The Carbon River is a river in the U. S. state of Washington. It flows about 30 miles from its source, the Carbon Glacier on Mount Rainier, to join the Puyallup River at Orting. Charles Wilkes called the river the "Upthascap River", but after the discovery of coal along its banks in 1876 the river was renamed "Carbon"; the source of the Carbon River is the Carbon Glacier on the north side of Mount Rainier in the Cascade Range. The river's upper reach is contained within Mount Rainier National Park; some of the river's headwater tributary streams include Spukwush Creek. The Carbon River enters a broad glacial valley in which it deposits thick layers of glacial sediment; this causes the river to become braided. After flowing by Mother Mountain on the west and Chenuis Mountain on the east, the Carbon River reaches Ipsut Creek and the national park campground of Ipsut Creek; this was the end of the Carbon River Road entrance to Mount Rainier National Park before the 2006 floods washed out portions of the road.
Below Ipsut Creek the Carbon River is joined by Chenuis Creek from the north and Green Creek from the south. Shortly after these confluences the river exits Mount Rainier National Park. Carbon Ridge and its high summit Old Baldy Mountain, lie to the north. Tolmie Creek, flowing down from Tolmie Peak, joins the Carbon River from the south. Having run northwest, the Carbon River turns more directly west until it is joined by Evans Creek just before the small settlement of Fairfax. From Fairfax to Carbonado the Carbon River flows north through a narrow gorge, with Gleason Hill to the east and Wingate Hill to the west. After passing Carbonado and receiving the tributary Lily Creek, the river valley broadens again and the Carbon River resumes its braided and meandering pattern, it turns west, flowing through an broad floodplain to the town of Crocker, where the river is joined by one of its main tributaries, South Prairie Creek. Just below Crocker another major tributary, Voight Creek, joins. Below Crocker the Carbon River flows northwest to join the Puyallup River.
The city of Orting is located at the confluence, in the floodplain between the Carbon and Puyallup rivers. Formed by glacial meltwater, the Carbon River contains a heavy load of sediment such as silt and gravel. After emerging from the Carbon Glacier the Carbon River flows through a broad glacier-carved valley where thick sediment deposits in the stream bed create sand and gravel bars causing the river to become complexly braided and flood-prone; the river shifts channels and creates new ones in its valley. Between Fairfax and Carbonado the Carbon River flows through a narrow gorge before emerging into another broad flood-prone valley near Crocker and Orting; the Carbon River valley receives about 70 to 90 inches of rain per year, resulting in a temperate rain forest environment. Flooding occurs in the upper Carbon River valley. In 2006, a major flood resulted in the river forming new stream channels and in the process washing-out a portion of the Carbon River Road; the road is the main entrance to the northwestern part of Mount Rainier National Park.
Part of the road became a new channel of the river. Other parts of the road were washed away; as of 2008, the Carbon River Road was closed to motorized access at the entrance station. That added 11 miles round trip for any hikes that began at the Ipsut Creek Campground; the Ipsut Creek campground is permanently closed to vehicle camping, requires a back country camping permit for overnight use. Flood and/or high water conditions continue to represent dangers to users and can occur with little warning; as with other rivers flowing from Mount Rainier's glaciers, the Carbon River valley is at risk of lahars. List of Washington rivers
Slavery among Native Americans in the United States
Slavery among Native Americans in the United States includes slavery by Native Americans as well as slavery of Native Americans within the present-day United States. Tribal territories and the slave trade ranged over present-day borders; some Native American tribes held war captives as slaves prior to and during European colonization, some Native Americans were captured and sold by others into slavery to Europeans, a small number of tribes, in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, adopted the practice of holding slaves as chattel property and held increasing numbers of African-American slaves. Pre-contact forms of slavery were distinct from the form of chattel slavery developed by Europeans in North America during the colonial period. European influence changed slavery used by Native Americans; as they raided other tribes to capture slaves for sales to Europeans, they fell into destructive wars among themselves, against Europeans. Many Native American tribes practiced some form of slavery before the European introduction of African slavery into North America.
