Namibia the Republic of Namibia, is a country in southern Africa. Its western border is the Atlantic Ocean. Although it does not border Zimbabwe, less than 200 metres of the Zambezi River separates the two countries. Namibia gained independence from South Africa on 21 March 1990, following the Namibian War of Independence, its capital and largest city is Windhoek, it is a member state of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community, the African Union, the Commonwealth of Nations. Namibia, the driest country in Sub-Saharan Africa, was inhabited since early times by the San and Nama peoples. Around the 14th century, immigrating Bantu peoples arrived as part of the Bantu expansion. Since the Bantu groups, the largest being the Ovambo, have dominated the population of the country. In 1878, the Cape of Good Hope a British colony, had annexed the port of Walvis Bay and the offshore Penguin Islands. In 1884 the German Empire established rule over most of the territory as a protectorate.
It began to develop infrastructure and farming and maintained this German colony until 1915, when South African forces defeated its military. In 1920, after the end of World War I, the League of Nations mandated the country to the United Kingdom, under administration by South Africa, it imposed its laws, including racial rules. From 1948, with the National Party elected to power, South Africa applied apartheid to what was known as South West Africa. In the 20th century and demands for political representation by native African political activists seeking independence resulted in the UN assuming direct responsibility over the territory in 1966, but South Africa maintained de facto rule. In 1973 the UN recognised the South West Africa People's Organisation as the official representative of the Namibian people. Following continued guerrilla warfare, South Africa installed an interim administration in Namibia in 1985. Namibia obtained full independence from South Africa in 1990. However, Walvis Bay and the Penguin Islands remained under South African control until 1994.
Namibia has a population of a stable multi-party parliamentary democracy. Agriculture, herding and the mining industry – including mining for gem diamonds, gold and base metals – form the basis of its economy; the large, arid Namib Desert has resulted in Namibia being overall one of the least densely populated countries in the world. The name of the country is derived from the Namib Desert, considered to be the oldest desert in the world; the name Namib itself is of Nama origin and means "vast place". Before its independence in 1990, the area was known first as German South-West Africa as South-West Africa, reflecting the colonial occupation by the Germans and the South Africans; the dry lands of Namibia have been inhabited since early times by San and Nama. Around the 14th century, immigrating Bantu people began to arrive during the Bantu expansion from central Africa. From the late 18th century onward, Oorlam people from Cape Colony crossed the Orange River and moved into the area that today is southern Namibia.
Their encounters with the nomadic Nama tribes were peaceful. They received the missionaries accompanying the Oorlam well, granting them the right to use waterholes and grazing against an annual payment. On their way further north, the Oorlam encountered clans of the Herero at Windhoek and Okahandja, who resisted their encroachment; the Nama-Herero War broke out in 1880, with hostilities ebbing only after the German Empire deployed troops to the contested places and cemented the status quo among the Nama and Herero. The first Europeans to disembark and explore the region were the Portuguese navigators Diogo Cão in 1485 and Bartolomeu Dias in 1486, but the Portuguese did not try to claim the area. Like most of interior Sub-Saharan Africa, Namibia was not extensively explored by Europeans until the 19th century. At that time traders and settlers came principally from Sweden. In the late 19th century, Dorsland Trekkers crossed the area on their way from the Transvaal to Angola; some of them settled in Namibia instead of continuing their journey.
