SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Mudéjar

Mudéjar refers to the group of Muslims who remained in Iberia in the late medieval period despite the Christian reconquest. It is a term for Mudejar art, much influenced by Islamic art, but produced by Christian craftsmen for Christian patrons. Mudéjar was the term used for Moors or Muslims of Al-Andalus who remained in Iberia after the Christian Reconquista but were not forcibly converted to Christianity or forcibly exiled; the word Mudéjar references cultural borrowings. It was a medieval Castilian borrowing of the Arabic word Mudajjan مدجن, meaning "tamed", referring to Muslims who submitted to the rule of Christian kings; the term originated as a taunt, as the word was applied to domesticated animals such as poultry. The term Mudéjar can be translated from Arabic as "one permitted to remain", which references Christians allowing Muslims to remain in Christian Iberia. Another term with the same meaning, ahl al-dajn, was used by Muslim writers, notably al-Wansharisi in his work Kitab al-Mi'yar.

Mudéjars in Iberia lived under a protected tributary status known as dajn which references ahl al-dajn. This protected status suggested subjugation at the hands of Christian rulers as the word dajn resembled haywanāt dājina which meant "tame animals", their protected status was enforced by local charters which dictated Christians laws. Muslims of other regions outside of the Iberian Peninsula disapproved of the Mudéjar subjugated status and their willingness to live with non-Muslims. Mudéjar was used in contrast to both Muslims in Muslim-ruled areas and Moriscos, who were forcibly converted and may or may not have continued to secretly practice Islam; the Treaty of Granada protected religious and cultural freedoms for Muslims in the imminent transition from the Emirate of Granada to a Province of Castile. After the fall of the last Islamic kingdom in the Battle of Granada in January 1492, Mudéjars, unlike the Jews who were expelled that same year, kept a protected religious status, although there were Catholic efforts to convert them.

However, over the next several decades this religious freedom deteriorated. Islam was outlawed in Portugal by 1497, the Crown of Castile by 1502, the Crown of Aragon by 1526, forcing the Mudéjars to convert or in some cases leave the country. Following the forced conversion, they faced suspicions that they were not converted but remained crypto-Muslims, were known as Moriscos; the Moriscos, were expelled, in 1609–1614. The Muslim population in Castile immigrated from Toledo and other Andalusi territories, they were not original to the land in Castile. Muslim immigration into Castile was sponsored settlement by the Kingdom of Castile, it is hypothesized that the slow-growing Christian population demonstrated a need to bring more people into Castile. Primary documents written by Castilians in the 13th century indicate that Muslims were able to maintain some agency under Christian rule; the Mudéjars were able to maintain their religion, their laws, had their own judges. The Mudéjars in Castile spoke the Romance dialects as their Christian neighbors.

Like the Mudéjars in Castile and Catalan Mudéjars spoke the Romance languages of their Christian counterparts. However, unlike the Mudéjars in Castile, there were Muslim villages in Aragon and, to a lesser extent, in south-western Catalonia which populated the land before the Christian reconquests, setting up a history of Muslim cultivation and population of the land. Besides the large Muslim populations in Granada and Valencia, the Aragonese Muslim peasants were the most well-established Muslim community in the region, while in Catalonia Muslim authoctonous presence was limited only to the Low Ebro and Low Segre areas. Aragonese and Catalan Muslims were under the jurisdiction of the Christian Crown and were designated a special status; this status applied to the Mudéjar cultivators, the exarici, this status made them subservient to their Christian superiors because by law. However, this status was beneficial as the law suggested that this land be passed down through Muslim family members. Despite their expulsion at the end of the Morisco period, the Mudéjars in Aragon left evidence of their style in architecture, while in Catalonia only some reminiscences of this can be appreciated in some Gothic churches and cathedrals in some shires of Lleida.

