Marrakesh is a major city of the Kingdom of Morocco. It is the fourth largest city in the country, after Casablanca and Tangier, it is the capital city of the mid-southwestern region of Marrakesh-Safi. Located to the north of the foothills of the snow-capped Atlas Mountains, Marrakesh is situated 580 km southwest of Tangier, 327 km southwest of the Moroccan capital of Rabat, 239 km south of Casablanca, 246 km northeast of Agadir. Marrakesh is the second most important of Morocco's four former imperial cities after Fez; the region has been inhabited by Berber farmers since Neolithic times, but the actual city was founded in 1062, by Abu Bakr ibn Umar and cousin of Almoravid king Yusuf ibn Tashfin. In the 12th century, the Almoravids built many madrasas and mosques in Marrakesh that bear Andalusian influences; the red walls of the city, built by Ali ibn Yusuf in 1122–1123, various buildings constructed in red sandstone during this period, have given the city the nickname of the "Red City" or "Ochre City".
Marrakesh grew and established itself as a cultural and trading center for the Maghreb and sub-Saharan Africa. After a period of decline, the city was surpassed by Fez, but in the early 16th century, Marrakesh again became the capital of the kingdom; the city regained its preeminence under wealthy Saadian sultans Abu Abdallah al-Qaim and Ahmad al-Mansur, who embellished the city with sumptuous palaces such as the El Badi Palace and restored many ruined monuments. Beginning in the 17th century, the city became popular among Sufi pilgrims for Morocco's seven patron saints, who are entombed here. In 1912 the French Protectorate in Morocco was established and T'hami El Glaoui became Pasha of Marrakesh and held this position nearly throughout the protectorate until the role was dissolved upon the independence of Morocco and the reestablishment of the monarchy in 1956. In 2009, Marrakesh mayor Fatima Zahra Mansouri became the second woman to be elected mayor in Morocco. Like many Moroccan cities, Marrakesh comprises an old fortified city packed with vendors and their stalls, bordered by modern neighbourhoods, the most prominent of, Gueliz.
Today it is one of the busiest cities in Africa and serves as a major economic center and tourist destination. Tourism is advocated by the reigning Moroccan monarch, Mohammed VI, with the goal of doubling the number of tourists visiting Morocco to 20 million by 2020. Despite the economic recession, real estate and hotel development in Marrakesh have grown in the 21st century. Marrakesh is popular with the French, numerous French celebrities own property in the city. Marrakesh has the largest traditional market in Morocco, with some 18 souks selling wares ranging from traditional Berber carpets to modern consumer electronics. Crafts employ a significant percentage of the population, who sell their products to tourists. Marrakesh is one of North Africa’s largest centers of wildlife trade, despite the illegality of much of this trade. Much of this trade can be found in adjacent squares. Tortoises are popular for sale as pets, but Barbary macaques and snakes can be seen. Marrakesh is served by Ménara International Airport and the Marrakesh railway station, which connects the city to Casablanca and northern Morocco.
Marrakesh has several schools, including Cadi Ayyad University. A number of Moroccan football clubs are located here, including Najm de Marrakech, KAC Marrakech, Mouloudia de Marrakech and Chez Ali Club de Marrakech; the Marrakesh Street Circuit hosts the World Touring Car Championship, Auto GP and FIA Formula Two Championship races. The exact meaning of the name is debated. One possible origin of the name Marrakesh is from the Berber words amur akush, which means "Land of God". According to historian Susan Searight, the town's name was first documented in an 11th-century manuscript in the Qarawiyyin library in Fez, where its meaning was given as "country of the sons of Kush"; the word mur is used now in Berber in the feminine form tamurt. The same word "mur" appears in Mauretania, the North African kingdom from antiquity, although the link remains controversial as this name originates from μαύρος mavros, the ancient Greek word for black; the common English spelling is "Marrakesh", although "Marrakech" is widely used.