Namibia became a German colony in 1884 under Otto von Bismarck to forestall perceived British encroachment and was known as German South West Africa. The Palgrave Commission by the British governor in Cape Town determined that only the natural deep-water harbor of Walvis Bay was worth occupying and thus annexed it to the Cape province of British South Africa. From 1904 to 1907, the Herero and the Namaqua took up arms against brutal German colonialism. In calculated punitive action by the German occupiers, government officials ordered extinction of the natives in the Herero and Namaqua genocide. In what has been called the "first genocide of the 20th century", the Germans systematically killed 10,000 Nama and 65,000 Herero; the survivors, when released from detention, were subjected to a policy of dispossession, forced labor, racial segregation, and
Tamgha-i-Jurat, is the fourth highest military award of Pakistan. This citation is awarded for extraordinary heroism while engaged in armed combat with an opposing force on Pakistan soil or outside its borders; the prestigious award was established in 1957 after Pakistan became a Republic, however, it was instituted retrospectively back to 1947. This medal is awarded for various types of high risk tactical missions like combat, tactical reconnaissance and infiltration and can be bestowed upon all ranks, commissioned officers and non commissioned officers, in the Pakistan Army, Air Force, various paramilitary forces under federal control such as the Frontier Corps, the Frontier Constabulary and the Pakistan Rangers. Ranked below the Sitara-i-Jurat on the order of precedence, the Tamgha-i-Jurat is the equivalent to the Military Cross in the U. K Commonwealth honours system and the Silver Star in the United States honours system. Pakistan Army Capt. Aftab Ahmed TJ Hon. Capt Falak Sher TJ 1971 Capt Ghulam Hussain Cheema TJ 1965 Havaldar Muhammad Karim NLI 1999 Sepoy Liaquat Ali, 1 Sind Regiment while serving with 24 Sind Regt 1999 Khushi Muhammad TJ TK1 1965 Lance Naik Laal Hussain TJ 1965 Defedar Rana Abdul Majeed Khan, TJ 1965 Col Mirza Hassan Khan Capt Sabir Shah TJ N/Sub Ibarat Shah TJ, Northern Scout 1947 Hav Khayal Akbar Khan Orakazi,TJ.
Havaldar Hukamdad Abbasi TJ Lance Naik Shadab Wali Khan TJ, 39 Baloch 1971 Sep/Clk Muhammad Akbar TJ, 4 Punjab, 1971 Col/ Muhammad Saleem TJ Maj/ Muhammad Iftikhar Ahmad TJ, 1971, Army Aviation, Choor Sector Sep Muhmad Ghraz TJ, 1999 Cap. Asfandyar Bukhari TJ 1, 2015 Captain Roohullah, 2015 Lance Nayek Syed Munawar Hussain Shah TJ, 1965Pakistan Air Force Gallantry 1965 Flying Officer Muhammad Hamidullah Khan TJ, SH, 1965 -, Pakistan Air Force Academy, Risalpur. 29.03.1971 defected allegiance to BDF as Flight Lieutenant, Asst. Provost Marshal, CO - No. 5 P&S Unit, DaccaPosthumous 1965 Leading Aircraftman Muhammad Anwar Hussain Khan TJGallantry 1965 Master Warrant Officer M Ashfaq TJ Master Warrant Officer M Hafeez TJ Corporal M Omer Ali TJ Corporal Sher Mohammad TJ Corporal Technician Ghulam Abbas TJPosthumous 1971 Flight Lieutenant Javed Iqbal TJ Flight Lieutenant Syed Shahid Raza TJGallantry 1971 Flight Lieutenant Ghulam Murtaza Malik TJ Flight Lieutenant Taloot Mirza TJ Flight Lieutenant Maqsood Amir TJ Flight Lieutenant Javed Latif TJ Flight Lieutenant Abdul Karim Bhatti TJ Warrant Officer Abdul Haq TJ Senior Technician Sajjad A Shah TJ Senior Technician Asghar Ali TJ Corporal Muhammad Ghazanfar TJ Corporal M Afzal Abbasi TJ Junior Technician Muhammad Latif TJGallantry 2006 2nd Lieutenant Imran Ahmed Khan TJ Pakistani Armed Forces Awards and decorations of the Pakistan military Paktribune.com Pakistan's Medals Decorations and Medals of Pakistan
A state funeral is a public funeral ceremony, observing the strict rules of protocol, held to honour people of national significance. State funerals include much pomp and ceremony as well as religious overtones and distinctive elements of military tradition. State funerals are held in order to involve the general public in a national day of mourning after the family of the deceased gives consent. A state funeral will generate mass publicity from both national and global media outlets. Ahmed Ben Bella Agostino Neto Sir Seretse Khama Sir Ketumile Masire Marc-Vivien Foe Laurent-Desire Kabila Gamal Abdel Nasser Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran who dies in exile in Egypt Anwar Sadat Meles Zenawi Edith Lucie Bongo Omar Bongo Mzee Jomo Kenyatta Michael Kijana Wamalwa Lucy Kibaki Bingu wa Mutharika Samora Machel Afonso Dhlakama Andimba Toivo ya Toivo Chris Hani Nelson Mandela Govan Mbeki Raymond Mhlaba Walter Sisulu Albertina Sisulu Senzo Meyiwa Joost van der Westhuizen Winnie Mandela Julius Nyerere Godfrey Binaisa Mutesa II of Buganda Milton Obote Levy Mwanawasa Frederick Chiluba Betty Kaunda Michael Sata Oliver Mtukudzi In 1952 Eva Perón died at age 33.
