click links in text for more info

Mr and Mrs Andrews

Mr and Mrs Andrews is an oil on canvas portrait of about 1750 by Thomas Gainsborough, now in the National Gallery, London. Today it is one of his most famous works, but it remained in the family of the sitters until 1960 and was little known before it appeared in an exhibition in Ipswich in 1927, after which it was requested for other exhibitions in Britain and abroad, praised by critics for its charm and freshness. By the post-war years its iconic status was established, it was one of four paintings chosen to represent British art in an exhibition in Paris celebrating the Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II in 1953. Soon the painting began to receive hostile scrutiny as a paradigm of the paternalist and capitalist society of 18th-century England, but it remains a firm popular favourite; the work is an unusual combination of two common types of painting of the period: a double portrait, here of a married couple and Frances Andrews, as well as a landscape view of the English countryside. Gainsborough's work consisted of these two different genres, but their striking combination side-by-side in this extended horizontal format is unique in Gainsborough's oeuvre, rare for other painters.

Conversation piece was the term for a group portrait that contained other elements and activities, but these showed more figures, seen engaged in some activity or in an interior, rather than a landscape empty of people. Gainsborough was famously given to complaining that well-paid portrait work kept him away from his true love of landscape painting, his interest combined with that of his clients, a couple from two families whose main income was not from landowning, to make a more prominent display than was normal in a portrait of the country estate that had formed part of Mrs Andrews's dowry. Thomas Gainsborough was about twenty-three when he painted Mr and Mrs Andrews in 1750, he had married the pregnant Margaret Burr and returned to Sudbury, his home town as well as that of the Andrews, after an apprenticeship in London with the French artist Hubert-François Gravelot, from whom he learnt the French rococo style. There, he picked up a love of landscapes in the Dutch style. However, landscape painting was far less prestigious and poorly paid compared to portraits and Gainsborough was forced to "face paint" as he put it.

Mr and Mrs Andrews contains the widest landscape of Gainsborough's portraits, he would not return to such compositions. Future paintings would be set against typical rococo settings, it has been speculated that Gainsborough wished to show off his landscape ability to potential clients, to satisfy his personal preference, or his sitters' wishes. The small size of the painting, just 2 feet 3 inches high, is typical of both Gainsborough's portraits and landscapes at this early period, he painted larger portraits approximating life-size for a grander London clientele than his early depictions of local gentry, the landscape backgrounds he used were of woods and generalized. Both his landscape backgrounds to portraits and his pure landscapes tend to show woodland, the open farmland view seen here is unusual as it begins so close-up to the viewer. Like most pure landscape paintings, Gainsborough's showed a view all seen from a certain distance, that this landscape sweeps away from a foreground close to the viewer is a feature necessitated by and typical of the portrait, though one that adds to the success of the painting.

As with all artists of the period, it was not Gainsborough's practice to paint outdoors, Mrs Andrews did not in reality have to walk in her silk clothes across the fields to pose, one of the aspects of the work commented on disapprovingly by some modern writers. Robert Andrews, the male sitter, was a member of the landed gentry, this is much apparent in Gainsborough's work. Although it is probable the family money came from being a landlord, Robert's father lent substantial amounts of money to other gentry, at significant interest rates; this included the sum of £30,000 to Frederick, Prince of Wales in 1743, for which he became Remembrancer. He had a London house in Grosvenor Square in Mayfair, owned ships and engaged in trade with the colonies of the British Empire. Robert himself was born in Bulmer, Essex in 1725, after attending Sudbury Grammar School at the same time as Gainsborough did, went on to University College, Oxford, his father purchased him an estate, secured a bride, in a successful attempt to further integrate Robert into the upper classes.

