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Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Muhammad Ali Jinnah was a barrister and the founder of Pakistan. Jinnah served as the leader of the All-India Muslim League from 1913 until Pakistan's creation on 14 August 1947, as Pakistan's first Governor-General until his death, he is revered in Pakistan as Baba-i-Qaum. His birthday is considered a national holiday in Pakistan. Born at Wazir Mansion in Karachi, Jinnah was trained as a barrister at Lincoln's Inn in London. Upon his return to British India, he enrolled at the Bombay High Court, took an interest in national politics, which replaced his legal practice. Jinnah rose to prominence in the Indian National Congress in the first two decades of the 20th century. In these early years of his political career, Jinnah advocated Hindu–Muslim unity, helping to shape the 1916 Lucknow Pact between the Congress and the All-India Muslim League, in which Jinnah had become prominent. Jinnah became a key leader in the All India Home Rule League, proposed a fourteen-point constitutional reform plan to safeguard the political rights of Muslims.

In 1920, Jinnah resigned from the Congress when it agreed to follow a campaign of satyagraha, which he regarded as political anarchy. By 1940, Jinnah had come to believe that Muslims of the Indian subcontinent should have their own state. In that year, the Muslim League, led by Jinnah, passed the Lahore Resolution, demanding a separate nation. During the Second World War, the League gained strength while leaders of the Congress were imprisoned, in the elections held shortly after the war, it won most of the seats reserved for Muslims; the Congress and the Muslim League could not reach a power-sharing formula for the subcontinent to be united as a single state, leading all parties to agree to the independence of a predominantly Hindu India, for a Muslim-majority state of Pakistan. As the first Governor-General of Pakistan, Jinnah worked to establish the new nation's government and policies, to aid the millions of Muslim migrants who had emigrated from the new nation of India to Pakistan after independence supervising the establishment of refugee camps.

Jinnah died at age 71 in September 1948, just over a year after Pakistan gained independence from the United Kingdom. He left a respected legacy in Pakistan. Innumerable streets and localities in the world are named after Jinnah. Several universities and public buildings in Pakistan bear Jinnah's name. According to his biographer, Stanley Wolpert, he remains Pakistan's greatest leader. Jinnah's given name at birth was Mahomedali Jinnahbhai, he was born in 1876, to Jinnahbhai Poonja and his wife Mithibai, in a rented apartment on the second floor of Wazir Mansion near Karachi, now in Sindh, Pakistan but within the Bombay Presidency of British India. Jinnah's family was from a Gujarati Ismaili Shi’a Muslim background, though Jinnah followed the Twelver Shi'a teachings. After his death, his relatives and other witnesses claimed that he had converted in life to the Sunni sect, his religion at the time of his death was disputed in multiple court cases. Jinnah was from a wealthy merchant background, his father was a merchant and was born to a family of textile weavers in the village of Paneli in the princely state of Gondal.

They had moved to Karachi in 1875. Karachi was enjoying an economic boom: the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 meant it was 200 nautical miles closer to Europe for shipping than Bombay. Jinnah was the second child; the parents were native Gujarati speakers, the children came to speak Kutchi and English. Jinnah was not fluent in Gujarati, his mother-tongue or in Urdu, he was more fluent in English. Except for Fatima, little is known of his siblings, where they settled or if they met with their brother as he advanced in his legal and political careers; as a boy, Jinnah lived for a time in Bombay with an aunt and may have attended the Gokal Das Tej Primary School there on studying at the Cathedral and John Connon School. In Karachi, he attended the Sindh-Madrasa-tul-Islam and the Christian Missionary Society High School, he gained his matriculation from Bombay University at the high school. In his years and after his death, a large number of stories about the boyhood of Pakistan's founder were circulated: that he spent all his spare time at the police court, listening to the proceedings, that he studied his books by the glow of street lights for lack of other illumination.

His official biographer, Hector Bolitho, writing in 1954, interviewed surviving boyhood associates, obtained a tale that the young Jinnah discouraged other children from playing marbles in the dust, urging them to rise up, keep their hands and clothes clean, play cricket instead. In 1892, Sir Frederick Leigh Croft, a business associate of Jinnahbhai Poonja, offered young Jinnah a London apprenticeship with his firm, Graham's Shipping and Trading Company, he accepted the position despite the opposition of his mother, who before he left, had him enter an arranged marriage with his cousin, two years his junior from the ancestral village of Paneli, Emibai Jinnah. Jinnah's mother and first wife both died during his absence in England. Although the apprenticeship in London was considered a great opportunity for Jinnah, one reason for sending him overseas was a legal proceeding against his father, which placed the family's property at risk of being sequestered by the court. In 1893, the Jinnahbhai family moved to Bombay.

Soon after his arrival in Lon

Jill Godmilow

Jill Godmilow was born outside Philadelphia and now resides in New York City. She is an independent filmmaker of non-fiction works, an advocate for Post-Realism in documentary. Godmilow studied Russian literature at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. In 1974, her film with collaborator Judy Collins, Antonia: A Portrait of the Woman, about the pioneering female conductor Antonia Brico, received a nomination for Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature and was selected for the National Film Registry of the Library of Congress in 2003. In 1984, she made Far From Poland, a non-fiction, post-realist feature about the Polish Solidarity movement filmed in the U. S, she made a dramatic feature film called Waiting for the Moon, a biography of Gertrude Stein and Alice B. Toklas played by actresses Linda Linda Bassett, it was produced for PBS's American Playhouse series, released theatrically by Skouras Pictures, won Best Feature Film at the Sundance Film Festival in 1987. In 1998, her film; the film is a replica, in color and in English, of Harun Farocki's 1969 black and white German language film called Inextinguishable Fire, on the production of Napalm at Dow Chemical Company.

