Mu-metal is a nickel–iron soft ferromagnetic alloy with high permeability, used for shielding sensitive electronic equipment against static or low-frequency magnetic fields. It has several compositions. One such composition is 77% nickel, 16% iron, 5% copper, 2% chromium or molybdenum. More mu-metal is considered to be ASTM A753 Alloy 4 and is composed of 80% nickel, 5% molybdenum, small amounts of various other elements such as silicon, the remaining 12 to 15% iron; the name came from the Greek letter mu which represents permeability in physics and engineering formulae. A number of different proprietary formulations of the alloy are sold under trade names such as MuMETAL, Mumetal2. Mu-metal has relative permeability values of 80,000–100,000 compared to several thousand for ordinary steel, it is a "soft" ferromagnetic material. This gives it low hysteresis losses. Other high-permeability nickel–iron alloys such as permalloy have similar magnetic properties. Mu-metal objects require heat treatment after they are in final form—annealing in a magnetic field in hydrogen atmosphere, which increases the magnetic permeability about 40 times.
The annealing alters the material's crystal structure, aligning the grains and removing some impurities carbon, which obstruct the free motion of the magnetic domain boundaries. Bending or mechanical shock after annealing may disrupt the material's grain alignment, leading to a drop in the permeability of the affected areas, which can be restored by repeating the hydrogen annealing step. Mu-metal is a soft magnetic alloy with exceptionally high magnetic permeability; the high permeability of mu-metal provides a low reluctance path for magnetic flux, leading to its use in magnetic shields against static or varying magnetic fields. Magnetic shielding made with high-permeability alloys like mu-metal works not by blocking magnetic fields but by providing a path for the magnetic field lines around the shielded area. Thus, the best shape for shields is a closed container surrounding the shielded space; the effectiveness of mu-metal shielding decreases with the alloy's permeability, which drops off at both low field strengths and, due to saturation, at high field strengths.
Thus, mu-metal shields are made of several enclosures one inside the other, each of which successively reduces the field inside it. Because mu-metal saturates at such low fields, sometimes the outer layer in such multilayer shields is made of ordinary steel, its higher saturation value allows it to handle stronger magnetic fields, reducing them to a lower level that can be shielded by the inner mu-metal layers. RF magnetic fields above about 100 kHz can be shielded by Faraday shields: ordinary conductive metal sheets or screens which are used to shield against electric fields. Superconducting materials can expel magnetic fields by the Meissner effect, but require cryogenic temperatures; the alloy has a low coercivity, near zero magnetostriction, significant anisotropic magnetoresistance. The low magnetostriction is critical for industrial applications, where variable stresses in thin films would otherwise cause a ruinously large variation in magnetic properties. Mu-metal was developed by British scientists Willoughby S. Smith and Henry J. Garnett and patented in 1923 for inductive loading of submarine telegraph cables by The Telegraph Construction and Maintenance Co. Ltd. a British firm that built the Atlantic undersea telegraph cables.
The conductive seawater surrounding an undersea cable added a significant capacitance to the cable, causing distortion of the signal, which limited the bandwidth and slowed signaling speed to 10–12 words per minute. The bandwidth could be increased by adding inductance to compensate; this was first done by wrapping the conductors with a helical wrapping of metal tape or wire of high magnetic permeability, which confined the magnetic field. Telcon invented mu-metal to compete with permalloy, the first high-permeability alloy used for cable compensation, whose patent rights were held by competitor Western Electric. Mu-metal was developed by adding copper to permalloy to improve ductility. 50 miles of fine mu-metal wire were needed for each mile of cable, creating a great demand for the alloy. The first year of production Telcon was making 30 tons per week. In the 1930s this use for mu-metal declined, but by World War II many other uses were found in the electronics industry, as well as the fuzes inside magnetic mines.