She held the title of Spiritual Leader of the Nation of Argentina, granted by the Congress of Argentina. Nearly three million people covered the funeral of Evita in the streets of Buenos Aires. A radio broadcast interrupted the broadcasting schedule, with the announcer reading, "The Press Secretary's Office of the Presidency of the Nation fulfills its sad duty to inform the people of the Republic that at 20:25 hours Mrs. Eva Perón, Spiritual Leader of the Nation, died." Eva Perón was granted a full Roman Catholic requiem mass. On Saturday 9 August, the body was transferred to the Congress Building for an additional day to be publicly viewed; the next day, after a final Sunday mass, the coffin was laid atop on a gun carriage pulled by CGT officials. Following next was Juan Perón, his cabinet, Eva's family and friends, the delegates and representatives of the Partido Peronista Femenino workers and students of the Eva Perón Foundation, her coffin was showered with carnations, chrysanthemums and roses thrown from the nearby balconies as the procession passed through the streets.
Juan Perón died at age 78 on 1 July 1974, after his health progressively deteriorated. His wife and vicepresident, Isabel Martínez de Perón, gave the announcement: "with great sorrow I must convey to the people of Argentina the death of this true apostle of peace and nonviolence." After several days of national mourning, in which the body laid in state at the Argentine National Congress for hundreds of thousands of people, the remains were moved to a crypt in the Quinta de Olivos Presidential. On 17 November 1974 the remains of Evita. While the body was in Congress, over 135,000 people filed past the coffin, while a million Argentines had to bid their farewell to their leader from the outside. Two thousand foreign journalists reported the details of the funeral. Raul Alfonsín died at age 82 on 31 March 2009 after a long battle against lung cancer and. in his last days, broncoaspirativa pneumonia. Argentina's government declared three days of national mourning for the death and his remains were veiled from the early hours of April 1, 2009 in the Blue Room of the National Congress, attended by authorities and politicians of different parties an estimated 80,000 people had to wait in line for five to six hours.
Among the political authorities who attended the event were former presidents Carlos Menem, Eduardo Duhalde, Fernando De la Rua and Nestor Kirchner, President Cristina Fernandez was unable to attend because they were in the G-20 London but sent its condolences. The next day they were taken to a military gun carriage escorted by the Mounted Grenadiers Regiment at Recoleta Cemetery in Buenos Aires; the remains of former President rested temporarily in the vault of the fallen in the Revolution of the Park until 16 May were transferred to a single monument in the cemetery in a place built of gray and beige marble, where there is a cross on top and a bright stained glass by entering a glimmer. Argentina's former President and Secretary General of UNASUR, Néstor Kirchner, died of heart failure on the morning of 27 October 2010 at the Jose Formenti hospital in El Calafate, Santa Cruz Province at the age of 60. Although there was some effort made to revive him, it did not do so His wife, President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, was present with him when he died.
He was expected to run for president in 2011. A state funeral was held on November 3, 2010 in Bridgetown for former Barbados Prime Minister David Thompson. State funerals were held for the President-elect of Brazil, Tancredo Neves, who died before taking office; the former Vice President of Brazil, José Alencar, was buried with a head of state's honor, after his passing due to cancer. Other than heads of state, personalities such as the Formula 1 racing champion Ayrton Senna, dead in 1994 after a crash during a race, the architect Oscar Niemeyer, who died in 2012 at the age of 104, among others. In Canada, state funerals are public events held to commemorate the memory of present and former governors general and former prime ministers, sitting members of the Ministry and other prominent Canadians at the discretion of the Prime Minister. With ceremonial and religious elements incorporated, state funerals are offered and executed by the Government of Canada which provides a dignified manner for the Canadian people to mourn a national public figure.