Native American groups enslaved war captives whom they used for small-scale labor. Others however would stake themselves in gambling situations when they had nothing else which would put them into servitude for a short time in some cases for life. During times of famine some Native Americans would temporarily sell their children to obtain food. There were several differences between slavery as practiced in the pre-colonial era among Native Americans and slavery as practiced by Europeans after colonization. Whereas Europeans came to look upon slaves of African descent as being racially inferior, Native Americans took slaves from other Native American groups, therefore did not have the same racial ideology for their slavery. Native slaves could be looked down upon as ethnically inferior, however. Another difference was that Native Americans did not buy and sell captives in the pre-colonial era, although they sometimes exchanged enslaved individuals with other tribes in exchange for redeeming their own members.
In some cases, Native American slaves were allowed to live on the fringes of Native American society until they were integrated into the tribe. The word "slave" may not apply to such captive people; the ways in which captives were treated differed between Native American groups. Captives could be killed, or adopted. In some cases, captives were only adopted after a period of slavery. For example, the Iroquoian peoples adopted captives, but for religious reasons there was a process and many seasons when such adoptions were delayed until the proper spiritual times. In many cases, new tribes adopted captives to replace warriors killed during a raid. Warrior captives were sometimes made to undergo ritual mutilation or torture that could end in death as part of a spiritual grief ritual for relatives slain in battle. Adoptees were expected to fill the economic and familial roles of the departed loved ones, to fit into the societal shoes of the dead relative and maintain the spirit power of the tribe.
Captured individuals were sometimes allowed to assimilate into the tribe, would produce a family within the tribe. The Creek, who engaged in this practice and had a matrilineal system, treated children born of slaves and Creek women as full members of their mothers' clans and of the tribe, as property and hereditary leadership passed through the maternal line. In the cultural practices of the Iroquoian peoples rooted in a matrilineal system with men and women having equal value, any child would have the status determined by the woman's clan. More tribes took women and children captives for adoption, as they tended to adapt more into new ways. Several tribes held captives as hostages for payment. Various tribes practiced debt slavery or imposed slavery on tribal members who had committed crimes. Obtaining prisoners was a strong interest for Native American warriors as for the qualification of being considered brave this was an interest of male warriors in various tribes. Other slave-owning tribes of North America included Comanche of the Creek of Georgia.
When the Europeans made contact with the Native Americans, they began to participate in the slave trade. Native Americans, in their initial encounters with the Europeans, attempted to use their captives from enemy tribes as a "method of playing one tribe against another" in an unsuccessful game of divide and conquer; the Haida and Tlingit who lived along southeast Alaska's coast were traditionally known as fierce warriors and slave-traders, raiding as far as California. In their society, slavery was hereditary after slaves were taken as prisoners of war—children of slaves were fated to be slaves themselves. Among some Pacific Northwest tribes, as many as one-fourth of the population were slaves, they were captured by raids on enemy tribes, or purchased on inter-tribal slave markets. Slaves would be killed in potlatches, to signify the owners' contempt for property; when Europeans arrived as colonists in North America, Native Americans changed their practice of slavery dramatically. Native Americans began selling war captives to Europeans rather than integrating them into their own societies as they had done before.
As the demand for labor in the West Indies grew with the cultivation of sugar cane, Europea
KIRO-TV, virtual channel 7, is a CBS-affiliated television station licensed to Seattle, United States and serving Tacoma. The station is owned by the Cox Media Group subsidiary of Atlanta-based Cox Enterprises. KIRO-TV's offices and studios are located on Third Avenue in the city's Belltown neighborhood and its transmitter is located on Queen Anne Hill, adjacent to the station's original studios. KIRO-TV is one of five local Seattle television stations seen in Canada via Shaw Broadcast Services for the purposes of time-shifting and can be viewed from many eastern Canadian cities including Toronto and Montreal and on satellite providers Bell TV and Shaw Direct, it can been seen on cable systems in British Columbia as the quasi-local CBS affiliate. After KOMO-TV signed on in December 1953, Seattle's channel 7 was the last commercial VHF channel allocation available in the Puget Sound area; as such, its construction permit was contested among several local broadcast interests. Three radio stations—KVI, KXA and KIRO —were locked in a battle for the frequency over several years of comparative hearings at the Federal Communications Commission.
