Mudstone, a type of mudrock, is a fine-grained sedimentary rock whose original constituents were clays or muds. Grain size is up to 0.063 millimetres with individual grains too small to be distinguished without a microscope. With increased pressure over time, the platy clay minerals may become aligned, with the appearance of fissility or parallel layering; this finely bedded material that splits into thin layers is called shale, as distinct from mudstone. The lack of fissility or layering in mudstone may be due to either original texture or the disruption of layering by burrowing organisms in the sediment prior to lithification. Mud rocks such as mudstone and shale account for some 65% of all sedimentary rocks. Mudstone looks like hardened clay and, depending upon the circumstances under which it was formed, it may show cracks or fissures, like a sun-baked clay deposit. Mudstone can be separated into these categories: Siltstone — more than half of the composition is silt-sized particles. Claystone — more than half of the composition is clay-sized particles.
Mudstone — hardened mud. Mudstone can include: Shale -- exhibits fissility. Argillite — has undergone low-grade metamorphism. In the Dunham classification system of limestones, a mudstone is defined as a mud-supported carbonate rock that contains less than 10% grains. Most this definition has been clarified as a matrix-supported carbonate-dominated rock composed of more than 90% carbonate mud component. A recent study by Lokier and Al Junaibi has highlighted that the most common problems encountered when describing a mudstone is to incorrectly estimate the volume of'grains' in the sample - in consequence, misidentifying mudstone as wackestone and vice versa; the original Dunham classification defined the matrix as clay and fine-silt size sediment <20 μm in diameter. This definition was redefined by Embry & Klovan to a grain size of less than or equal to 30 μm. Wright proposed a further increase to the upper limit for the matrix size in order to bring it into line with the upper limit for silt.
On December 13, 2016, NASA reported further evidence supporting habitability on the planet Mars as the Curiosity rover climbed higher, studying younger layers, on Mount Sharp. Reported, the soluble element boron was detected for the first time on Mars. In June 2018, NASA reported that Curiosity had detected kerogen and other complex organic compounds from mudstone rocks 3.5 billion years old. Mudstone on planet Mars Aeolis quadrangle Composition of Mars Timeline of Mars Science Laboratory Tonstein – A hard, compact sedimentary rock, composed of kaolinite or, less other clay minerals
Johar Bendjelloul is a Swedish television presenter and journalist. Since 2013, Bendjelloul has been hosting P1 Morgon at Sveriges Radio. Before that he was a television presenter at SVT1 for Gomorron Sverige, Babel and Aktuellt, he has done voice acting doing one of the characters in the children's movie Jack & Pedro. Johar is the son of Algerian-born physician Hacène Bendjelloul and Swedish translator and painter Veronica Schildt, making him grandson of actor Henrik Schildt, his brother Malik Bendjelloul was an Academy Award-winning filmmaker for the documentary Searching for Sugar Man. Malik committed suicide on 13 May 2014 after struggling with depression, as Johar reported to the media. Johar Bendjelloul on IMDb
Southport Courthouse is the Gold Coast's major courthouse. It houses courtrooms and chambers for part of the District Court of Queensland, which has jurisdiction to hear criminal offences with penalties of less than 20 years imprisonment, some criminal offences with penalties of over 20 years imprisonment, civil matters up to A$750,000, it is located in the Southport legal district on the corner of Hinze Street. A subsidiary Magistrates' Court of Queensland is located at Coolangatta; the building was designed by ABM Architects. When completed the building housed five district courts, nine magistrates courts, a central registry, accommodation for 13 magistrates, six judges, a watchhouse which contains cells for 68 detainees. Queensland Premier Rob Borbidge opened the $25.9 million Southport Court extensions and watch house on February 2, 1998. Southport's judges are: Judge J. E. Newton - 25 February 1991 Judge C. F Wall Q. C - 11 September 1996 Judge M. E. Rackemann - 12 January 2004 Judge F Kingham -17 July 2006.