In 2006, the House of Commons voted unanimously, on a motion introduced by the NDP, to hold a state funeral when the last Canadian veteran of the First World War died
Government of Bangladesh
The Government of Bangladesh has three branches. The Legislature of Bangladesh is unicameral known as Sangsad; the Speaker conducts its business in an orderly fashion. The current Sangsad contains 350 seats, including 50 seats reserved for women and 300 seats for men, which are apportioned on elected party position in the parliament; the 10th National Parliamentary Election was held on 5 January 2014. The current speaker is Shirin Sharmin Chaudhury, presiding over the 10th Parliament, she is the only woman to have held this office. The Executive is led by the Prime Minister; the Prime Minister and the other most senior Ministers belong to the supreme decision-making committee, known as the Cabinet. The current Prime Minister is Sheikh Hasina, leader of the Bangladesh Awami League, appointed by the President on 6 January 2009 following the General Election on 29 December 2008. Bangladesh Awami League led by her, its Grand Alliance won the two-thirds majority numerically the party controls 230 seats out of 299.
The judicial branch systematically contains an apex Supreme Court, composed of, Appellate Division and High Court Division. There are various levels of judiciary in Bangladesh – different types of courts form a strict hierarchy of importance, District Courts, City Criminal Courts and Specialized Courts and Tribunals; the Chief Justice of Bangladesh is the head of the Supreme Court. The present and the 22nd Chief Justice of Bangladesh is Syed Mahmud Hossain, he succeeded Justice Md. Abdul Wahhab Miah on 2 February 2018; the President is the Head of State, a ceremonial post. The real power is held by the Prime Minister, the head of government; the president is elected by the legislature every five years and has limited powers that are expanded during the tenure of a caretaker government in controlling the transition to a new government. Bangladesh has instituted a unique system of transfer of power; this system was first practiced in 1991 and adopted to the constitution in 1996. As head of the state, the president can grant pardon to a man sentenced to death penalty or lessen the punishment.
In some cases, it performs some legislative and judicial functions. The prime minister is ceremonially appointed by the president, commanding the confidence of the majority of the MPs; the cabinet is composed of ministers selected The executive administrates the country and executes the laws, passed by the legislature. It maintains the internal order in the country, it maintains relationship with foreign countries. It works for defence and sovereignty of the country; the executive calculates the expenditure of the government. It performs various public welfare services such as. Beside this, it accepts and implements various development projects. At the local government level, the country is divided into divisions, subdistricts and villages; the lowest level of local government representative are Local officials of union council those who are elected at the union level election. All larger administrative units are run by members of the civil service; the legislature of Bangladesh is unicameral. The 300 members are elected by universal suffrage at least every 5 years.
It consists of 350 members at present. There is universal suffrage for all citizens at the age of 18. "On 16 May 2004, the Jatiya Sangsad passed the 14th constitutional amendment to reintroduce quotas for women. The number of seats in parliament is to be raised to 345, 45 of which will be reserved for women in the next parliament; the seats will be allocated to parties in proportion to their overall share of the vote. This quota system replaces the previous quota law which expired in 2001; until 2001 a system of reserved seats for women was used, where 30 seats out of 330 were reserved to women. This provision of guaranteeing women reserved seats expired in April 2001; this quota system was first introduced by the 1972 Constitution. In 1978 a presidential proclamation enlarged the number of reserved seats to 30 and extended the period of reservation to 15 years from the date of promulgation of the constitution of the Republic in December 1972; the constitutional provision lapsed in 1987 and was re-incorporated in the constitution by an amendment in 1990 to be effective for 10 years from the first meeting of the legislature next elected.
This provision lapsed in 2001. The Parliament elected in October 2001 does not have reserved seats for women. Women's groups are lobbying for these seats to become directly elected positions and for the number of reserved seats to be increased." The 10th Parliament had its first sitting on 25 January 2009. There are 350 members of the house of which 50 memberships are reserved for women; the highest judiciary body is the Supreme Court. Until Chief Justice and judges were recommended by the Prime Minister and formally appointed by the President. Since 1991, political parties during their tenure in government have initiated the separation of the judiciary from contro
Guwahati is the largest city in the Indian state of Assam and the largest urban area in Northeast India. A major riverine port city and one of the fastest growing cities in India, Guwahati is situated on the south bank of the Brahmaputra; the ancient cities of Pragjyotishpura and Durjaya were the capitals of the ancient state of Kamarupa. Many ancient Hindu temples are in the city, giving it the name "City of Temples". Dispur, the capital of Assam, is in the circuit city region located within Guwahati and is the seat of the Government of Assam. Guwahati lies between the banks of the Brahmaputra River and the foothills of the Shillong plateau, with LGB International Airport to the west and the town of Narengi to the east; the North Guwahati area, to the northern bank of the Brahmaputra, is being incorporated into the city limits. The noted Madan Kamdev is situated 30 kilometres from Guwahati; the Guwahati Municipal Corporation, the city's local government, administers an area of 328 square kilometres, while the Guwahati Metropolitan Development Authority is the planning and development body of greater Guwahati Metropolitan Area.
