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Muhammad Shah

Nasir-ud-Din Muḥammad Shah was Mughal emperor from 1719 to 1748. He was son of Khujista Akhtar, the fourth son of Bahadur Shah I. With the help of the Sayyid brothers, he ascended the throne at the young age of 17, he got rid of them with the help of Asaf Jah I – Syed Hussain Ali Khan was murdered at Fatehpur Sikri in 1720 and Syed Hassan Ali Khan Barha was fatally poisoned in 1722. Muhammad Shah was a great patron of the arts, including musical and administrative developments, his pen-name was Sadā Rangīla and he is referred to as "Muhammad Shah Rangila" sometimes as "Bahadur Shah Rangila" after his grand father Bahadur Shah I. Although he was a patron of the arts, Muhammad Shah's reign was marked by rapid and irreversible decline of the Mughal Empire; the Mughal Empire was decaying, but the invasion by Nader Shah of Persia and the subsequent sacking of Delhi, the Mughal capital accelerated the pace. The course of events not only shocked and mortified the Mughals themselves, but other foreigners, including the British.

Muhammad Shah was born in 1702 in Ghazna to Prince Khujista Akhtar, during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. His grandfather Bahadur Shah I defeated and eliminated his own brother Muhammad Azam Shah on 19 June 1707 at the Battle of Jajau. During another war of succession, following the death of Bahadur Shah, his father was killed, the 12-year-old prince and his mother were imprisoned by his uncle Jahandar Shah but spared from death; the prince was handsome and quick to learn, his mother took good care of his education. After the overthrow of Farrukhsiyar in 1719, several Mughal Emperors ascended the throne, but the Sayyid Brothers chose the 17-year-old Muhammad Shah as emperor. On 29 September 1719, Muhammad Shah was given the title Abu Al-Fatah Nasir-ud-Din Roshan Akhtar Muhammad Shah and enthroned in the Red Fort, his mother was given an allowance of 15 thousand rupees monthly for her needs, but the Sayyid Brothers kept the new emperor under strict supervision. The Mughal Grand Vizier Syed Hassan Ali Khan Barha and his brother the Mughal commander and chief Syed Hussain Ali Khan Barha were well aware that Asaf Jah I and his companions Qamaruddin Khan, Zain ud-din Ahmad Khan intended to dissolve their administration.

The Sayyid Brothers nominated an amateur, Prince Muhammad Ibrahim, who proclaimed himself Mughal Emperor, but he was defeated by the new loyalists of the young Muhammad Shah on 13 November 1720. On 9th of October 1720, Syed Hussain Ali Khan Barha, the commander and chief of the most elite Mughal Army, was assassinated in his encampment in Toba Bhim; the Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah took direct command of his forces. Asaf Jah I was dispatched to gain complete control of six Mughal provinces in the Deccan, Muhammad Amin Khan Turani was assigned as the Mansabdar of 8,000, he was sent to pursue the Mughal Grand Vizier Syed Hassan Ali Khan Barha, defeated at the Battle of Hasanpur by Turani, Mir Muhammad Amin Irani and Muhammad Haider Beg. He was executed two years later; the emperor had to fight Muhammad Ibrahim, but young Muhammad Shah defeated him on 13 November 1720. The fall of the Sayyid Brothers marked the beginning of the end of the Mughal Empire's direct control over its dominions in the Deccan.

In the year 1721, young Muhammad Shah married the daughter of the deposed Mughal Emperor Farrukhsiyar. On 21 February 1722, Muhammad Shah appointed the Asaf Jah I as Grand Vizier, he advised Muhammad Shah to be "as cautious as Akbar and as brave as Aurangzeb". Asaf Jah I resigned his post as the Grand Vizier when Muhammad Shah expressed negligence towards his administration. Asaf Jah I appointed commander Ewaz Khan as the master of the garrison at Aurangabad, much of his logistical duties were carried out by Inayatullah Kashmiri. Asaf Jah I left the imperial court in disgust. In 1723 he set out on an expedition to the Deccan, where he fought Mubariz Khan, the Mughal Subedar of the Deccan, who kept the ravaging Marathas at bay. Taking advantage of Mubariz Khan's conventional weaknesses, Asaf Jah I defeated and eliminated his opponent during the Battle of Shakar kheda. Asaf Jah I established the Nizam of Hyderabad in 1725. During this time, the Mughal-Maratha Wars would cause irreparable devastation to the inhabitants of the ill-administered Mughal Empire.