The name is spelt Mṛṛakc in the Berber Latin alphabet, Marraquexe in Portuguese, Marraquech in Spanish, "Mer-raksh" in Moroccan Arabic. From medieval times until around the beginning of the 20th century, the entire country of Morocco was known as the "Kingdom of Marrakesh", as the kingdom's historic capital city was Marrakesh; the name for Morocco is still "Marrakesh" to this day in Persian and Urdu as well as many other South Asian languages. Various European names for Morocco are directly derived from the Berber word Murakush. Conversely, the city itself was in earlier times called Marocco City by travelers from abroad; the name of the city and the country diverged after the Treaty of Fez divided Morocco into a French protectorate in Morocco and Spanish protectorate in Morocco, but the old interchangeable usage lasted until about the interregnum of Mohammed Ben Aarafa. The latter episode set in motion the country's return to independence, when Morocco became al-Mamlaka al-Maġribiyya, its name no longer refer
Lorna's Silence is a 2008 drama film by the Belgian brothers Jean-Pierre and Luc Dardenne. It was the winner of the 2008 LUX Prize, as well as the Best Screenplay Award at the 2008 Cannes Film Festival. Lorna, a young Albanian woman living in Belgium, is in sham marriage with a drug addict named Claudy who accepted her money to become her husband. Lorna's dream is to own a snack bar with Sokol. In order to see this dream fulfilled, she agrees to have another fake marriage with a Russian man, but Claudy is in the way. Fabio, the one who orchestrated the whole plan, will not wait for Claudy's divorce. Lorna had agreed to Fabio's plan of killing Claudy with an overdose, but Lorna is moved by Claudy's determination to stay clean, so she pleads Fabio to wait for their divorce. But Fabio does not understand why Lorna cares, an overdose will not look suspicious, because drug addicts relapse. Claudy attempts to stay off of drugs by locking himself in his apartment and asking Lorna to get him medicine at the pharmacy that will help with his pains.
One night, the pain becoming unbearable, he asks Lorna to call his doctor and take him to the hospital. There, he begs Lorna to stay with him, he leans against her like a child in need of protection. In order to obtain a quick divorce, Lorna decides to hurt herself and make it look like Claudy abused her, she does not manage to convince Claudy to beat her and ends up hurting herself at the hospital and crying out for help. The nurse who looks after her agrees to act as a witness for the police report; the same day, Lorna fills out a report. Fabio, who seems to control everything, has her followed, he asks her why she went to the police station, she explains that the divorce will be faster since she has found a way to make it look like Claudy is a physically abusive husband. The next day, Claudy goes to see Lorna at her workplace, he asks for money to prepare a meal for when she gets back from work. That night, Lorna receives a letter from the judge granting her a quick divorce, she leaves a depressed Claudy behind to let Fabio know the news.
When she tells Fabio that the divorce will now only take a month, he does not look pleased. She asks him to see if they will accept the delay. A short while after, as Lorna crosses the street to enter her apartment, Fabio in his taxi honks and as she gets close, telling her that the Russian has accepted to wait. At home, Claudy has invited one of his drug dealers over. Lorna forces the drug dealer out, locks the door, throws the key out of the window, makes love to Claudy; the next day and Lorna, who look like a content couple, go to a shop to get a new pair of keys and a bike for Claudy to pass the time and take his mind off drugs. After having agreed to see Claudy at her workplace at noon, Lorna runs playfully after his bike. In the next scene, Lorna chooses a pair of jeans that she puts in a bag that contained Claudy's belongings, she goes to the morgue where she gives the clothes and asks to see Claudy once more. She packs up a bag under the watchful eye of Fabio and Spirou, his assistant. Fabio tells her it was necessary to get rid of Claudy.
He explains that she would not have accepted his decision, so he could not have told her. He offers her a thousand euros for helping him out with his addiction. Lorna does not take the money; as they are heading out, two detectives ask to speak to Lorna. They question her about Claudy, after a while she tears up; the detectives leave convinced of her sincerity and innocence. Lorna finds a place to rent for the snack bar with Sokol, she meets the Russian man she is going to marry. She accepts the money Fabio gives her for her future marriage and takes the one thousand euros that she had refused. In the meantime, she discovers, she finds that she can not do it. She runs out of the doctor's office; when she tells Fabio that she is pregnant, he insists upon an abortion, mumbling that Sokol and she were crazy for not being careful. Lorna goes to the bank to open an account for her unborn child; the clerk tells her that the money can only be transferred to an actual account upon her child's birth. When the clerk asks for the baby's last name, she says "Moreau,", Claudy's last name.