Her film was featured in the 2000 Whitney Biennial. Godmilow is an Emeritus Professor in the Department of Film and Theatre at the University of Notre Dame, she is a recipient of a Guggenheim Fellowship. Jill Godmilow on IMDb New York Times Biography Profile on Video Data Bank "What's Wrong With the Liberal Documentary?", Jill Godmilow, Peace Review, March, 1999 Un-Documenting History: An Interview with Filmmaker Jill Godmilow by Lynn C. Miller, Text Performance Quarterly, July 7, 1997, vol 7, number 3 "How Real Is the Reality in Documentary Films?" Jill Godmilow in conversation with Ann-Louise Shapiro", History and Theory,Vol 36, No. 4, 1997, Wesleyan University Press

C. J. Ramone

Christopher Joseph Ward, better known as C. J. Ramone, is an American musician best known for working as the bassist and occasional lead vocalist of the punk rock group the Ramones from 1989 to 1996, he is one of the four surviving members of the Ramones, along with three of their drummers Marky Ramone, Richie Ramone, Elvis Ramone. Christopher J. Ward was born in Queens, New York City, United States, though he lived in Deer Park, New York for most of his early life, he attended Ss. Cyril and Methodius School and graduated from Deer Park High School in 1983. Prior to joining the Ramones, Ward served in the United States Marine Corps, he was a fan of the Ramones of Dee Dee Ramone, before joining the band, played with him in a band called the Remains or the Ramainz, formed by Dee Dee Ramone, Marky Ramone and Dee Dee's wife, Barbara Zampini. He played in Guitar Pete's Axe Attack, Los Gusanos, Bad Chopper. CJ Ramone released the album Reconquista on June 29, 2012, his album Last Chance To Dance was released in November and December 2014.

American Beauty was released on March 17, 2017 in the USA. "The Holy Spell" was released in 2019. Ward replaced original band member Dee Dee Ramone, though Dee Dee continued to write songs for the group. C. J. went to the audition with the sole purpose of jamming with the Ramones. After being discharged from the Marines and learning 40 Ramones songs in 5 weeks, C. J. played his first live show with the band on September 30, 1989. Adjusting to the Ramones' play style was one of the biggest challenges he had as C. J. was a finger-playing bassist as opposed to Dee Dee's signature downpicking technique. He learned to adapt by lowering his bass down to his kneecap and wearing sweatbands. C. J. Sang many well-known Ramones songs and gave the band a younger image. In the documentary End of the Century: The Story of the Ramones it is stated that when C. J. joined the Ramones. Johnny Ramone says he knew when C. J. auditioned to replace Dee Dee that he was right, commenting that he "had the right look". When the Ramones were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame original Ramones drummer, Tommy Ramone, credited C.

J. with "keeping the band young". C. J. Ramone was the youngest member of the Ramones, by nine years, he shared a birthday, October 8, with bandmate Johnny Ramone. While C. J.'s first live show with the Ramones was on September 30, 1989, in Leicester, his official debut with the band was three weeks earlier on September 4 during the Jerry Lewis MDA Telethon that aired on WWOR-TV in New York. He played with the band until they disbanded on August 6, 1996. C. J. used Ampeg SVT amplifiers for most of his career, having inherited several amps from Dee Dee Ramone. However, he has switched to Fender Bassman amps, stating that the Ampeg amps had "substantial historical value" and he wished to preserve them. Prior to joining The Ramones, C. J. always played with his fingers. When he joined the Ramones, they gave him a black Mexican Fender Precision Bass, with a white pickguard and a maple neck and, his main bass for the first gigs with the Ramones, he had two cream Fender Precision basses, one with a white pickguard and another with a black.

He bought a white American Fender Precision with a white pickguard. He got a vintage 1979 Fender Precision, like the basses that Dee Dee used to play, he would use that bass the rest of his time with the Ramones. While in the Ramones, C. J. had a custom-made Mosrite Bass made for him by Semie Mosley, white with a tortoise shell Pick guard. He used it in Bad Chopper, he has since sold this bass. He used a Mosrite bass that he designed with Mr. Yuasa of the Filmore Company, the Mosrite copyright owner in Japan, it was white with a black pick guard. This bass was stolen when he toured Japan in February 2010. C. J. plays Fender Matt Freeman signature model Precision Basses. Before the Ramones, Ward played in a heavy metal band called Guitar Pete's Axe Attack, where he appeared on two albums. In 1992, while still with the Ramones, he started a hard rock band named Los Gusanos, they released a few singles before releasing their only album in 1997, worked on by Ramones producer Daniel Rey. After the Ramones' retirement Ward played a few shows with the Ramainz, a Ramones tribute band formed by Dee Dee Ramone, Marky Ramone and Dee Dee's wife Barbara Zampini.

In 1998, Los Gusanos broke up, leading to Ward's next band the Warm Jets, which released one single before changing their name due to another band with the same name. The band broke up in summer 2009. C. J. was married to Marky Ramone's niece, with whom he has two children and Liliana. He is now married to lawyer Denise Barton with whom he has Mia Dove. Dead Soldier's Revenge Nightmare Studio Albums Mondo Bizarro Acid Eaters ¡Adios Amigos! Live Albums Loco Live Greatest Hits Live We're Outta Here! "Quick to Cut" 7" Youth Gone Mad split 7" I'd Love to Save the World EP Los Gusanos The Warm Je