Muhammad Ali was an American professional boxer and philanthropist. Nicknamed "The Greatest," he is regarded as one of the most significant and celebrated sports figures of the 20th century and as one of the greatest boxers of all time. Ali was born and raised in Louisville and began training as an amateur boxer at age 12. At 18, he won a gold medal in the light heavyweight division at the 1960 Summer Olympics, turned professional that year, he converted to Islam and became a Muslim after 1961, took the name Muhammad Ali. He won the world heavyweight championship from Sonny Liston in a major upset at age 22 in 1964. In 1966, Ali refused to be drafted into the military, citing his religious beliefs and opposition to the Vietnam War, he was arrested, found guilty of draft evasion, stripped of his boxing titles. He appealed the decision to the Supreme Court, which overturned his conviction in 1971, but he had not fought for nearly four years and lost a period of peak performance as an athlete, his actions as a conscientious objector to the war made him an icon for the larger counterculture generation, he was a high-profile figure of racial pride for African Americans during the civil rights movement.
As a Muslim, Ali was affiliated with Elijah Muhammad's Nation of Islam. He disavowed the NOI, adhering to Sunni Islam, supporting racial integration like his former mentor Malcolm X. Ali was a leading heavyweight boxer of the 20th century, he remains the only three-time lineal champion of that division, his joint records of beating 21 boxers for the world heavyweight title and winning 14 unified title bouts stood for 35 years. Ali is the only boxer to be named The Ring magazine Fighter of the Year six times, he has been ranked the greatest heavyweight boxer of all time, as the greatest athlete of the 20th century by Sports Illustrated, the Sports Personality of the Century by the BBC, the third greatest athlete of the 20th century by ESPN SportsCentury. He was involved in several historic boxing matches and feuds, most notably his fights with Joe Frazier, such as the Thrilla in Manila, his fight with George Foreman known as The Rumble in the Jungle, called "arguably the greatest sporting event of the 20th century" and was watched by a record estimated television audience of 1 billion viewers worldwide, becoming the world's most-watched live television broadcast at the time.
Ali thrived in the spotlight at a time when many fighters let their managers do the talking, he was provocative and outlandish. He was known for trash-talking, free-styled with rhyme schemes and spoken word poetry, anticipating elements of hip hop. Outside the ring, Ali attained success as a musician, he featured as an actor and writer, releasing two autobiographies. Ali focused on religion and charity. In 1984, he made public his diagnosis of Parkinson's syndrome, which some reports attribute to boxing-related injuries, though he and his specialist physicians disputed this, he remained an active public figure globally, but in his years made limited public appearances as his condition worsened, he was cared for by his family. Ali died on June 3, 2016. Cassius Marcellus Clay Jr. was born on January 1942 in Louisville, Kentucky. He had four brothers, he was named after his father, Cassius Marcellus Clay Sr. who himself was named in honor of the 19th-century Republican politician and staunch abolitionist Cassius Marcellus Clay from the state of Kentucky.
Clay's father's paternal grandparents were Sallie Anne Clay. He was a descendant of slaves of the antebellum South, was predominantly of African descent, with smaller amounts of Irish and English family heritage. Ali's maternal grandfather, Abe Grady, emigrated from Co.. Clare, Ireland. DNA testing performed in 2018 showed that, through his paternal grandmother, Ali was a descendant of the former slave Archer Alexander, chosen from the building crew as the model of a freed man for the Emancipation Memorial, was the subject of abolitionist William Greenleaf Eliot's book, The Story of Archer Alexander: From Slavery to Freedom. Like Ali, Alexander fought for his freedom, his father was a sign and billboard painter, his mother, Odessa O'Grady Clay, was a domestic helper. Although Cassius Sr. was a Methodist, he allowed Odessa to bring up both Cassius Jr. and his younger brother, Rudolph "Rudy" Clay, as Baptists. Cassius Jr. attended Central High School in Louisville. He was dyslexic, which led to difficulties in reading and writing, at school and for much of his life.
Ali grew up amid racial segregation. His mother recalled one occasion when he was denied a drink of water at a store—"They wouldn't give him one because of his color; that affected him." He was affected by the 1955 murder of Emmett Till, which led to young Clay and a friend taking out their frustration by vandalizing a local rail yard. Ali was first directed toward boxing by Louisville police officer and boxing coach Joe E. Martin, who encountered the 12-year-old fuming over a thief's having taken his bicycle, he told the officer. The officer told Clay. Clay did not take up Martin's offer, but after seeing amateur boxers on a local television boxing program called Tomorrow's Champions, Clay was interested in the prospect of fighting, he began to work with trainer Fred Stoner, whom he credits with giving him the "real training", eventua
The Portuguese inventions are the inventions created by the people born in Portugal or whose nationality is Portuguese. These inventions were created during the age of Portuguese Discoveries, but as well, during modernity. Relying on trade secret explains, in part, the difficulty experienced by researchers in documenting Portuguese inventions, as many are not described in patent documents, or other technical documents. On the other hand, there are cases, like some types of swords, where the inventions themselves or the underlying documents were lost, having been destroyed, for example, during the French invasions. There are as well documentation and objects of Portuguese origin in private collections or museums outside of Portugal; the creation of new inventions in Portugal took its peak during the Age of Discovery. These inventions consisted in the improvement of devices and techniques of ocean navigation and coastal cartography, such as the mariner's astrolabe and the chart of latitudes. On the field of military applications, the construction of cannons and new types of swords, like the carracks black sword.
More the technical domain varies from computers to medicine. Such examples might be Via Verde, an automatic system for collecting tolls for vehicles, the Multibanco, an automatic teller machine network with a multitude of functions ranging from bank transfers to the payment of tickets for shows, or in the field of medicine, a treatment of epilepsy, the drug Zebinix by Bial Laboratories. List of Portuguese inventions and discoveries Pyreliophorus Volta do mar Ballastella Armillary sphere Caravel Carrack Chip log Cartaz Galleon
The Bill Beaumont County Championship Division 3 is an annual rugby union competition in England between teams representing English counties. It was formed in 2005 when it known as the County Championship Plate - changing to Shield by 2010 and Bill Beaumont Division 3 by 2017, it is contested by third tier teams in the RFU County Championship. From 2010 Division 3 involves counties that are only able to select players from clubs at level five and below; the eight teams involved are divided on geographic terms into two pools and play three games each. From 2017 promotion has been implemented in the competition; as with the other county championship divisions, this occurs over two years as opposed to one, using a system of accumulative points from pool games to determine the top two teams that are promoted to tier 2. The bottom two teams in tier 2 are relegated into tier 3 at the end of the two year period. Surrey Dorset & Wilts Durham County Hampshire Cumbria Leicestershire Notts, Lincs & Derbyshire Oxfordshire 2011_results.pdf