Despite Fabio having told her not to talk about it, Lorna brings up the baby to the Russian during their second meeting. The Russian says through his interpreter that a baby is out of the question, Fabio gets angry with Lorna for bringing it up. After the Russians' departure, Fabio roughs out Lorna and shouts that she must do what he tells her to. Lorna crouches down. At the hospital where Fabio takes her, the doctor tells Lorna, but Lorna seems convinced. On her way to the hospital room where they want to keep her overnight, she meets the doctor who took care of Claudy, she asks the doctor if she remembers her, explains that she is Claudy's wife, requests that the doctor come say hi to her later. Fabio realizes that he can no longer use Lorna, so he meets up with her and Sokol and takes back a good amount of the money he had given her; the next day, Lorna once again has packed up all her things, Fabio takes her sim card from her cell phone before she enters the car that Spirou, Fabio's assistant, is driving.
In the car, when Lorna asks Sp
The Hollywood Reporter
The Hollywood Reporter is an American digital and print magazine, website, which focuses on the Hollywood film and entertainment industries. It was founded in 1930 as a daily trade paper, in 2010 switched to a weekly large-format print magazine with a revamped website. Headquartered in Los Angeles, THR is part of the Billboard-Hollywood Reporter Media Group, a group of properties that includes Billboard and SpinMedia, it is owned by Valence Media, a holding company co-founded by Todd Boehly, an executive of its previous owners, Guggenheim Partners and Eldridge Industries. THR was founded in 1930 by William R. "Billy" Wilkerson as Hollywood's first daily entertainment trade newspaper. The first edition appeared on September 3, 1930 and featured Wilkerson's front-page "Tradeviews" column, which became influential; the newspaper appeared Monday to Saturday for the first 10 years, except for a brief period Monday to Friday from 1940. Wilkerson ran the THR until his death in September 1962, although his final column appeared 18 months prior.
Wilkerson's wife, Tichi Wilkerson Kassel, took over as publisher and editor-in-chief when her husband died. From the late 1930s, Wilkerson used THR to push the view that the industry was a communist stronghold. In particular, he opposed the screenplay writers' trade union, the Screen Writers Guild, which he called the "Red Beachhead." In 1946 the Guild considered creating an American Authors' Authority to hold copyright for writers, instead of ownership passing to the studios. Wilkerson devoted his "Tradeviews" column to the issue on July 29, 1946, headlined "A Vote for Joe Stalin." He went to confession before publishing it, knowing the damage it would cause, but was encouraged by the priest to go ahead with it. The column contained the first industry names, including Dalton Trumbo and Howard Koch, on what became the Hollywood blacklist, known as "Billy's list." Eight of the 11 people Wilkerson named were among the "Hollywood Ten" who were blacklisted after hearings in 1947 by the House Un-American Activities Committee.
When Wilkerson died, his THR obituary said that he had "named names and card numbers and was credited with being chiefly responsible for preventing communists from becoming entrenched in Hollywood production."In 1997, THR reporter David Robb wrote a story about the newspaper's involvement, but the editor, Robert J. Dowling, declined to run it. For the blacklist's 65th anniversary in 2012, the THR published a lengthy investigative piece about Wilkerson's role, by reporters Gary Baum and Daniel Miller; the same edition carried an apology from Wilkerson's son W. R. Wilkerson III, he wrote. On April 11, 1988, Tichi Wilkerson Kassel sold the paper to BPI Communications, owned by Affiliated Publications, for $26.7 million. Robert J. Dowling became THR president in 1988, editor-in-chief and publisher in 1991. Dowling hired Alex Ben Block as editor in 1990. Block and Teri Ritzer dampened much of the sensationalism and cronyism, prominent in the paper under the Wilkersons. In 1994, BPI Communications was sold to Verenigde Nederlandse Uitgeverijen for $220 million.