Guwahati is the largest city in Northeast India. The Guwahati region hosts diverse wildlife including rare animals such as Asian elephants, tigers, gaurs, primate species, endangered birds. Once known as'Pragjyotishpura', Guwahati derives its name from the Assamese words "Guwa" meaning areca nut and "Haat" meaning market. Guwahati's myths and history go back several thousands of years. Although the exact date of the city's beginning is unknown, references in the epics and other traditional histories of India, lead many to assume that it is one of the ancient cities of Asia. Epigraphic sources place the capitals of many ancient kingdoms in Guwahati, it was the capital of the kings Bhagadatta according to the Mahabharata. Located within Guwahati is the ancient Shakti temple of Goddess Kamakhya in Nilachal hill, the ancient and unique astrological temple Navagraha in Chitrachal Hill, archaeological remains in Basistha and other archaeological locations of mythological importance; the Ambari excavations trace the city to the Hindu kingdoms of Shunga-Kushana period of Indian history, between the 2nd century BC and the 1st century AD.
During earlier periods of the city's history it was known as Pragjyotishpura, was the capital of Assam under the Kamarupa kingdom. Descriptions by Xuanzang reveal that during the reign of the Varman king Bhaskaravarman, the city stretched for about 30 li. Archaeological evidence by excavations in Ambari, excavated brick walls and houses discovered during construction of the present Cotton College's auditorium suggest the city was of economic and strategic importance until the 9th–11th century AD; the city was the seat of the Borphukan, the civil military authority of the Lower Assam region appointed by the Ahom kings. The Borphukan's residence was in the present Fancy Bazar area, his council-hall, called Dopdar, was about 300 yards to the west of the Bharalu stream; the Majindar Baruah, the personal secretary of the Borphukan, had his residence in the present-day deputy commissioner's residence. The Mughals invaded Assam seventeen times, but were defeated by the numerically inferior yet formidable Ahoms in the Battle of Itakhuli and the Battle of Saraighat.
During the Battle of Saraighat, fought in Saraighat in 1671, the Mughals were overrun due to the strong leadership and hard work of Lachit Borphukan. The great embankment called ‘Momai-Kata Gorh’, named after an incident in which Lachit had to slay his own maternal uncle for being lazy in building the embankment that runs along the outskirts of the city, stands as a proof of the hard work and war-readiness on the part of the Ahoms. There was an ancient boat yard in Dighalipukhuri used by the Ahoms in medieval times. Medieval constructions include temples, etc. in the city. The city was under Burmese rule from 1817 to 1826. Following the First Anglo-Burmese War, the city became a part of the British Empire, it played an active role during the independence struggle of India and was the birthplace of activists such as Tarun Ram Phukan. Guwahati's'urban form' radiates from a central core with growth corridors radiating and extending towards the south and west. In the past few decades, southern Guwahati areas such as Ganeshguri, Hatigaon, Six Mile and Panjabari began forming a southern sub-center surrounding the capital complex at Dispur.
The core area consists of the old city with Pan Bazaar, Paltan Bazaar, Fancy Bazaar and Uzan Bazaar, with each area facilitating unique urban activities. Among the city corridors, the most important is the corridor formed along the Guwahati-Shillong Road towards the south; the GS Road corridor is an important commercial area with retail and commercial offices developed along the main road. The capital complex of Assam at Dispur is situated in this corridor; this corridor has facilitated the growth of a southern city sub-center at Ganeshguri, along with other residential areas to the south developed during the past few decades. The corridor extending towards the west contains a rail-road linking not only Guwahati but other parts of the northeastern region east of Guwahati to western Assam and the rest of India; the corridor links residential and important areas such as Nilachal Hill, Pa
Bihar is state in eastern India. It is the thirteenth-largest Indian state, with an area of 94,163 km2; the third-largest state by population, it is contiguous with Uttar Pradesh to its west, Nepal to the north, the northern part of West Bengal to the east, with Jharkhand to the south. The Bihar plain is split by the river Ganges. Three main regions converge in the state: Magadh and Bhojpur. On 15 November 2000, southern Bihar was ceded to form the new state of Jharkhand. Only 11.3% of the population of Bihar lives in urban areas, the lowest in India after Himachal Pradesh. Additionally 58% of Biharis are below the age of 25, giving Bihar the highest proportion of young people of any Indian state. In ancient and classical India, the area, now Bihar was considered a centre of power and culture. From Magadha arose India's first empire, the Maurya empire, as well as one of the world's most adhered-to religions, Buddhism. Magadha empires, notably under the Maurya and Gupta dynasties, unified large parts of South Asia under a central rule.