In 1763, after his father's death, he would take over the family business. By 1750 he owned 3,000 acres, including most of the land visible in the painting, his wife sitting beside him is Frances Mary Carter, brought up in the same parish of Bulmer, was "not quite the girl next door, but the nearest marriageable girl of his own class". She was betrothed to Andrews at 15 or 16 years old, they were married in Sudbury, on 10 November 1748: he was 22, she 16. Her father owned businesses as well as property, had a "share of a house in the City of London" as well as a country base at Ballingdon Hall, just over the River Stour from Sudbury, so in Essex, her family had made their money in the drapery business, by buying the estate avoided the collapse of the textile industry. The Andrews' estate, Auberies, in Bulmer Tye, North Essex, is just some four miles from Sudbury, bordered Frances' father's Ballingdon estate, it was part of her dowry or bought with it, had been bought between their marriage and when the

Unparticle physics

In theoretical physics, unparticle physics is a speculative theory that conjectures a form of matter that cannot be explained in terms of particles using the Standard Model of particle physics, because its components are scale invariant. Howard Georgi proposed this theory in two 2007 papers, "Unparticle Physics" and "Another Odd Thing About Unparticle Physics", his papers were followed by further work by other researchers into the properties and phenomenology of unparticle physics and its potential impact on particle physics, cosmology, CP violation, lepton flavour violation, muon decay, neutrino oscillations, supersymmetry. All particles exist in states that may be characterized by a certain energy and mass. In most of the Standard Model of particle physics, particles of the same type cannot exist in another state with all these properties scaled up or down by a common factor – electrons, for example, always have the same mass regardless of their energy or momentum, but this is not always the case: massless particles, such as photons, can exist with their properties scaled equally.

This immunity to scaling is called "scale invariance". The idea of unparticles comes from conjecturing that there may be "stuff" that does not have zero mass but is still scale-invariant, with the same physics regardless of a change of length; this stuff is unlike particles, described as unparticle. The unparticle stuff is equivalent to particles with a continuous spectrum of mass; such unparticle stuff has not been observed, which suggests that if it exists, it must couple with normal matter weakly at observable energies. Since the Large Hadron Collider team announced it will begin probing a higher energy frontier in 2009, some theoretical physicists have begun to consider the properties of unparticle stuff and how it may appear in LHC experiments. One of the great hopes for the LHC is that it might come up with some discoveries that will help us update or replace our best description of the particles that make up matter and the forces that glue them together. Unparticles would have properties in common with neutrinos, which have zero mass and are therefore nearly scale invariant.

Neutrinos interact with matter – most of the time physicists can infer their presence only by calculating the "missing" energy and momentum after an interaction. By looking at the same interaction many times, a probability distribution is built up that tells more how many and what sort of neutrinos are involved, they couple weakly to ordinary matter at low energies, the effect of the coupling increases as the energy increases. A similar technique could be used to search for evidence of unparticles. According to scale invariance, a distribution containing unparticles would become apparent because it would resemble a distribution for a fractional number of massless particles; this scale invariant sector would interact weakly with the rest of the Standard Model, making it possible to observe evidence for unparticle stuff, if it exists. The unparticle theory is a high-energy theory that contains both Standard Model fields and Banks–Zaks fields, which have scale-invariant behavior at an infrared point.

The two fields can interact through the interactions of ordinary particles if the energy of the interaction is sufficiently high. These particle interactions would appear to have "missing" energy and momentum that would not be detected by the experimental apparatus. Certain distinct distributions of missing energy would signify the production of unparticle stuff. If such signatures are not observed, bounds on the model can be refined. Unparticle physics has been proposed as an explanation for anomalies in superconducting cuprate materials, where the charge measured by ARPES appears to exceed predictions from Luttinger's theorem for the quantity of electrons. Zyga, Lisa. "Professor proposes theory of unparticle physics". Zyga, Lisa. "Physicists Build Unparticle Models Guided by Big Bang and Supernovae".,?. "Weird Physics Theory: Unparticle Stuff". Siegfried, Tom. "'Unparticle' Matter may be the stuff that glues physics together". Archived from the original on 2008-05-12.

Retrieved 2008-01-29. Feng, Jonathan. "Unparticle Physics". Cheung, Kingman. "Collider Phenomenology of Unparticle Physics". Physical Review D. 76: 055003. ArXiv:0706.3155. Bibcode:2007PhRvD..76e5003C. Doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.76.055003

Sitara Brooj Akbar

Sitara Brooj Akbar is an academic prodigy, multiple world record holder and gold medalist. She is a child prodigy who first came to the limelight for her eloquent speech and skilled oration to large crowds and on national television at the tender age of 5 years, she went on to make several Pakistani and World Records based on her passing of O Level in 5 Subjects by the age of 11. She completed her A Levels at age 13. Akbar was permitted by the British Council to undertake the International English Language Testing System test in 2011, achieved a score of 7 bands at age 11, she went on the become the Youngest Non-Native Speaker to score 9 out of 9 bands in IELTS at age 15. She is a resident of Dubai, United Arab Emirates where she cleared her Certified Anti Money Laundering Specialist Exam in July 2017 at age 17. Sitara Akbar hails from a small town in the Punjab province of Pakistan. Sitara Akbar achieved international fame when she broke the world record starting at the age of 11 years. Since she has made numerous TV appearances and been featured in international newspapers.