After Block left, former Variety film editor, Anita Busch, became editor between 1999 and 2001. Busch was credited with making the paper competitive with Variety. Tony Uphoff assumed the publisher position in November 2005. In March 2006, a private equity consortium led by Blackstone and KKR, both with ties to the conservative movement in the United States, acquired THR along with the other assets of VNU, it joined those publications with AdWeek and A. C. Nielsen to form The Nielsen Company. In December 2009, Prometheus Global Media, a newly formed company formed by Pluribus Capital Management and Guggenheim Partners, chaired by Jimmy Finkelstein, CEO of News Communications, parent of political journal The Hill, acquired THR from Nielsen Business Media, it pledged to grow the company. Richard Beckman of Condé Nast, was appointed as CEO. In 2010, Beckman purchased THR from Guggenheim Partners and Pluribus Capital, recruited Janice Min, the former editor-in-chief of Us Weekly, to "eviscerate" the existing daily trade paper and reinvent it as a glossy, large-format weekly magazine.
The Hollywood Reporter relaunched with a weekly print edition and a revamped website that enabled it to break news. Eight months after its initial report, The New York Times took note of the many scoops THR had generated, adding that the new glossy format seemed to be succeeding with its "rarefied demographic", stating, "They managed to change the subject by going weekly... The large photos, lush paper stock and great design are a kind of narcotic here."By February 2013, the Times returned to THR, filing a report on a party for Academy Award nominees the magazine had hosted at the Los Angeles restaurant Spago. Noting the crowd of top celebrities in attendance, the Times alluded to the fact that many Hollywood insiders were now referring to THR as "the new Vanity Fair". Ad sales since Min's hiring were up more than 50%, while traffic to the magazine's website had grown by 800%. Since January 2014, The Hollywood Reporter has been led by co-presidents Janice John Amato. John Kilcullen replaced Uphoff in October 2006, as publisher of Billboard.
Kilcullen was a defendant in Billboard's infamous "dildo" lawsuit, in which he was accused of race discrimination and sexual harassment. VNU settled the suit on the courthouse steps. Kilcullen "exited" Nielsen in February 2008 "to pursue his passion as an entrepreneur." Matthew King, vice president for content and audience, editorial director Howard Burns, executive editor Peter Pryor left the paper in a wave of layoffs in December 2006.
Girl (2018 film)
Girl is a 2018 Belgian drama film directed by Lukas Dhont, in his feature debut, written by Dhont and Angelo Tijssens. It stars Victor Polster, in his acting debut, as a trans girl; the film screened in the Un Certain Regard section at the 2018 Cannes Film Festival, where it won the Caméra d'Or award, for best first feature film, as well as the Queer Palm, Polster won the Un Certain Regard Jury Award for Best Performance. It was selected as the Belgian entry for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 91st Academy Awards, although it did not make the December shortlist, it received nine nominations at the 9th Magritte Awards and won four, including Best Screenplay and Best Actor for Polster. Girl was inspired by a trans female dancer from Belgium. While praised by critics cisgender, the film was criticised by trans and queer writers for its depiction of gender dysphoria and self-harm. Monsecour, who collaborated with Dhont and Tijssens on the film, has defended the film in response. Lara, a 16-year-old transgender girl who aspires to be a professional ballerina, moves with her supportive francophone father and younger brother to attend a prestigious Dutch-speaking dance academy.
They consult a medical doctor as well as a psychiatrist for treatment. She knows, it will take two years and she is given lots of opportunity to change her mind. She lives with her father and six year old brother Milo, she puts her all into her ballerina classes. Teachers demand perfection, her psychiatrist asks all the right questions but she does not want to date until she has the right body. He wants her to enjoy her puberty as a teenager, her medical doctor wants her healthy. Lara wants a ballerina's body, she is frustrated by the slow progress of undergoing hormone replacement therapy in preparation for sex reassignment surgery. Against advice she secretly tucks her penis with tape during ballet practices. Students know she is transgender and are asked if any are embarrassed using the female restrooms together. No one objects, she experiences some transphobic harassment from her classmates. Lara is a teenage girl with all the questions of growing up, her father is over protective and she tells him everything is fine when it is not.