Another region of Bihar is Mithila, an early centre of learning and the centre of the Videha kingdom. Since the late 1970s, Bihar has lagged far behind other Indian states in terms of social and economic development. Many economists and social scientists claim that this is a direct result of the policies of the central government, such as the Freight equalisation policy, its apathy towards Bihar, lack of Bihari sub-nationalism, the Permanent Settlement of 1793 by the British East India Company; the state government has, made significant strides in developing the state. Improved governance has led to an economic revival in the state through increased investment in infrastructure, better health care facilities, greater emphasis on education, a reduction in crime and corruption; the name Bihar is derived from the Sanskrit and Pali word vihāra, meaning "abode". The region encompassing the present state was dotted with Buddhist vihara, the abodes of Buddhist monks in the ancient and medieval periods.
Medieval writer Minhaj al-Siraj Juzjani records in the Tabaqat-i Nasiri that in 1198 Bakhtiyar Khalji committed a massacre in a town identified with the word known as Bihar Sharif, about 70 km away from Bodh Gaya. Chirand, on the northern bank of the Ganga River, in Saran district, has an archaeological record from the Neolithic age. Regions of Bihar—such as Magadha and Anga—are mentioned in religious texts and epics of ancient India. Mithila gained prominence after establishment of the Videha Kingdom in Āryāvarta. During the late Vedic period, Videha became one of the major political and cultural centers of South Asia, along with Kuru and Pañcāla; the kings of the Videha Kingdom were called Janakas. Sita, a daughter of one of the Janaks of Mithila is mentioned as the consort of Lord Rama, in the Hindu epic, written by Valmiki; the Videha Kingdom became incorporated into the Vajji confederacy which had its capital in the city of Vaishali, in Mithila. Vajji had a republican form of government. Based on the information found in texts pertaining to Jainism and Buddhism, Vajji was established as a republic by the 6th century BCE, before the birth of Gautama Buddha in 563 BCE, making it the first known republic in India.
The region of modern-day southwestern Bihar called Magadha remained the centre of power and culture in India for 1000 years. The Haryanka dynasty, founded in 684 BC, ruled Magadha from the city of Rajgriha; the two well-known kings from this dynasty were Bimbisara and his son Ajatashatru, who imprisoned his father to ascend the throne. Ajatashatru founded the city of Pataliputra which became the capital of Magadha, he conquered the Vajji. The Haryanka dynasty was followed by the Shishunaga dynasty; the Nanda Dynasty ruled a vast tract stretching from Bengal to Punjab. The Nanda dynasty was replaced by India's first empire; the Maurya Empire and the religion of Buddhism arose in the region. The Mauryan Empire, which originated from Magadha in 325 BC, was founded by Chandragupta Maurya, born in Magadha, it had its capital at Pataliputra. The Mauryan emperor, born in Pataliputra is believed to be one of the greatest rulers in the history of the world; the Gupta Empire, which originated in Magadha in 240 AD, is referred as the Golden Age of India in science, astronomy, commerce and Indian philosophy.
Bihar and Bengal was invaded by Rajendra Chola I of the Chola dynasty in the 11th century. Buddhism in Magadha went into decline due to the invasion of Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji, during which many of the viharas and the famed universities of Nalanda and Vikramashila were destroyed, it was claimed. D. N. Jha suggests, that these incidents were the result of Buddhist-Brahmin skirmishes in a fight for supremacy. After fall of Pala Empire, Chero dynasty ruled some parts of Bihar from 12th century to 16th century till Mughal rule. In 1540, the great Pathan chieftain, Sher Shah Suri, from Sasaram, took northern India from the Mughals, defeating the Mughal army of Emperor Humayun. Sher Shah declared Delhi his capital. From the 11th century to the 20th century, Mithila was ruled by various indigenous dynasties; the first of these were the Karnatas, followed by the Oinwar dynasty and Raj Darbhanga. It was during this period that the capital of Mithila was shi
State of Palestine
Palestine the State of Palestine, is a de jure sovereign state in Western Asia claiming the West Bank and Gaza Strip with Jerusalem as the designated capital, although its administrative center is located in Ramallah. The entirety of territory claimed by the State of Palestine has been occupied by Israel since the Six-Day War in 1967. Palestine has a population of 4,816,503 as of 2016, ranked 123rd in the world. After World War II, in 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Mandatory Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. After the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz Israel, to be known as the State of Israel on 14 May 1948, neighboring Arab armies invaded the former British mandate on the next day and fought the Israeli forces; the All-Palestine Government was established by the Arab League on 22 September 1948 to govern the Egyptian-controlled enclave in Gaza. It was soon recognized by all Arab League members except Transjordan.