Following an initial decision in 1955 and a reaffirmation in 1957, the ultimate victorious party was Queen City Broadcasting, owners of KIRO radio, who signed-on channel 7 on February 8, 1958. Queen City was led by president and general manager Saul Haas, who purchased KIRO radio in 1935 and included U. S. Senator Warren Magnuson and CBS News correspondent Edward R. Murrow amongst its shareholders; the station's original studios were located on Queen Anne Avenue, adjacent to its broadcast tower and directly across the street from KIRO radio. The first program shown on channel 7 was the explosion of Ripple Rock, a hazard to navigation in Seymour Narrows, British Columbia. KIRO radio had been a CBS Radio affiliate for over 20 years and KIRO-TV subsequently became an affiliate of the CBS television network upon signing on. Channel 7 took the CBS affiliation from Tacoma-licensed KTNT-TV prompting that station's owners at the time, the Tacoma News Tribune to file an antitrust lawsuit accusing CBS of having a standing agreement with KIRO to affiliate with the television network before Queen City's permit to build channel 7 was approved.
In May 1960, KIRO-TV was forced to share CBS with KTNT-TV as part of a settlement reached between the three parties. This arrangement lasted for the next two years with KIRO-TV again becoming the market's exclusive CBS affiliate in September 1962. In April 1963, the Deseret News Publishing Company, the media arm of the Salt Lake City-based Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, began purchasing stock in Queen City Broadcasting starting with a 10 percent share from several minority partners including Sen. Magnuson. Six months the Church purchased an additional 50 percent, giving them majority control of the KIRO stations. Along with having earned a handsome return on his original investment of 28 years earlier, Saul Hass subsequently joined the board of the Church's broadcasting subsidiary, renamed Bonneville International in 1964. Soon after the FCC approved the sale, Bonneville executives Lloyd Cooney and Kenneth L. Hatch arrived in Seattle to lead the renamed KIRO, Inc. division. Upon Cooney's departure to run for U.
S. Senate in 1980, Hatch became president, CEO and chairman, positions he held until 1995. Under Hatch's leadership, KIRO, Inc. became one of the nation's premier regional broadcast groups. KIRO's corporate board included many notable leaders including Mary Gates. Hinckley, a future president of the LDS Church; the KIRO stations moved their offices and studios to "Broadcast House" at Third Avenue and Broad Street in Seattle's Belltown district in 1968 and where KIRO-TV remains to this day for the present location. Throughout the late 1960s and early 1970s, KIRO-TV still faced competition in some parts of Western Washington from Bellingham-based KVOS-TV, then a CBS affiliate. After years of legal challenges and negotiations with CBS and KIRO-TV, KVOS began to phase out most CBS programming by 1980. KVOS retained a nominal affiliation with CBS until 1987, during which it would run any CBS network programs that were pre-empted by channel 7. In 1994, CBS found itself without an affiliate in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex after KDFW-TV left the network to become a Fox affiliate as a result of the station's owner, New World Communications, signing an affiliation deal with Fox.
CBS began to negotiate with Gaylord Broadcasting to secure an affiliation agreement with the independent station it had long owned in Fort Worth, KTVT. As part of the deal, CBS would affiliate with Gaylord-owned independent KSTW in Tacoma; the deal was announced on September 15, 1994, CBS programs, preempted by KIRO-TV moved to KSTW soon afterward. Other CBS programs such as The Late Late Show with Tom Snyder were shown on KSTW beginning in January 1995, although the show aired an hour at 1:35 a.m. whereas other CBS affiliates aired the program directly after the Late Show with David Letterman at 12:35 a.m. When channel 11 regained the CBS affiliation fo
Puget Sound is a sound along the northwestern coast of the U. S. state of Washington, an inlet of the Pacific Ocean, part of the Salish Sea. It is a complex estuarine system of interconnected marine waterways and basins, with one major and two minor connections to the open Pacific Ocean via the Strait of Juan de Fuca—Admiralty Inlet being the major connection and Deception Pass and Swinomish Channel being the minor. Water flow through Deception Pass is equal to 2% of the total tidal exchange between Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Puget Sound extends 100 miles from Deception Pass in the north to Olympia, Washington in the south, its average depth is 450 feet and its maximum depth, off Jefferson Point between Indianola and Kingston, is 930 feet. The depth of the main basin, between the southern tip of Whidbey Island and Tacoma, Washington, is 600 feet. In 2009, the term Salish Sea was established by the United States Board on Geographic Names as the collective waters of Puget Sound, the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the Strait of Georgia.
