A moustache is facial hair grown on the upper lip. The word "moustache" is French, is derived from the Italian moustacio, dialectal mostaccio, from Medieval Latin moustaccium, Medieval Greek μουστάκιον, attested in the ninth century, which originates as a diminutive of Hellenistic Greek μύσταξ, meaning "upper lip" or "facial hair" derived from Hellenistic Greek μύλλον, "lip". Research done on this subject has noticed that the prevalence of moustaches and facial hair in general rise and fall according to the saturation of the marriage market. Thus, the nuances of the density and thickness of the moustache or beard may help to convey androgen levels or age. Moustache popularity in the west peaked in the 1880s and 1890s coinciding with a popularity in the military virtues of the day. Various cultures have developed different associations with moustaches. For example, in many 20th-century Arab countries, moustaches are associated with power, beards with Islamic traditionalism, lack of facial hair with more liberal, secular tendencies.

In Islam, trimming the moustache is considered to be a sunnah and mustahabb, that is, a way of life, recommended among Sunni Muslims. The moustache is a religious symbol for the male followers of the Yarsan religion. Shaving with stone razors was technologically possible from Neolithic times. A mustache is depicted on a statue of the 4th Dynasty Egyptian prince Rahotep. Another ancient portrait showing a shaved man with a moustache is an ancient Iranian horseman from 300 BC. In ancient China, facial hair and the hair on the head were traditionally left untouched because of Confucian influences; the moustache forms its own stage in the development of facial hair in adolescent males. As with most human biological processes, this specific order may vary among some individuals depending on one's genetic heritage or environment. Moustaches can be tended through shaving the hair of the chin and cheeks, preventing it from becoming a full beard. A variety of tools have been developed for the care of moustaches, including safety razors, moustache wax, moustache nets, moustache brushes, moustache combs and moustache scissors.

In the Middle East, there is a growing trend for moustache transplants, which involves undergoing a procedure called follicular unit extraction in order to attain fuller, more impressive facial hair. The longest moustache belongs to Ram Singh Chauhan, it was measured on the set of the Italian TV show "Lo Show dei Record" in Rome, Italy, on 4 March 2010. The World Beard and Moustache Championships 2007 had six sub-categories for moustaches: Dalí – narrow, long points bent or curved steeply upward. Artificial styling aids needed. Named after Salvador Dalí. English moustache – narrow, beginning at the middle of the upper lip the whiskers are long and pulled to the side curled. Artificial styling may be needed. Freestyle – All moustaches that do not match other classes; the hairs are allowed to start growing from up to a maximum of 1.5 cm beyond the end of the upper lip. Aids are allowed. Hungarian – Big and bushy, beginning from the middle of the upper lip and pulled to the side; the hairs are allowed to start growing from up to a maximum of 1.5 cm beyond the end of the upper lip.

Imperial – whiskers growing from both the upper lip and cheeks, curled upward Natural – Moustache may be styled without aids. Other types of moustache include: Chevron – covering the area between the nose and the upper lip, out to the edges of the upper lip but no further. Popular in 1970s and 1980s American and British culture. Worn by Ron Jeremy, Richard Petty, Freddie Mercury, Bruce Forsyth and Tom Selleck. Fu Manchu – long, downward pointing ends beyond the chin. Handlebar – bushy, with small upward pointing ends. Worn by baseball pitcher Rollie Fingers. Horseshoe – Often confused with the Handlebar Moustache, the horseshoe was popularised by modern cowboys and consists of a full moustache with vertical extensions from the corners of the lips down to the jawline and resembling an upside-down horseshoe. Known as "biker moustache". Worn by Hulk Hogan and Bill Kelliher. Re-popularized by Gardner Minshew. Pancho Villa – similar to the Fu Manchu but thicker. Similar to the Horseshoe. A Pancho Villa is much longer and bushier than the moustache worn by the historical Pancho Villa.

Pencil moustache – narrow and thin as if drawn on by a pencil clipped, outlining the upper lip, with a wide shaven gap between the nose and moustache. Popular in the 1940s, associated with Clark Gable. More it has been recognised as the moustache of choice for the fictional character Gomez Addams in the 1990s series of films based on The Addams Family. Known as a Mouth-brow, worn by Vincent Price, John Waters, Little Richard, Sean Penn and Chris Cornell. Toothbrush – thick, but shaved except for about an inch in the centre. Walrus – bushy, hanging down over the lips entirely covering the mouth. Worn by Mark Twain, David Crosby, John Bolton, Wilford Brimley, Friedrich Nietzsche, Jeff "Skunk" Baxter, Jamie Hyneman. Moustache styles Like many other fashion trends, the moustache is subject to shifting popularity through time. Though modern culture associates moustaches with men of the Victorian Era, Susan Walton sho

HMS Tireless (P327)

HMS Tireless, a Taciturn- or T-class submarine, was the first ship of the Royal Navy to bear that name. She was authorized under the 1941 War Emergency Program and her keel was laid down on 30 October 1941 at Portsmouth Dockyard, she was launched on 19 March 1943 and was completed on 18 April 1945. Commissioned on 18 April 1945, towards the end of the Second World War, Tireless operated in the Far East between late 1945 and 1946 and in home waters. In 1951 she was the first of her class to be streamlined at Devonport. In 1953 she took part in the Fleet Review to celebrate the Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II. By the late 1950s she was again modernised at Chatham Dockyard. In 1959 Tireless was part of the Home Fleet and took part in'Navy Days' in Portsmouth during that year. Beginning in 1960, the submarine was the first command of future Adm. Sandy Woodward, who led Royal Navy forces in the South Atlantic during the 1982 Falklands War, she remained in service until August 1963. She was broken up during 1968.