Some of her achievements are as below: Gold Medal Awarded by the President of Pakistan Talented Children’s Award awarded by the Prime Minister of Pakistan Country of Kalamar, Sweden Award Outstanding Pakistani Award from the Nazaria Pakistan Council Honorary Shield of Appreciation from Pakistan’s Ambassador to UAE Certificates of appreciation by British Council Active Citizens Award by British Council Meri Pehchan Pakistan Award by Pakistan Association, Dubai Certificate from Parliamentary Forum on Child Rights Sitara Brooj Akbar, was born on the 10th of February,2000 in the small town of Rabwah in Punjab, Pakistan is the eldest of 5 siblings and belongs to the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community. She is serving as the youth ambassador for Pakistan Association Dubai. and is a student. She is passionate about Public Speaker and started addressing August gathering at the tender age of five years, she is interested in research, community work and international relations

Fine (penalty)

A fine or mulct is money that a court of law or other authority decides has to be paid as punishment for a crime or other offence. The amount of a fine can be determined case by case, but it is announced in advance; the most usual use of the term is for financial punishments for the commission of crimes minor crimes, or as the settlement of a claim. A synonym used in civil law actions, is mulct. One common example of a fine is money paid for violations of traffic laws. In English common law small fines are used either in place of or alongside community service orders for low-level criminal offences. Larger fines are given independently or alongside shorter prison sentences when the judge or magistrate considers a considerable amount of retribution is necessary, but there is unlikely to be significant danger to the public. For instance, fraud is punished by large fines since fraudsters are banned from the position or profession they abused to commit their crimes. Fines can be used as a form of tax.

Money for bail may be applied toward a fine. A day-fine is a fine; some fines are small, such as for loitering, for which fines range from about $25 to $100. In some areas of the United States, fines for petty crimes, such as criminal mischief range from $2500 to $5000. In the Magistrates' Courts Act 1980, unless the context otherwise requires, the expression "fine", except for the purposes of any enactment imposing a limit on the amount of any fine, includes any pecuniary penalty or pecuniary forfeiture or pecuniary compensation payable under a conviction. In section 32 of that Act, the expression "fine" includes a pecuniary penalty but does not include a pecuniary forfeiture or pecuniary compensation. In sections 15 to 32 and 48 of the Criminal Law Act 1977, the expression "fine" includes any pecuniary penalty. In England, there is now a system whereby the court gives the offender a'fine card', somewhat like a credit card. A related concept is the fixed penalty notice, a pecuniary penalty for some minor crimes that can be either accepted (instead of prosecution, thus saving time and paperwork, or taken to court for normal proceedings for that crime.

While technically not a fine, under the Bill of Rights 1689, may be levied only following a conviction, it serves the same purpose of punishment. Early examples of fines include the weregild or blood money payable under Anglo-Saxon common law for causing a death; the murderer would be expected to pay a sum of money or goods dependent on the social status of the victim. See English criminal law#General power to impose a fine on indictment; the Dutch Criminal Code doesn't contain specific amounts for fines for every violation of the law. Instead of that the Criminal Code provides six fine categories; every penalty clause of the Criminal Code contains a fine category. The categories are: These sums are only an upper limit, it's up to the judge or the prosecutor to determine the exact sum of the fine. However, the amount of the fine must be at least €3; the sums of categories are always 1, 10, 20, 50, 200 and 2000 times the amount of the first category. In addition to the fine, the convict has to pay an administration fee of €9.