Telcon Metals Ltd. abandoned the trademark "MUMETAL" in 1985. The last listed owner of the mark "MUMETAL" is Illinois. Mu-metal is used to shield equipment from magnetic fields. For example: Electric power transformers, which are built with mu-metal shells to prevent them from affecting nearby circuitry. Hard disks, which have mu-metal backings to the magnets found in the drive to keep the magnetic field away from the disk. Cathode-ray tubes used in analogue oscilloscopes, which have mu-metal shields to prevent stray magnetic fields from deflecting the electron beam. Magnetic phonograph cartridges, which have a mu-metal case to reduce interference when LPs are played back. Magnetic resonance imaging equipment; the magnetometers used in magnetocardiography. Photomultiplier tubes. Vacuum chambers for experiments with low-energy electrons, for example
MSC Cruises is a global cruise line registered in Switzerland and based in Geneva. It was founded in Naples, Italy, in 1989, it is part of the Mediterranean Shipping Company S. A. the world's second biggest container shipping operator. In addition to being the world's largest held cruise company, employing about 23,500 people worldwide and with offices in 45 countries as of 2017, MSC Cruises is the fourth largest cruise company in the world, after Carnival Corporation & plc, Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. and Norwegian Cruise Line Holdings, with a 7.2% share of all passengers carried in 2017. MSC Cruises was founded as Lauro Lines in Naples, Italy by Achille Lauro in 1960; the company entered the cruise business operating MS Angelina Lauro and MS Achille Lauro. Angelina Lauro burnt in the port of St. Thomas, United States Virgin Islands in 1979 and Achille Lauro was hijacked by members of the Palestine Liberation Front in 1985. In 1989, the Mediterranean Shipping Company renamed it StarLauro Cruises.
In 1994, Achille Lauro sank. In 1988, the company name was changed to MSC Cruises. In 2014 MSC Cruises announced that the four Lirica'-class ships underwent renovation under the "Renaissance Programme". In July 2018, the company announced that it would build a second cruise terminal at PortMiami for its World-class cruise ships as an expansion of its North American program, it is scheduled to be completed in October 2022. In October 2018, MSC announced an order for four luxury ships of 64,000 gross tons each; these ultra-luxury vessels will be based on the cruise line's luxury concept, the "MSC Yacht Club." The first ship will arrive in the spring of 2023. All ships will be built at Fincantieri. In January 2019, MSC Cruises unveiled the world’s first virtual personal cruise assistant - ZOE, an artificial intelligence device designed by Harman International, it is featured on MSC Bellissima and MSC Grandiosa and will be featured on future newbuilds upon their delivery. In December 2015, MSC Cruises signed a 100-year lease on land in the Bahamas to develop the land for an exclusive island experience.
Beverly Rae Kimes was known as the "First Lady of Automotive History" and "The Grande Dame of Automobile History". She grew up in Wheaton, Illinois, she received a bachelor's degree from the University of Illinois, a master's degree in journalism from the Pennsylvania State University. Her first job was at Automobile Quarterly in 1963, she claimed that the total extent of her car knowledge when she started was the info on her driver's license. She had wanted to be a theater writer, but once she started writing about cars, the theater dream faded, she said, "My first assignment was a history of the Curved Dash Oldsmobile and I was hooked." She was promoted to head editor in 1975, a position she held until 1981, when she left to concentrate on free-lance writing. She went on to write 15 books, including "The Standard Catalog of American Automobiles", considered by auto journalists as the most comprehensive work on the history of defunct automobile companies, her co-writer was Jr.. Some of her other works include "The Classic Era," "Pioneers, And Scoundrels: The Dawn Of The Automobile In America," "The Star and the Laurel: The Centennial History of Daimler and Benz, 1886-1986," “Packard: A History of the Motor Car and the Company,” "The Cars That Henry Ford Built," "Walter L Marr: Buick's Amazing Engineer,", "Chevrolet: A History from 1911,", "Speed and Beauty, "My Two Lives" She became editor of the Classic Car magazine, for the Classic Car Club of America.
Besides books, she wrote hundreds of many of them winning the Karl Benz Award. In 2005, she was awarded a Lifetime Achievement Award from the International Automotive Media Awards. Kimes received numerous awards including several Moto Awards from the International Automotive Media Awards and the Thomas McKean Memorial Cup from the Antique Automobile Club of America, she was honored by Society of Automobile Historians as a Friend of Automotive History, their highest award. In 1993, she received a Distinguished Service Citation from the Automotive Hall of Fame, she was given a Lifetime Achievement Award as well as the Best of Books honor from IAM Awards. Besides books, she wrote hundreds of many of them winning the Karl Benz Award. In 2005, she was awarded a Lifetime Achievement Award from the International Automotive Media Awards. No auto historian has been cited as many times as Beverly Rae Kimes. In 1984, Kimes was married to her collaborator on the Walter Marrs book, her full name after marriage was Beverly Rae Kimes Cox.