Lleida/Lérida in Catalonia was, besides Tortosa, the only major Catalan town to have a Muslim quarter, at which its numerous Muslim population of Andalusi origins, was organized as a community though there were Muslims living outside the quarter. Its Muslim population descended from the population that did not leave Madinat Larida when it was taken over from the Moors by the counts of Urgell and Barcelona; the autochthonous Muslim community composed of a mix of skilled artisans and peasants, although progressively diminishing throughout the Middle Ages by emigration to the neighbouring Kingdom of Aragon, to the nearby powerful and numerous Aljamas of Aitona and Serós, to Islamic countries as well as by increasing conversions to Christianity, was also being reinforced by immigration of Navarrese and Aragonese Muslims and by intermittent arrivals of Valencian and North African origin, these being slaves or former slaves. The quarter and its Aljama or community enjoye

Bennelong Point

Bennelong Point, a former island in Sydney Harbour, is a headland that, since the 1970s is the location of the Sydney Opera House in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Bennelong Point is known to the local Gadigal people of the Eora nation as Dubbagullee; the point was a small tidal island, Bennelong Island, that consisted of rocks with a small beach on the western side. The island was located on the tip of the eastern arm of Sydney Cove and was separated from the mainland at high tide. For a brief period in 1788, this isolated protrusion into Port Jackson was called Cattle Point as it was used to confine the few cattle and horses, brought from Cape Town by Governor Arthur Phillip with the First Fleet; the area at that time was strewn with discarded oyster shells from many long years of gathering by the local aboriginal women. Those shells were regathered by the newly arrived convict women and burnt to make lime for cement mortar; the point was called Limeburners' Point for that reason, though those shells only furnished enough lime to make a single building, the two-storey government house.

In the early 1790s, the Aboriginal man Bennelong— employed as a cultural interlocutor by the British—persuaded New South Wales Governor Phillip to build a brick hut for him on the point, giving it its name. In December 1798, a half-moon battery was constructed at the extreme northern end of the Point, mounted with guns from HMS Supply. In the period from 1818 to 1821, the tidal area between Bennelong Island and the mainland was filled with rocks excavated from the Bennelong Point peninsula; the entire area was leveled to create a low platform and to provide suitable stone for the construction of Fort Macquarie. While the fort was being built, a large portion of the rocky escarpment at Bennelong Point was cut away to allow a road to be built around the point from Sydney Cove to Farm Cove; this was known as Tarpeian Way. The existence of the original tidal island and its rubble fill were forgotten until the late 1950s when both were rediscovered during the excavations related to the construction of the Sydney Opera House.

Prior to the Opera House's construction, Bennelong Point had housed Fort Macquarie Tram Depot. Man O'War Steps Sydney Tram

Lady Luck Casino Caruthersville

Lady Luck Casino Caruthersville is a 21,000 sq ft riverboat casino in Caruthersville, Missouri. It is operated by Century Casinos; the riverboat is named City of Caruthersville and is permanently docked at a 37-acre site that contains an enclosed pavilion, used to host various events. In 2005, the casino generated $28 million in $7 million in profits; the casino opened on April 1995 as Casino Aztar. It was built by Aztar Corp. at a cost of $55 million. Aztar was acquired by Columbia Sussex in January 2007. Columbia Sussex, unable to obtain a casino license in the state put the property up for sale and threatened to close it down in order to preserve the takeover deal with Aztar. In 2007, Isle of Capri Casinos purchased the casino from Columbia Sussex for about $45 million. Casino Aztar Caruthersville was re-branded Lady Luck Casino Caruthersville on June 10, 2008. Isle of Capri was acquired by Eldorado Resorts in 2017. In 2019, Eldorado sold the casino, along with two other properties, to Century Casinos and Vici Properties.

Century bought the casino's operating business for $12 million, while Vici bought the land and buildings for $67 million and leased them to Century. Century stated that the casino would be renamed as Century Casino Caruthersville, that they might purchase a small neighboring hotel