Sometimes the terms "Puget Sound" and "Puget Sound and adjacent waters" are used for not only Puget Sound proper but for waters to the north, such as Bellingham Bay and the San Juan Islands region. The term "Puget Sound" is used not just for the body of water but the Puget Sound region centered on the sound. Major cities on the sound include Seattle, Tacoma and Everett, Washington. Puget Sound is the third largest estuary in the United States, after Chesapeake Bay in Maryland and Virginia, San Francisco Bay in northern California. In 1792 George Vancouver gave the name "Puget's Sound" to the waters south of the Tacoma Narrows, in honor of Peter Puget, a Huguenot lieutenant accompanying him on the Vancouver Expedition; this name came to be used for the waters north of Tacoma Narrows as well. A different term for Puget Sound, used by a number of Native Americans and environmental groups, is Whulge, an anglicization of the Lushootseed name x̌ʷə́lč, which means "sea, salt water, ocean, or sound".
The USGS defines Puget Sound as all the waters south of three entrances from the Strait of Juan de Fuca. The main entrance at Admiralty Inlet is defined as a line between Point Wilson on the Olympic Peninsula, Point Partridge on Whidbey Island; the second entrance is at Deception Pass along a line from West Point on Whidbey Island, to Deception Island to Rosario Head on Fidalgo Island. The third entrance is at the south end of the Swinomish Channel, which connects Skagit Bay and Padilla Bay. Under this definition, Puget Sound includes the waters of Hood Canal, Admiralty Inlet, Possession Sound, Saratoga Passage, others, it does not include Bellingham Bay, Padilla Bay, the waters of the San Juan Islands or anything farther north. Another definition, given by NOAA, subdivides Puget Sound into regions. Four of these correspond to areas within the USGS definition, but the fifth one, called "Northern Puget Sound" includes a large additional region, it is defined as bounded to the north by the international boundary with Canada, to the west by a line running north from the mouth of the Sekiu River on the Olympic Peninsula.
Under this definition significant parts of the Strait of Juan de Fuca and the Strait of Georgia are included in Puget Sound, with the international boundary marking an abrupt and hydrologically arbitrary limit. According to Arthur Kruckeberg, the term "Puget Sound" is sometimes used for waters north of Admiralty Inlet and Deception Pass for areas along the north coast of Washington and the San Juan Islands equivalent to NOAA's "Northern Puget Sound" subdivision described above. Kruckeberg uses the term "Puget Sound and adjacent waters". Continental ice sheets have advanced and retreated from the Puget Sound region; the most recent glacial period, called the Fraser Glaciation, stades. During the third, or Vashon Glaciation, a lobe of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet, called the Puget Lobe, spread south about 15,000 years ago, covering the Puget Sound region with an ice sheet about 3,000 feet thick near Seattle, nearly 6,000 feet at the present Canada-U. S. border. Since each new advance and retreat of ice erodes away much of the evidence of previous ice ages, the most recent Vashon phase has left the clearest imprint on the land.
At its maximum extent the Vashon ice sheet extended south of Olympia to near Tenino, covered the lowlands between the Olympic and Cascade mountain ranges. About 14,000 years ago the ice began to retreat. By 11,000 years ago it survived only north of the Canada–US border; the melting retreat of the Vashon Glaciation eroded the land, creating a drumlin field of hundreds of aligned drumlin hills. Lake Washington and Lake Sammamish, Hood Canal, the main Puget Sound basin were altered by glacial forces; these glacial forces are not "carving", as in cutting into the landscape via the mechanics of ice/glaciers, but rather eroding the landscape from melt water of the Vashon Glacier creating the drumlin field. As the ice retreated, vast amounts of glacial till were deposited throughout the Puget Sound region; the soils of the region, less than ten thousand years old, are still characterized as immature. As the Vashon glacier receded a series of proglacial lakes formed, filling the main trough of Puget Sound and inundating the southern lowlands.