Despite efforts to counter the rise of rebellions in 1724, by the Nawab of Awadh Saadat Ali Khan and the Mughal Subedar in Bangalore, Dilawar Khan, who established a well-protected bastion in the Malabar Coast. Muhammad Ali Khan the Mughal Faujdar of Rangpur and his stern ally Deena Narayan were ambushed out of Koch Bihar by Upendra Narayan a Hindu Bihari and Mipham Wangpo the ruler of Bhutan. Ali Muhammad Khan Rohilla had established the barons of Rohilakhand; the Nawab of Bhopal, Yar Muhammad Khan Bahadur ratified by the Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah in 1728, countered ceaseless raids by the Marathas in Malwa and nearly began to lose half of his territories in the year 1742. Muhammad Shah learned the skills of statesmanship after removing his three incompetent advisors, namely Koki Jee, Roshan-ud-Daula and Sufi Abdul Ghafur of Thatta. In the Punjab region, the Sikhs were at war with Mughal Subedars, the hit-and-run tactics of the Sikh warriors caused devastation. In Ajmer, Ajit Singh allied himself with the renegade Marathas.

While in the Deccan the Marathas had ruined Mughal fortifications and were on the

Hlaudi Motsoeneng

Hlaudi Motsoeneng is the leader of African Content Movement who served as the acting Chief operating officer of the South African Broadcasting Corporation from 2011 to 2013. Motsoeneng was removed from his position as Chief operating officer after it had been found that he lied about his qualifications. After being removed as acting Chief operating officer it was announced that Motsoeneng would move back to his previous position as Group Executive Editor of Provinces and Corporate Affairs of the SABC. In December 2016, the Western Cape High Court ruled that Motsoeneng’s appointment as Group Executive was illegal and that he was “not entitled to occupy any position at the SABC”. Motsoeneng was born in either Phuthaditjhaba, Free State in South Africa or Thaba Bosiu in Lesotho, where he was raised by his aunt, his mother is a sangoma. He attended Qhibi Ha Sethunya primary school in Free State. Motsoeneng did not matriculate. Motsoeneng's career began in Puthaditjhaba when he met Kenneth Mopeli Chief Minister of the South African bantustan of QwaQwa, became his mentor.

Mopeli worked in the same office. In the 1990s Motsoeneng became a freelancer at Radio Sesotho and would carry around a radio bag with a mic recorder where he would get lifts with his friends to stories because he did not own a vehicle. During this period community members alleged that Motsoeneng was a puppet used by Mopeli because not a week would go by where Motsoeneng would not broadcast a positive story about him. During this time Motsoeneng started to network with other high-profile politicians. Motsoeneng was moved to Lesedi FM in Bloemfontein in 1992 where he started to make contacts with African National Congress politicians. Employed as a stringer he was paid by the story despite being unable to speak English properly and did not have a matric certificate, he wanted to learn more. At the station, he became good friends with Sophie Mokoena, he would become close to ANC politicians such as Ace Magashule and Ivy Matsepe-Casaburri who would go on to become the Premier of Free State and the Minister of Communication under President Thabo Mbeki.

Motsoeneng first met Jacob Zuma. Motsoeneng went to cover the event. Zuma's speech was not well received, but Motsoeneng supported him and the two became close from on. In 1995 he applied for permanent employment with the SABC and while completing the application form for the job, lied about having completed his matric at Metsi-Matsho High School in 1991, he would explain that a Mrs Swanepoel from human resources told him to "fill in anything", while Ivy Matsepe-Casaburri was chairman of the SABC at the time of his application. Motsoeneng joined the public broadcaster in 1996, as a junior news reporter and by 2003 had advanced to become a current affairs executive producer for Lesedi FM reporting to regional editor James Barkhuizen, again claiming to have matric qualifications. Due to his ANC connections, he was able to attract top politicians for interviews on his radio show. In 2002, Motsoeneng was named in an forensic audit in an investigation into the conduct of a news editor in Bloemfontein.