There are family issues. Lara's Dad has a brother Milo doesn't like his new school; the dance school is demanding and she does not eat well and is losing weight. She wants to change genders, she takes her hormone medicine. At a girls sleepover she is embarrassed into showing the girls her penis, she explores a kiss with the neighbor boy to further humiliation. Her father wants to talk or help but Lara keeps it all to herself, she pushes herself at dance to exhaustion. Since the taping has caused an infection and her general health has declined, her surgery is delayed, her doctor orders no more dance. She sits in the audience while her classmates dance and she keeps her boy body; as her father goes off to work, she calls emergency services and she mutilates her penis with a pair of scissors. The daughter and father hug one another in the hospital; the film ends with a shot of a happy Lara walking down a street. Victor Polster as Lara Olivar Bodart as Milo Arieh Worthalter as Mathias Katelijne Damen as Dr. Naert Valentijn Dhaenens as Dr. Pascal Tijmen Govaerts as Lewis The film was inspired by Nora Monsecour, a professional dancer and trans woman from Belgium.
In 2009, Dhont 18 and a newly enrolled film student, read a newspaper article about Monsecour's request to her ballet school that she take the girls' class so she could learn en pointe skills. Unlike the protagonist of the film, Monsecour was not accepted to the girls' class, since shifted her focus from ballet to contemporary dance. Dhont approached Monsecour to make a documentary about her. Instead, he went on to write a fictional narrative film with her and Tijssens, although Monsecour remained uncredited at her wish. Dhont consulted Monsecour, other transgender people and medical professionals for the film. Doctors at Ghent University Hospital, where Monsecour had been a patient, advised against casting a trans girl because she would be in a sensitive period of her transition; the casting for the lead role was done with no regard to the actors' gender. After failing to find an actor who could both dance and act to their satisfaction among the 500 people aged between 14 and 17 who auditioned, the filmmakers began casting the rest of the dancers who would appear in the film.
It was in this group casting process. Monsecour was present on set during the filming. Polster took three months of dance practices with pointe shoes; the filming involved nude scenes of Polster 14, with his parents' consent. The crew took particular care not to show lower body in the same shot. Sidi Larbi Cherkaoui, artistic director of the Royal Ballet of Flanders, served as choreographer. Girl premiered in the Un Certain Regard section at the 2018 Cannes Film Festival on 12 May 2018. In May 2018, Netflix acquired the rights to the film for Latin America. While Netflix planned to release the film on its platform on 18 January 2019, the release was pushed back to 15 March 2019. Netflix released the film with a warning card, which read, "This film covers sensitive issues, includes some sexual content, graphic nudity, an act of self-harm", with a link to a website providing information about The Trevor Project's suicide hotline. On review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds an approval rating o
L'Enfant is a 2005 Belgian film directed by Jean-Pierre and Luc Dardenne, starring Jérémie Renier and Déborah François. The film was released under its French title in the US, as The Child in the UK, it received critical acclaim and won the Palme d'Or at the 2005 Cannes Film Festival, among other accolades. In 2017, the film was named the fourteenth "Best Film of the 21st Century So Far" by The New York Times. Bruno, 20, Sonia, 18, are surviving on her welfare cheques and Bruno's petty crimes when Sonia becomes pregnant. While Sonia is absent, Bruno sells their baby to a black market adoption ring to make some quick cash, he tells Sonia, telling her that they can "make" another baby, but Sonia is sickened and faints. Faced with Sonia's shock, feeling regret for his mistake, Bruno buys the child back at a premium—but, after being turned away by Sonia, his mounting debts lead Bruno down a quick path to desperation, he learns Sonia is pressing charges. He winds up in prison, Sonia visits him, sharing a moment of despair.