Though jurisdiction of the Government was declared to cover the whole of the former Mandatory Palestine, its effective jurisdiction was limited to the Gaza Strip. Israel captured the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, the West Bank from Jordan, the Golan Heights from Syria in June 1967 following the Six-Day War. On 15 November 1988, Yasser Arafat, Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization, in Algiers proclaimed the establishment of the State of Palestine. A year after the signing of the Oslo Accords in 1993, the Palestinian National Authority was formed to govern the areas A and B in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Gaza would be ruled by Hamas in 2007, two years after the Israeli withdrawal from Gaza; the State of Palestine is recognized by 136 UN members and since 2012 has a status of a non-member observer state in the United Nations – which implies recognition of statehood. It is a member of the Arab League, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, G77, the International Olympic Committee and other international bodies.
Since the British Mandate, the term "Palestine" has been associated with the geographical area that covers the State of Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. General use of the term "Palestine" or related terms to the area at the southeast corner of the Mediterranean Sea beside Syria has been taking place since the times of Ancient Greece, with Herodotus writing of a "district of Syria, called Palaistine" in which Phoenicians interacted with other maritime peoples in The Histories; some other terms that have been used to refer to all or part of the geographical region of "Palestine" include Canaan, Land of Israel, Greater Syria, the Holy Land, Iudaea Province, Coele-Syria, "Israel HaShlema", Kingdom of Israel, Kingdom of Jerusalem, Retenu, Southern Syria, Southern Levant and Syria Palaestina. The areas claimed by the State of Palestine lie in the Levant; the Gaza Strip borders the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Egypt to the south, Israel to the north and east. The West Bank is bordered by Jordan to the east, Israel to the north and west.
Thus, the two enclaves constituting the area claimed by State of Palestine have no geographical border with one another, being separated by Israel. These areas would constitute the world's 163rd largest country by land area. In 1947, the UN adopted a partition plan for a two-state solution in the remaining territory of the mandate; the plan was accepted by the Jewish leadership but rejected by the Arab leaders, Britain refused to implement the plan. On the eve of final British withdrawal, the Jewish Agency for Israel declared the establishment of the State of Israel according to the proposed UN plan; the Arab Higher Committee did not declare a state of its own and instead, together with Transjordan and the other members of the Arab League of the time, commenced military action resulting in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. During the war, Israel gained additional territories that were designated to be part of the Arab state under the UN plan. Egypt occupied the Gaza Strip and Transjordan occupied and annexed the West Bank.
Egypt supported the creation of an All-Palestine Government, but disbanded it in 1959. Transjordan never recognized it and instead decided to incorporate the West Bank with its own territory to form Jordan; the annexation was rejected by the international community. The Six-Day War in 1967, when Israel fought against Egypt and Syria, ended with Israel occupying the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, besides other territories. In 1964, when the West Bank was controlled by Jordan, the Palestine Liberation Organization was established there with the goal to confront Israel; the Palestinian National Charter of the PLO defines the boundaries of Palestine as the whole remaining territory of the mandate, including Israel. Following the Six-Day War, the PLO moved to Jordan, but relocated to Lebanon after Black September in 1971; the October 1974 Arab League summit designated the PLO as the "sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people" and reaffirmed "their right to establish an independent state of urgency."
In November 1974, the PLO was recognized as competent on all matters concerning the question of Palestine by the UN General Assembly granting them observer status as a "non-state entity" at the UN. After the 1988 Declaration of Independence, the UN General Assembly acknowledged the proclamation and decided to use the designation "Palestine" instead of "Palestine Liberation Organization" in the UN. In spite of thi