Journalists claimed that Motsoeneng was promoted to a senior position as a producer because he helped her gain her own promotion. Soon Motsoeneng was clashing with his boss, interfering with the latters decisions and challenging editorial decisions, he hired others without his boss's permission. Both would be suspended in 2006 and Motsoeneng faced internal charges of racism, dishonesty and policy violations. There were at least three inquiries into the problems at the Free State office; the culminated in the 2006 inquiry by the SABC group internal audit department. He was fired from his position in 2007 for lying about his educational qualifications. In 2008 he sought employment at the Free State provincial government as a communications officer but by 2009, was reinstated at the SABC After being back for 9 months he was appointed as Acting COO. Motsoeneng is best known for his controversial tenure as COO of the SABC and close relationship with President Jacob Zuma. During his time at SABC Motsoeneng blocked any critical coverage of President Jacob Zuma leading the Public Protector to state that his actions threatened to entrench a culture of impunity of people in power.

He was widely known for the unusual nature of his press statements and demands on journalists working for the SABC. Referring to himself in the third person and making non sequitur statements. In February 2014, the public protector, Thuli Madonsela released a report entitled, “When governance and ethics fail” calling for the board of the SABC to take disciplinary action against Motsoeneng for dishonesty and the misrepresentation of his qualification, abuse of power and improper conduct in the appointments and salary increments for several employees. In 2014, the Democratic Alliance brought an interim application before the Western Cape High Court calling for Motsoeneng’s suspension pending a disciplinary hearing. Motsoeneng was overruled by the Supreme Court of Appeals. In 2015, Motsoeneng was criticized for granting himself a salary increase from R2.8 million to R3.7million, despite a reported annual loss for the SABC of R395 million. On 19 September 2016, the SABC board asked the Minister of Communications Faith Muthambi to appoint Motsoeneng as acting chief operating officer of the SABC until December 2016.

After the Democratic Alliance filed papers in court in October 2016 against his appointment as the Group Executive of Corporate Affair, on 12

Calling Out of Context

Calling Out of Context is a compilation album of songs written and recorded by experimental musician Arthur Russell. It was released on March 16, 2004 by Audika Records in the United States and by Rough Trade Records in the United Kingdom. Nearly all of the songs included on Calling Out of Context had never been released in any form; the songs selected for Calling Out of Context were recorded by Russell at his home and various studios between 1973 and 1992. Some of the songs, including "That's Us/Wild Combination", were meticulously reworked and rerecorded dozens of times by Russell, up until his death in 1992. Calling Out of Context contains many unreleased tracks, including several songs from Russell's scrapped Corn album. In addition to singing and songwriting, Russell played many of the instruments on the album, including cello, guitar and vocals. Many of the tracks feature percussion & drum programming from Mustafa Khaliq Ahmed, as well as synthesizers & trombone playing by Peter Zummo. Both Ahmed and Zummo were longtime collaborators with Russell.

Noted vocalist Jennifer Warnes contributed singing to "That's Us/Wild Combination". Steven Hall contributed electronic drums to the record; this was the first album released by Audika Records, was done so after obtaining the exclusive licensing agreement with the estate of Arthur Russell to issue unreleased and out of print material from the musician's vast archive. The compilation producers were Melissa Jones, Steve Knutson, Russell's longtime partner Tom "Sisu" Lee. Calling Out of Context received positive reviews, AllMusic noted that "with the many hats Russell wore, Calling out of Context should hammer home the fact that he was a dynamite writer of heart-on-sleeve love songs -- not just a formidable cellist and innovative disco producer." PopMatters wrote that "Calling Out of Context demands that the world take pause and recognize the contributions Russell made to the disparate genres of dance, disco and experimental music. His absolute fearlessness in lending his own unique style to the most unlikely sound combinations is peerless."

Stylus wrote that "criminally overlooked for far too long, Russell is getting his due," calling him "a genius—never to be recognized in his own time, but to be enjoyed by generations to come." All songs written by Arthur Russell. "The Deer In The Forest Part 1" – 1:35 "The Platform On The Ocean" – 8:04 "You And Me Both" – 3:45 "Calling Out Of Context" – 5:45 "Arm Around You" – 6:32 "That's Us/Wild Combination" – 6:58 "Make 1, 2" – 2:49 "Hop On Down" – 6:02 "Get Around To It" – 4:58 "I Like You!" – 5:00 "You Can Make Me Feel Bad" – 1:28 "Calling All Kids" – 7:15 Art Direction, Design – Melissa Jones Compilation Producer – Melissa Jones, Steve Knutson, Tom Lee Executive Producer – Steve Knutson Liner Notes – Steve Knutson Mastered By – Ray Janos Photography – Jeanette Beckman Producer, Mixed By – Arthur Russell, Killer Whale Technician – Mikel Rouse Words By, Music By – Arthur Russell