Glacial Lake Russell was the first such large recessional lake. From the vicinity of Seattle in the north the lake extended south to the Black Hills, where it drained south into the Chehalis River. Sediments from Lake Russell form the blue-gray clay identified as the Lawton Clay; the second
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. A Democrat, he won a record four presidential elections and became a central figure in world events during the first half of the 20th century. Roosevelt directed the federal government during most of the Great Depression, implementing his New Deal domestic agenda in response to the worst economic crisis in U. S. history. As a dominant leader of his party, he built the New Deal Coalition, which realigned American politics into the Fifth Party System and defined American liberalism throughout the middle third of the 20th century, his third and fourth terms were dominated by World War II. Roosevelt is considered to be one of the most important figures in American history, as well as among the most influential figures of the 20th century. Though he has been subject to much criticism, he is rated by scholars as one of the three greatest U.
S. presidents, along with George Washington and Abraham Lincoln. Roosevelt was born in Hyde Park, New York, to a Dutch American family made well known by Theodore Roosevelt, the 26th president of the United States and William Henry Aspinwall. FDR attended Groton School, Harvard College, Columbia Law School, went on to practice law in New York City. In 1905, he married his fifth cousin once removed, Eleanor Roosevelt, they had six children. He won election to the New York State Senate in 1910, served as Assistant Secretary of the Navy under President Woodrow Wilson during World War I. Roosevelt was James M. Cox's running mate on the Democratic Party's 1920 national ticket, but Cox was defeated by Warren G. Harding. In 1921, Roosevelt contracted a paralytic illness, believed at the time to be polio, his legs became permanently paralyzed. While attempting to recover from his condition, Roosevelt founded the treatment center in Warm Springs, for people with poliomyelitis. In spite of being unable to walk unaided, Roosevelt returned to public office by winning election as Governor of New York in 1928.
He was in office from 1929 to 1933 and served as a reform Governor, promoting programs to combat the economic crisis besetting the United States at the time. In the 1932 presidential election, Roosevelt defeated Republican President Herbert Hoover in a landslide. Roosevelt took office while the United States was in the midst of the Great Depression, the worst economic crisis in the country's history. During the first 100 days of the 73rd United States Congress, Roosevelt spearheaded unprecedented federal legislation and issued a profusion of executive orders that instituted the New Deal—a variety of programs designed to produce relief and reform, he created numerous programs to provide relief to the unemployed and farmers while seeking economic recovery with the National Recovery Administration and other programs. He instituted major regulatory reforms related to finance and labor, presided over the end of Prohibition, he harnessed radio to speak directly to the American people, giving 30 "fireside chat" radio addresses during his presidency and becoming the first American president to be televised.
The economy having improved from 1933 to 1936, Roosevelt won a landslide reelection in 1936. However, the economy relapsed into a deep recession in 1937 and 1938. After the 1936 election, Roosevelt sought passage of the Judiciary Reorganization Bill of 1937, which would have expanded the size of the Supreme Court of the United States; the bipartisan Conservative Coalition that formed in 1937 prevented passage of the bill and blocked the implementation of further New Deal programs and reforms. Major surviving programs and legislation implemented under Roosevelt include the Securities and Exchange Commission, the National Labor Relations Act, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Social Security. Roosevelt ran for reelection in 1940, his victory made him the only U. S. President to serve for more than two terms. With World War II looming after 1938, Roosevelt gave strong diplomatic and financial support to China as well as the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union while the U. S. remained neutral.
Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, an event he famously called "a date which will live in infamy", Roosevelt obtained a declaration of war on Japan the next day, a few days on Germany and Italy. Assisted by his top aide Harry Hopkins and with strong national support, he worked with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin and Chinese Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek in leading the Allied Powers against the Axis Powers. Roosevelt supervised the mobilization of the U. S. economy to support the war effort and implemented a Europe first strategy, making the defeat of Germany a priority over that of Japan. He initiated the development of the world's first atomic bomb and worked with the other Allied leaders to lay the groundwork for the United Nations and other post-war institutions. Roosevelt won reelection in 1944 but with his physical health declining during the war years, he died in April 1945, just 11 weeks into his fourth term; the Axis Powers surrendered to the Allies in the months following Roosevelt's death, during the presidency of Roosevelt's successor, Harry S. Truman.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt was born on January 30, 1882, in the Hudson Valley town of Hyde Park, New York, to businessman James Roosevelt I and his second wife, Sara Ann Delano. Roosevelt's parents, who were sixth cousins, both came from wealthy old New York families, the Roosevelts, the Aspinwalls and the Delanos, respectively. Roo
Salmon is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae. Other fish in the same family include trout, char and whitefish. Salmon are native to tributaries of the North Pacific Ocean. Many species of salmon have been introduced into non-native environments such as the Great Lakes of North America and Patagonia in South America. Salmon are intensively farmed in many parts of the world. Salmon are anadromous: they hatch in fresh water, migrate to the ocean return to fresh water to reproduce. However, populations of several species are restricted to fresh water through their lives. Folklore has it. Tracking studies have shown this to be true. A portion of a returning salmon run may spawn in different freshwater systems. Homing behavior has been shown to depend on olfactory memory. Salmon date back to the Neogene; the term "salmon" comes from the Latin salmo, which in turn might have originated from salire, meaning "to leap". The nine commercially important species of salmon occur in two genera.