She loved New York City and was active in city improvement activities, including being the President of The East 80th St Block Association, an officer for the U of I Alumni Club of Greater New York. Kimes' husband, James Cox, announced her death on May 12, 2008, she died of kidney failure in Lenox Hill Hospital in Manhattan, New York
A cash crop or profit crop is an agricultural crop, grown to sell for profit. It is purchased by parties separate from a farm; the term is used to differentiate marketed crops from subsistence crops, which are those fed to the producer's own livestock or grown as food for the producer's family. In earlier times cash crops were only a small part of a farm's total yield, while today in developed countries all crops are grown for revenue. In the least developed countries, cash crops are crops which attract demand in more developed nations, hence have some export value. Prices for major cash crops are set in commodity markets with global scope, with some local variation based on freight costs and local supply and demand balance. A consequence of this is that a nation, region, or individual producer relying on such a crop may suffer low prices should a bumper crop elsewhere lead to excess supply on the global markets; this system has been criticized by traditional farmers. Coffee is an example of a product, susceptible to significant commodity futures price variations.
Issues involving subsidies and trade barriers on such crops have become controversial in discussions of globalization. Many developing countries take the position that the current international trade system is unfair because it has caused tariffs to be lowered in industrial goods while allowing for low tariffs and agricultural subsidies for agricultural goods; this makes it difficult for a developing nation to export its goods overseas, forces developing nations to compete with imported goods which are exported from developed nations at artificially low prices. The practice of exporting at artificially low prices is known as dumping, is illegal in most nations. Controversy over this issue led to the collapse of the Cancún trade talks in 2003, when the Group of 22 refused to consider agenda items proposed by the European Union unless the issue of agricultural subsidies was addressed; the Arctic climate is not conducive for the cultivation of cash crops. However, one potential cash crop for the Arctic is Rhodiola rosea, a hardy plant used as a medicinal herb that grows in the Arctic.
There is consumer demand for the plant, but the available supply is less than the demand. Cash crops grown in regions with a temperate climate include many cereals, oil-yielding crops, tree fruit or top fruit and soft fruit. In regions with a subtropical climate, oil-yielding crops and some vegetables and herbs are the predominant cash crops. In regions with a tropical climate, cocoa, sugar cane, oranges and jute, are common cash crops; the oil palm is a tropical palm tree, the fruit from it is used to make palm oil. Around 60 percent of African workers are employed in the agricultural sector, with about three-fifths of African farmers being subsistence farmers. For example, in Burkina Faso 85% of its residents are reliant upon cotton production for income, over half of the country's population lives in poverty. Larger farms tend to grow cash crops such as coffee, cotton, cocoa and rubber; these farms operated by large corporations, cover tens of square kilometres and employ large numbers of laborers.
Subsistence farms provide a source of food and a small income for families, but fail to produce enough to make re-investment possible. The situation in which African nations export crops while a significant number of people on the continent struggle with hunger has been blamed on developed countries, including the United States and the European Union; these countries protect their own agricultural sectors, through high import tariffs and offer subsidies to their farmers, which some have contended is leading to the overproduction of commodities such as cotton and milk. The result of this is that the global price of such products is continually reduced until Africans are unable to compete in world markets, except in cash crops that do not grow in temperate climates. Africa has realized significant growth in biofuel plantations, many of which are on lands which were purchased by British companies. Jatropha curcas is a cash crop grown for biofuel production in Africa; some have criticized the practice of raising non-food plants for export while Africa has problems with hunger and food shortages, some studies have correlated the proliferation of land acquisitions for use to grow non-food cash crops with increasing hunger rates in Africa.