The amounts are established by the government, via a royal order. When the judge convicts an individual to a fine, the judge must set a term of substitute imprisonment; this substitute imprisonment will be executed in the case. The judge may count one day imprisonment for every unpaid €25, however judges reckon one day for every €50 which stays unpaid. Though, the substitute imprisonment can not exceed one year. Once a person is irrevocable convicted to a fine, it's up to the public prosecutor to collect the fine. To do so, the cjib is established. First, the CJIB will send the convict the fine. If the convict pays the fine the case is closed, if he doesn't, the case will be continued; the CJIB will send the convict a reminder, though this reminder will contain an increment of €15. If this doesn't lead to the payment of the fine, the CJIB will send another reminder, now with a raise of 20%, the raise must be at least €30; when the fine continues to be unpaid, the CJIB will instruct a bailiff to collect the fine nonetheless.

This bailiff may, for example, sell his possessions. If these measures do not result in the full collection of the fine, the bailiff will return the case to the prosecutor; the prosecutor will order the police to arrest the convict, in order to execute the earlier written substitute imprisonment. The length of the imprisonment will be percentage-wise reduced if the convict has paid a sum, but not the entire amount of the fine. After the substitute imprisonment the convict will be a free man again, he won't have to pay the fine anymore and the case will be closed. Before 1 September 1990, all traffic violations were punished via the criminal law; the suspects were first offered a sort of plea bargain. This contains a fine. If the suspect didn't pay the fine of this plea bargain, the public prosecutor had to open a criminal case, otherwise he wasn't authorized to collect the fine through force

Eastern Passage, Nova Scotia

Eastern Passage is an unincorporated suburban community in Halifax Regional Municipality Nova Scotia, Canada. Eastern Passage has been tied to the fishing industry, its waterfront has several small piers. The construction of CFB Shearwater, a military air base, at the northern boundary of the community during World War I, the construction of the Imperial Oil, Texaco oil refineries, the Volvo Halifax Assembly plant and automobile import/export facility following World War II redefined the local economy. New highway connections have resulted in the majority of area residents commuting to Downtown Halifax or Dartmouth. Located at the southeastern edge of Halifax Harbour, fronting the Atlantic Ocean, Eastern Passage derives its name from the narrow strait separating the mainland from McNabs Island and Lawlor Island, both of which lie several hundred metres west of the community; this "Eastern Passage" into the harbour is not the main shipping channel due to its shallow depths. The Eastern Passage is used by small recreational boats and fishing vessels during inclement weather as the island affords shelter from prevailing winds.

Prior to the European settlers, Eastern Passage was a season home to the Mi'kmaq for thousands of years. Europeans began seasonal use of the channel starting about 1712 while the Mi'kmaq shifted to McNab's island; the Eastern Passage area was granted to ranger Joseph Gorham, but he did not settle the passage and the land was regranted in 1798 to Jacob Horn, the first recorded settler, soon followed by other families. The first European settlers who moved there were German, French and English; these ethnic groups continue to make up a large portion of the population of Eastern Passage. Fort Clarence, a large gun battery was constructed beside Eastern Passage in 1754 at the beginning of the French and Indian War. Built to defend the harbour, the battery provided a cross fire with batteries on Georges Island and McNabs Island. In the late 1790s a Martello Tower was built at each of the three sites. During the American Civil War, The iron Confederate naval cruiser Tallahassee sailed into Halifax Harbour on August 18, 1864 to take on bunker coal and water and used the Eastern Passage channel to escape, for it was believed that Union naval forces were waiting at the main harbour entrance.

An American naval air station was constructed at Eastern Passage during World War I to patrol against German submarines. It was taken over by the Royal Canadian Air Force in the 1920s and became a large air base during World War II. In the 1920s and 1930s, a number of Eastern Passage residents from the Hartlan and Henneberry families proved important sources of Canadian folk songs and stories to Nova Scotia folklorist Helen Creighton. Serious reductions to the CFB Shearwater base in the 1990s and the shutdown of the Ultramar Refinery challenged the economy of Eastern Passage in the 1990s. One response was the redevelopment of the small craft harbour, long known as "the Crick" or "the cove" but rechristened in 1996 as "Fisherman's Cove", a tourist attraction which combines a working fishing harbour with gift shops and restaurants. In 1996 Fishermans Cove opened as a tourist attraction; the attraction had things such as restaurants. In the summer of 2003, the fourth season of Trailer Park Boys was filmed in Eastern Passage.