The genus Salmo contains the Atlantic salmon, found in the north Atlantic, as well as many species named trout. The genus Oncorhynchus contains eight species which occur only in the North Pacific; as a group, these are known as Pacific salmon. Chinook salmon have been introduced in New Patagonia. Coho, freshwater sockeye, Atlantic salmon have been established in Patagonia, as well. † Both the Salmo and Oncorhynchus genera contain a number of species referred to as trout. Within Salmo, additional minor taxa have been called salmon in English, i.e. the Adriatic salmon and Black Sea salmon. The steelhead anadromous form of the rainbow trout migrates to sea, but it is not termed "salmon". A number of other species have common names which refer to them as being salmon. Of those listed below, the Danube salmon or huchen is a large freshwater salmonid related to the salmon above, but others are marine fishes of the unrelated Perciformes order: Eosalmo driftwoodensis, the oldest known salmon in the fossil record, helps scientists figure how the different species of salmon diverged from a common ancestor.
The British Columbia salmon fossil provides evidence that the divergence between Pacific and Atlantic salmon had not yet occurred 40 million years ago. Both the fossil record and analysis of mitochondrial DNA suggest the divergence occurred by 10 to 20 million years ago; this independent evidence from DNA analysis and the fossil record rejects the glacial theory of salmon divergence. Atlantic salmon reproduce in northern rivers on both coasts of the Atlantic Ocean. Landlocked salmon live in a number of lakes in eastern North America and in Northern Europe, for instance in lakes Sebago, Ladoga, Saimaa, Vänern, Winnipesaukee, they are not a different species from the Atlantic salmon, but have independently evolved a non-migratory life cycle, which they maintain when they could access the ocean. Chinook salmon are known in the United States as king salmon or blackmouth salmon, as spring salmon in British Columbia. Chinook are the largest of all Pacific salmon exceeding 14 kg; the name tyee is used in British Columbia to refer to Chinook over 30 pounds, in the Columbia River watershed large Chinook were once referred to as June hogs.
Chinook salmon are known to range as far north as the Mackenzie River and Kugluktuk in the central Canadian arctic, as far south as the Central California coast. Chum salmon are known as dog, keta, or calico salmon in some parts of the US; this species has the widest geographic range of the Pacific species: south to the Sacramento River in California in the eastern Pacific and the island of Kyūshū in the Sea of Japan in the western Pacific. Coho salmon are known in the US as silver salmon; this species is found throughout the coastal waters of Alaska and British Columbia and as far south as Central California. It is now known to occur, albeit infrequently, in the Mackenzie River. Masu salmon or cherry salmon are found only in the western Pacific Ocean in Japan and Russia. A land-locked subspecies known as the Taiwanese salmon or Formosan salmon is found in central Taiwan's Chi Chia Wan Stream. Pink salmon, known as humpies in southeast and southwest Alaska, are found from northern California and Korea, throughout the northern Pacific, from the Mackenzie River in Canada to the Lena River in Siberia in shorter coastal streams.