Jérémie Renier as Bruno Déborah François as Sonia Jérémie Segard as Steve Fabrizio Rongione Olivier Gourmet L'Enfant received positive reviews from critics. Review aggregation website Rotten Tomatoes gives it an 86% approval rating, based on 106 reviews, with an average score of 7.5/10. The site's consensus reads, "The Dardennes continue to excel at presenting works of rigorous naturalism, with detached observations of authentic characters that resonate with complex moral issues.". At Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating out of 100 to reviews from mainstream critics, the film received an average score of 87, based on 34 reviews, indicating "universal acclaim". L'Enfant won the Palme d'Or in 2005 Cannes Film Festival, making directors Jean-Pierre Dardenne and Luc Dardenne twice winners of the Palme d'Or, having won the award in 1999 with Rosetta; the film received the André Cavens Award for Best Film by the Belgian Film Critics Association. It was nominated for Best Film and Best Actor at the European Film Awards.
The film was chosen as Belgium's official entry for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film at the 78th Academy Awards, but did not secure a nomination. List of Belgian submissions for Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film Official site L'Enfant on IMDb L'Enfant at Metacritic L'Enfant at Rotten Tomatoes L'Enfant at AllMovie
Incendies is a 2010 Canadian mystery-drama film written and directed by Denis Villeneuve. Adapted from Wajdi Mouawad's play of the same name, Incendies stars Lubna Azabal, Mélissa Désormeaux-Poulin, Maxim Gaudette, Rémy Girard; the story concerns Canadian twins who travel to their mother's native country in the Middle East to uncover her hidden past amidst a bloody civil war. While the country is unnamed, the events in the film are influenced by the Lebanese Civil War and the story of prisoner Souha Bechara; the film was shot in Montreal, with a few days spent in Jordan. It premiered at the Venice and Toronto Film Festivals in September 2010 and was released in Quebec on 17 September 2010, it won numerous awards. In 2011, it was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. Incendies won eight Genie Awards, including Best Motion Picture. Following the death of Nawal Marwan, a Canadian immigrant, her two children, fraternal twins Jeanne and Simon, meet with French Canadian notary Jean Lebel, their mother’s employer and family friend.
Nawal's will makes reference to not keeping a promise, denying her a proper gravestone and casket, unless Jeanne and Simon track down their mysterious brother, whose existence they were unaware of, their father, whom they believed was dead. A series of flashbacks reveal Nawal came from a Christian Arab family in an unnamed Middle Eastern country, that she fell in love with a refugee, resulting in her pregnancy, her family murders her lover and nearly shoots her as an honour killing, but her grandmother spares her, making her promise to leave the village after the birth of her baby and start a new life in the fictional city of Daresh. The grandmother sends him to an orphanage. While Nawal is at university in Daresh, a civil war and war crimes break out with Nawal opposing the war on human rights grounds, her son's orphanage in Kfar Khout is destroyed by a Muslim militant, who converts him into an Islamic child soldier. After escaping the massacre of a bus full of Muslim refugees by Christian Nationalists, Nawal joins the Muslim fighters and shoots a nationalist leader.
Afterwards, she is raped by torturer Abou Tareq. She gives birth to the twins. After travelling to her mother's native country, Jeanne uncovers this past, persuades Simon, angry with his mother's unusual personality, to join her. With help from Lebel, they learn their brother's name track down Chamseddine. Simon meets with him and he reveals the war-mad Nihad was captured by the nationalists, turned by them, trained as a torturer and sent to Kfar Ryat where he took the name Abou Tareq, making him both the twins' half-brother and father. Nihad had immigrated to Canada and Nawal only learned his true identity after recognizing him at a Canadian swimming pool and seeing his tattoo; the twins deliver Nawal's letters to him without speaking to him. He opens both of them; the second letter addresses him as the brother, is instead written with caring words, saying that he, this time written to as Nawal's son, is deserving of love. Nawal gets her gravestone in the aftermath of the letters being sent. Parts of the story were based on the life of Souha Bechara.