Colledge, J. J.. Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy. London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86176-281-8. Hutchinson, Robert. Jane's Submarines: War Beneath the Waves from 1776 to the Present Day. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-00-710558-8. OCLC 53783010

Guitar speaker

A guitar speaker is a loudspeaker – the driver part – designed for use in a combination guitar amplifier of an electric guitar, or for use in a guitar speaker cabinet. These drivers produce only the frequency range relevant to electric guitars, similar to a regular woofer type driver, 75 Hz — 5 kHz, or for electric bass speakers, down to 41 Hz for regular four-string basses or down to about 30 Hz for five-string instruments; the cones of these drivers range in size from 6.5 in to 15 in with 10 and 12 in models being the most popular for electric guitar and electric bass combo amps and speaker cabinets. As with all loudspeaker drivers, the magnets are made from Alnico, ceramic, or, to reduce weight on more expensive models, neodymium. Higher quality Alnico magnets are reserved for more expensive models. Well-known guitar speaker manufacturers include Jensen, Eminence, Electro-Voice, JBL, Vox. Small practice amps have 6.5 or 8 speakers. Combination amplifier cabinets have one or more 10 and 12 speakers.

The largest speaker "stacks", used in stadium concerts, have 12 in speakers. Bass amplifier speaker cabinets for the bass guitar often use one or more 10 or 12 in speakers (both 2x10 in and 4x10 in cabinets are popular. Guitar speakers are designed differently from hi-fi speakers intended for in-home listening to pre-recorded music. Whereas hi-fi speakers are meant to provide as little coloration of the source signal as possible, guitar speakers are designed to add some type of tonal coloration to the sound. A guitar speaker cabinet is a wooden box that contains one or more guitar speakers; the smallest guitar cabinets have one 6.5" or 8" speaker. Some cabinets designed for rehearsals and small- to mid-size venues contain two 10" or 12" speakers. Another popular format is four 10" or four 12" speakers; some performers use two 4x10" or 4x12" cabinets. The largest guitar speaker cabinets have eight 10" or 12" speakers. A 4x12" is a guitar speaker cabinet containing four 12" speakers. Less some bass amp cabinets have multiple 8" speakers.

Cabinets with mixed-size speakers are less common, but they are used (e.g. a bass amplifier cabinet with a 15" loudspeaker for lower frequencies and a smaller speaker for mid- to high-range frequencies. A cabinet is mono, but may have two inputs for a "stereo" amplifier. Two speakers in a cabinet may be wired in series. Larger multiples will be series/parallel to maintain an impedance of 4 to 8 ohms. Many cabinets contain parallel input/outputs on the rear panel, so that one speaker cab can be plugged into the amp head, a second cabinet can be plugged into the first cabinet. Cabinets have an impedance rating printed on the rear panel, such as "8 ohm minimum" or "4 ohms minimum"; these warnings mean. Since speaker impedances as seen by the amplifier vary with frequency, with voice coil construction, with the cabinet's acoustical loading there can be no exact match under all conditions; when users daisy-chain a second cabinet with paralled speakers, they must ensure the amplifier can handle the lower impedance it will see.

Bass guitar cabinets may include multiple speakers of the same type. Some bass cabinets use multiple different-sized speakers, such as a mixture of 12" and 15" speakers. In rare cases, some large bass cabinets incorporate folded horns to boost the bass response. Bass amp cabinets may have a horn or tweeter built into a speaker cabinet which contains one or more woofer drivers; when a cabinet includes such a horn, the enclosure may have an attenuator knob, for turning the horn volume up or down. Some more expensive bass cabinets with a woofer/horn approach may have additional features, such as circuitry to protect the speakers or horn from overloads or a biamplification option. Biamplification enables a bassist to use a crossover circuit to split their bass signal into two: a low frequency signal and a high frequency signal, route the low and high frequencies into two power amplifiers, each of which send their powered signal to different speaker enclosures. One power amp handles the low frequencies, which are sent the larger drivers, a less powerful amp amplifies the high frequencies, which are sent to the horn.

For bass players seeking a pure, transparent sound, biamplification may produce a "cleaner" sound. For bass players in hard rock or heavy metal who are using an overdriven sound, biamplification may be safer for the horn or tweeter. Biamping allows a bassist to have the "dirty" overdriven sound through their woofer while keeping the signal sent to the horn clean, thus protecting the horn. At the high onstage volume levels used in large rock and metal concerts, a powerful, overdriven bass signal poses