It is the smallest of the Pacific species, with an average weight of 1.6 to 1.8 kg. Sockeye salmon are known in the US as red salmon; this lake-rearing species is found south as far as the Klamath River in California in the eastern Pacific and northern Hokkaidō island in Japan in the western Pacific and as far north as Bathurst Inlet in the Canadian Arctic in the east and the Anadyr River in Siberia in the west. Although most adult Pacific salmon feed on small fish and squid, sockeye feed on plankton they filter through gill rakers. Kokanee salmon are the land-locked form of sockeye salmon. Danube salmon, or huchen, are the largest permanent freshwater salmonid species. Salmon eggs are laid in freshwater streams at high latitudes; the eggs hatch into alevin or sac fry
Pierce County, Washington
Pierce County is a county in the U. S. state of Washington. As of the 2010 Census, the population was 795,225, making it the second-most populous county in Washington behind King County; the county seat and largest city is Tacoma. Formed out of Thurston County on December 22, 1852, by the legislature of Oregon Territory, it was named for U. S. President Franklin Pierce. Pierce County is in the Seattle metropolitan area. Pierce County is notable for being home to Mount Rainier, the tallest mountain and a volcano in the Cascade Range, its most recent recorded eruption was between 1820 and 1854. There is no imminent risk of eruption. If this should happen, parts of Pierce County and the Puyallup Valley would be at risk from lahars, lava, or pyroclastic flows; the Mount Rainier Volcano Lahar Warning System was established in 1998 to assist in the evacuation of the Puyallup River valley in case of eruption. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,806 square miles, of which 1,670 square miles is land and 137 square miles is water.
The highest natural point in Washington, Mount Rainier at 14,410 feet, is located in Pierce County. Pierce County contains the Clearwater Wilderness area. King County — north Yakima County — east Lewis County — south Thurston County — west/southwest Mason County — west/northwest Kitsap County — north/northwest Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest Mount Rainier National Park Nisqually National Wildlife Refuge As of the census of 2000, there were 700,820 people, 260,800 households, 180,212 families residing in the county; the population density was 417 people per square mile. There were 277,060 housing units at an average density of 165 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 78.39% White, 6.95% Black or African American, 1.42% Native American, 5.08% Asian, 0.85% Pacific Islander, 2.20% from other races, 5.11% from two or more races. 5.51% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 16.1% were of German, 8.6% Irish, 8.2% English, 6.3% American, 6.2% Norwegian ancestry.
There were 260,800 households out of which 35.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.80% were married couples living together, 11.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.90% were non-families. 24.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.10. In the county, the population was spread out with 27.20% under the age of 18, 9.80% from 18 to 24, 31.30% from 25 to 44, 21.50% from 45 to 64, 10.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $45,204, the median income for a family was $52,098. Males had a median income of $38,510 versus $28,580 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,948. About 7.50% of families and 10.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.20% of those under age 18 and 7.20% of those age 65 or over.
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 795,225 people, 299,918 households, 202,174 families residing in the county. The population density was 476.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 325,375 housing units at an average density of 194.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 74.2% white, 6.8% black or African American, 6.0% Asian, 1.4% American Indian, 1.3% Pacific islander, 3.5% from other races, 6.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 9.2% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 20.5% were German, 13.1% were Irish, 10.7% were English, 6.3% were Norwegian, 4.2% were American. Of the 299,918 households, 35.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.0% were married couples living together, 13.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.6% were non-families, 25.1% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.09. The median age was 35.9 years.
The median income for a household in the county was $57,869 and the median income for a family was $68,462. Males had a median income of $50,084 versus $38,696 for females; the per capita income for the county was $27,446. About 8.1% of families and 11.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.0% of those under age 18 and 8.2% of those age 65 or over. Pierce County is governed by a Charter; this is allowed by section 4 of Article XI of the Washington constitution. The Pierce County Executive Bruce Dammeier, heads the county's executive branch; the Assessor-Treasurer Mike Lonergan, auditor Julie Anderson, Prosecuting Attorney Mark Lindquist, Sheriff Paul A. Pastor are countywide elected executive positions; the Pierce County Council is the elected legislative body for Pierce County and consists of seven members elected by district. The council is vested with all law-making power granted by its charter and by the State of Washington, sets county policy through the adoption of ordinances and resolutions, approves the annual budget and directs the use of county funds.
The seven members of the County Council are elected from each of seven contiguous and populated districts, with each councilmember representing 114,000 county residents. Each county councilmember is elected to serve a four-year term. Dave Morell, District 1 Pam Roach, District 2 Jim McCune, District 3 Connie Lade