The story is based on events that happened during the Lebanese Civil War of 1975 to 1990, but the filmmakers attempted to make the location of the plot ambiguous. Director Denis Villeneuve first saw Wajdi Mouawad's play Incendies at Théâtre de Quat'Sous in Montreal in 2004, commenting "I had this strong intuition that I was in front of a masterpiece". Villeneuve acknowledged unfamiliarity with Arab culture, but was drawn to Incendies as "a modern story with a sort of Greek tragedy element". In adapting the screenplay, while keeping the story structure and characters, replaced "all" the dialogue envisioning a silent film, abandoning the idea due to expense, he showed Mouawad some completed scenes to convince the reluctant playwright to grant permission for the film. Villeneuve spent five years working on the screenplay, in between directing two films. Mouawad praised the film as "brilliantly elegant" and gave Villeneuve full credit; the project had a budget of $6.5 million, received funding from Telefilm Canada.
For the part of Nawal, Villeneuve said. He considered casting the main character to be the most challenging, at one point contemplated using two or three actresses to play the character, since the story spans four decades, he met Moroccan Belgian actress Lubna Azabal in Paris, intrigued by her "expressive and eloquent" face in Paradise Now. Although she was 30, Villeneuve thought she appeared 18 and could play the part throughout the entire film, using makeup. Villeneuve selected Canadian actress Mélissa Désormeaux-Poulin to play Jeanne, saying the role required listening skills and Désormeaux-Poulin is "a generous actress". Before Incendies, Désormeaux-Poulin was known for "light fare". Montreal actor Allen Altman, who played a notary, worked with a dialect coach for hours to develop a blend of the French and Arab accents before auditioning. While shooting in Jordan, to research his role, actor Maxim Gaudette toured a Palestinian refugee camp near Amman; the film was shot in Jordan. The film took 40 days to shoot, of which 15 were spent in Jordan, with Villeneuve aiming to film no scene without being sure it would not be cut.
For the scenes filmed in Jordan
The Son (2002 film)
The Son is a 2002 Belgian-French mystery film directed by Jean-Pierre and Luc Dardenne. Olivier, a carpenter by trade who teaches at a trades training center, knowingly takes on Francis Thorion, the murderer of his son, as an apprentice. Francis is unaware of his connection with Olivier from five years ago. Olivier, tormented by the loss of his son and his separation from his wife, develops a slight obsession with Francis, he stalks him home, steals his keys and explores his apartment, whilst discovering more about the boy. Francis looks up to Olivier. With this on his mind, Olivier is torn between hatred for the murderer of his son and the moral ambiguity of accepting this child from a broken home and disillusioned past. Olivier Gourmet as Olivier Morgan Marinne as Francis Thorion Isabella Soupart as Magali Nassim Hassaïni as Omar Kevin Leroy as Raoul Félicien Pitsaer as Steve Rémy Renaud as Philippo Annette Closset as Training center director Fabian Marnette as Rino Jimmy Deloof as Dany Anne Gerard as Dany's mother Luc Dardenne wrote a comment about The Son in his book Au dos de nos images.
Magali, the ex-wife of Olivier is astonished that Olivier took Francis, the murderer of their son, into his workshop. She says to Olivier, "Nobody would do that." He answers, "I know." And she replies, "Then, why do you do it?" He answers, "I don't know." And Luc Dardenne wrote "We don't know either." The Son received positive reviews from film critics. Review aggregation website Rotten Tomatoes gives it an 88% approval rating, based on 57 reviews, with an average score of 7.7/10. The site's consensus reads, "Austere, finely crafted, compelling.". At Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating out of 100 to reviews from mainstream critics, the film received an average score of 86, based on 18 reviews, indicating "universal acclaim". Olivier Gourmet received the Best Actor Award at the 2002 Cannes Film Festival for his portrayal of the tormented Olivier; the film received the André Cavens Award for Best Film by the Belgian Film Critics Association. Roger Ebert ranked the film No. 7 on his list of the best films of the decade.
Paste Magazine named it one of the 50 Best Movies of the Decade, ranking it at No. 8. List of Belgian submissions for Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film The Son on IMDb The Son at AllMovie The Son at Box Office Mojo