It was the last season of the show filmed in a held park. Population: 8,872 Population: 13,000+ Total Area: 29.38 km² Latitude: 44.614296 Longitude: -63.470833 Type: Elementary Grades: Primary to 3Constructed: 1954 Current Square Footage: 44,061 sq ft. Website: Type: Elementary Grades: Primary to 3, including French Immersion Constructed: 1991 Current Square Footage: 64,600 sq ft. Website: Whether elementary students attend Ocean View or Tallahassee is dependent on where they live in the respective school's catchment area or are enrolled in the French Immersion programme. Type: SR. Elementary Grades: 4, 5 Constructed: 1974 Current Square Footage: 44,737 sq ft. Website: Type: Junior High Grades: 6 to 8 Constructed: 1999 Current Square Footage: 82,645 sq ft. Website: High school approx. 450 students are bused out of the community to neighbouring Cole Harbour District High School.

An announcement was made in April 2012 that a high school could open in September 2014. Though it has been discussed many times over the past decade, as of October 2016 Eastern Passage Students still attend Cole Harbour District High School; the new school is scheduled to be completed and turned over to the HRSB in time for opening in September 2018. The cost to build the new school will be 21 million dollars. Website: There are several parks and playgrounds in the area. Two are located in the Heritage Hills subdivision, there are playgrounds at Tallahassee and Seaside schools. In August 2006, a new skateboard park opened near Seaside Elementary. Around 2016 a dirt BMX park promised by at the time MLA, Becky Kent was built. There is a large playing field at Eastern Passage Education Centre, numerous baseball and general purpose fields located within the vicinity of the three elementary schools. A public tennis court is located near Seaside Elementary.

The Tallahassee Recreation Centre (located in the Tallahassee Community School buil

North Broadway Street Historic District

The North Broadway Street Historic District is a 28 acres historic district in De Pere, Wisconsin, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1983. It included seven non-contributing ones; the district is located on the north side of De Pere. Contributing buildings within its boundaries were constructed from 1836 to 1923 and were built in a variety of architectural styles. Buildings deemed to have "pivotal" historic importance within the district are: Kellogg-McGeehan Residence, 515 N. Broadway St. a two-story frame house with, on its front facade, a projecting pavilion and a full-length one-story veranda J. S. Chase Residence, 602 N. Broadway St. a two-and-a-half-story Queen Anne house with a square tower. Its "architectural character" has been "compromised by siding" H. J. Wheeler Residence, 620 N. Broadway St. a brick house with a shingled mansard roof and a recessed corner tower F. A. Dunham Residence, 639 N. Broadway St. a two-story-plus-attic house with a tower. Its interior was remodeled in 1925 to Stick/Shingle fashion.

Randall Wilcox Residence, 707 N. Broadway St. with two-story central flanked by one-story wings. It has Greek Revival-style entablatures. E. E. Bolles Residence, 721 N. Broadway St. built as a large Queen Anne house, but its picturesque massing was reduced by early 20th-century renovations. It has a historic one-story carriage house at the rear. A. G. Wells Residence, 807 N. Broadway St. a large two-and-a-half-story "English eclectic manor of stone, with stucco and wood trim" John P. Dousman Residence, 813 N. Broadway St. a late Queen Anne cottage John S. Gittens Residence, 823 N. Broadway St. built as a two-and-a-half-story gambrel roof Colonial Revival, it received a gable-front compatible addition E. P. Smith Residence, 903 N. Broadway St. a red brick house with original interior woodwork and Adamsesque fireplace Capt. Joseph G. Lawton Residence, 935 N. Broadway St. a stone Italianate house whose appearance was accomplished in 1914 and 1920 remodelings. An earlier 1858 stone house, of Captain Joseph Lawton, appears not to have survived within.

Gustave H. Fleck Residence, 432 N. Wisconsin St. with elements of Queen Anne and Colonial Revival style F. E. White Residence, 421 Cass St. a two-story frame Greek Revival house with a veranda having square columns topped by square Doric capitals. Jacob Falk Residence, 321 N. Wisconsin St. a Queen Anne cottage with a corner tower and a veranda. Otto and Hilda Gretzinger House, at 922 N. Broadway, across from several houses in this district, was separately listed on the National Register in 2011