denmark. Copenhagen, the centre of the country's intellectual life, first experienced huge fires in 1794 and 1795 which destroyed both Christiansborg Palace and large areas of the inner city. In 1801, as a result of the country's involvement in the League of Armed Neutrality, the British fleet inflicted serious damage on the city during the Battle of Copenhagen. In 1807, on rumours that the French might force Denmark to close the Baltic to their shipping, the British once again bombarded Copenhagen, this time targeting the city and its civilian population.

In 1813, as a result of the country's inability to support the costs of war, Denmark declared a State bankruptcy. To make matters worse, Norway ceased to be part of the Danish realm when it was ceded to Sweden the following year. Copenhagen's devastation provided new opportunities. Architects and planners widened the streets, constructing beautifully designed Neoclassical buildings offering a brighter yet intimate look. At the time, with a population of only 100,000, the city was still quite small, built within the confines of the old ramparts; as a result, the leading figures of the day met sharing their ideas, bringing the arts and the sciences together. Henrik Steffens was the most effective proponent of the Romantic idea. In a series of lectures in Copenhagen, he conveyed the ideas behind German romanticism to the Danes. Influential thinkers, such as Oehlenschläger and Grundtvig were quick to take up his views, it was not long before Danes from all branches of the arts and sciences were involved in a new era of Romantic nationalism known as the Danish Golden Age.

In the field of painting, change became apparent. While art had served to uphold the monarchy and the establishment, Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg and his students realized that, with the arrival of industrialization, the middle classes were gaining power and influence. Grand historical art gave way to more appealing but less pretentious genre paintings and landscapes; the Golden Age is believed to have lasted until about 1850. Around that time, Danish culture suffered from the outbreak of the First Schleswig War. In addition, political reforms involving the end of the absolute monarchy in 1848 and the adoption of the Danish constitution the following year signalled the beginning of a new era; the extension of Copenhagen beyond the old ramparts during the 1850s opened up new horizons for urban expansion. It was not until 1890 that the Danish philosopher Valdemar Vedel first used the term Guldalderen or Golden Age to describe the period. In 1896, author Vilhelm Andersen saw the Golden Age initiated by Henrich Steffens as the richest period in the cultural history of Denmark.

Around the beginning of the 19th century, the Golden Age of Danish Painting emerged to form a distinct national style for the first time since the Middle Ages. It has a style drawing on Dutch Golden Age painting its landscape painting, depicting northern light, soft but allows strong contrasts of colour; the treatment of scenes is an idealized version of reality, but unpretentiously so, appearing more realist than is the case. Interior scenes small portrait groups, are common, with a similar treatment of humble domestic objects and furniture of the artist's circle of friends. Little Danish art was seen outside the country although the Danish-trained leader of German Romantic painting Caspar David Friedrich was important in spreading its influence in Germany. A crucial figure was Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg, who had studied in Paris with Jacques-Louis David and was further influenced towards Neo-Classicism by the sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen. Eckersberg taught at the Academy from 1818 to 1853, becoming director from 1827 to 1828, was an important influence on the following generation, in which landscape painting came to the fore.

He taught most of the leading artists of the period, including: Wilhel