Australia produces significant amounts of lentils. It was estimated in 2010 that Australia would produce 143,000 tons of lentils. Most of Australia's lentil harvest is exported to the Middle East. Italy's Cassa per il Mezzogiorno in 1950 led to the government implementing incentives to grow cash crops such as tomatoes and citrus fruits; as a result, they created an over abundance of these crops causing an over saturation of these crops on the global market. This caused these crops to depreciate in value. Cash cropping in the United States rose to prominence after the baby boomer generation and the end of World War II, it was seen as a way to feed the large population boom and continues to be the main factor in having an affordable food supply in the United States. According to the 1997 U. S. Census of Agriculture, 90% of the farms in the United States are still owned by families, with an additional 6% owned by a partnership. Cash crop farmers have utilized
Soldat Jahman known as Jah-Man or Jahman, is a French ragga hip hop artist originating from the Martinique combining various influences like reggaeton and rap. Based in Marseille, he was part of the Ghetto Boyz Club. Soldat Jahman cooperates with DJ Mam's and is part of DJ Mam's music collectif 123 Marseille, he is famous for his singles "Boogie Dance", "My Sexy Lady" and "Bolide". In 2013, he released "Sexy Bam Bam" as a duo with Luis Guisao. Soldat Jahman is featured on many of DJ Mam's tracks, most notably in the original version of "Zumba He Zumba Ha", but in "Hella décalé", "Tonight" and the title track "Fiesta Buena" of DJ Mam's album of the same name. In 2012, he was featured in Mika V. single "Danza en la Playa" alongside Luis Guisao. 2010: "Hella Décalé" 2011: "Zumba He Zumba Ha" 2011: "Boogie Dance" 2011: "Bolide" 2012: "Fiesta Buena" 2013: "Sexy Bam Bam" 2014: "Dale Feat. Kenza Farah" 2014: "Que Bonita"Featured in singles Facebook YouTube Discogs
Miguel Ángel Ayuso Guixot, MCCJ is a Spanish prelate of the Catholic Church and an historian of Islam. He has been an official of the Roman Curia since 2012 and an archbishop since 2016. Pope Francis raised him to the rank of cardinal on 5 October 2019. Miguel Ayuso was born in Seville, Spain, on 17 June 1952. On 2 May 1980, he made his perpetual vows as a member of the Comboni Missionaries of the Heart of Jesus, he was ordained as a priest on 20 September 1982. He earned a licentiate in Arabic and Islamic studies at Rome's Pontifical Institute of Arab and Islamic Studies in 1982, he was a missionary in Egypt and Sudan from 1982 to 2002. Beginning in 1989, he was professor of Islamic studies first in Khartoum in Cairo, President of PISAI from 2005 to 2012, he led interreligious discussions in Egypt, Kenya and Mozambique. He obtained a doctorate in dogmatic theology from the University of Granada in 2000. On 20 November 2007, Pope Benedict XVI appointed him a consultant to the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue, on 30 June 2012, Benedict named him Secretary of that Council.
Benedict named him a special auditor at the Synod of Bishops for the Middle East in 2010. On 29 January 2016, Pope Francis appointed him Titular Bishop of Luperciana, he was ordained on 19 March by the pope himself. He served as the Vatican's principal representative in restoring dialogue with Grand Imam Ahmed el-Tayeb of Cairo's Al-Azhar mosque, which were curtailed in 2011, he reported that the parties were focused on "joint initiatives to promote peace", the right to religious education, the issue of religious freedom, looking to an agreement that establishes "the sacrosanct right to citizenship" for all, no matter their religion. His work culminated in the joint statement, the Declaration on Human Fraternity, issued by the Grand Imam and Pope Francis in February 2019 in Abu Dhabi. Ayuso Guixot has represented the Holy See as a member of the board of directors of the King Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz International Centre for Interreligious and Intercultural Dialogue, a joint initiative of Saudi Arabia and Spain, since its founding in Vienna in 2012.
On 25 May 2019, Pope Francis appointed him President of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue. Pope Francis named him a member of the Congregation for Oriental Churches on 6 August 2019. On 5 October 2019, Pope Francis made him Cardinal Deacon of San Girolamo della Carità, he was made a member of the Congregation for Oriental Churches on 21 February 2020. Cardinals created by Francis Profile at Catholic Hierarchy