Muir Woods National Monument

Muir Woods National Monument is a United States National Monument managed by the National Park Service, named after naturalist John Muir. It is located in southwestern Marin County, California, it is part of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area, is 12 miles north of San Francisco. It protects 554 acres, of which 240 acres are old growth coast redwood forests, one of a few such stands remaining in the San Francisco Bay Area; the Muir Woods National Monument is an old-growth coastal redwood forest. Due to its proximity to the Pacific Ocean, the forest is shrouded in a coastal marine layer fog, contributing to a wet environment that encourages vigorous plant growth; the fog is vital for the growth of the redwoods as they use moisture from the fog during droughty seasons, in particular the dry summer. The monument is cool and moist year round with average daytime temperatures between 40 and 70 degrees Fahrenheit. Rainfall is heavy during the winter and summers are completely dry with the exception of fog drip caused by the fog passing through the trees.

Annual precipitation in the park ranges from 39.4 inches in the lower valley to 47.2 inches higher up in the mountain slopes. The redwoods grow on brown humus-rich loam which may be stony or somewhat sandy; this soil has been assigned to the Centissima series, always found on sloping ground. It is well drained, moderately deep, to moderately acidic, it has developed from a mélange in the Franciscan Formation. More open areas of the park have shallow gravelly loam of the Barnabe series, or deep hard loam of the Cronkhite series. One hundred fifty million years ago ancestors of redwood and sequoia trees grew throughout the United States. Today, the Sequoia sempervirens can be found only in a narrow, cool coastal belt from Monterey County, California, in the south to Oregon in the north. Before the logging industry came to California, there were an estimated 2 million acres of old growth forest containing redwoods growing in a narrow strip along the coast. By the early 20th century, most of these forests had been cut down.

Just north of the San Francisco Bay, one valley named Redwood Canyon remained uncut due to its relative inaccessibility. This was noticed by William Kent, a rising California politician who would soon be elected to the U. S. Congress, he and his wife, Elizabeth Thacher Kent, purchased 611 acres of land from the Tamalpais Land and Water Company for $45,000 with the goal of protecting the redwoods and the mountain above them. The deal was facilitated by his activist wife, Laura Lyon White. In 1907, a water company in nearby Sausalito planned to dam Redwood Creek, thereby flooding the valley; when Kent objected to the plan, the water company threatened to use eminent domain and took him to court to attempt to force the project to move ahead. Kent sidestepped the water company's plot by donating 295 acres of the redwood forest to the federal government, thus bypassing the local courts. On January 9, 1908, President Theodore Roosevelt declared the land a national monument, the first to be created from land donated by a private individual.

The original suggested name of the monument was the Kent Monument but Kent insisted the monument be named after naturalist John Muir, whose environmental campaigns helped to establish the National Park system. President Roosevelt agreed, writing back: My Dear Mr. Kent: By George you are right!and, responding to some photographs of Muir Woods that Mr. Kent had sent him, Those are awfully good photos. Kent and Muir had become friends over shared views of wilderness preservation, but Kent's support for the flooding of Hetch Hetchy caused Muir to end their friendship. In December 1928, the Kent Memorial was erected at the Kent Tree in Fern Canyon; this tree—a Douglas fir, not a redwood—was said to be Kent's favorite. Due to its height of 280 feet and location on a slope, the tree leaned towards the valley for more than 100 years. Storms in El Niño years of 1981 and 1982 caused the tree to tilt more and took out the top 40 feet of the tree. During the winter of 2002–03, many storms brought high winds to Muir Woods causing the tree to lean so much that a fissure developed in January 2003.

This fissure grew larger as the tree leaned more and more, forcing the closure of some trails. On March 18, 2003, at around 8:28 pm, the tree fell; the closed trails have since been reopened. In 1937, the Golden Gate Bridge was completed and park attendance tripled, reaching over 180,000. Muir Woods is one of the major tourist attractions of the San Francisco Bay Area, with 776,000 visitors in 2005. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt died on April 12, 1945, shortly before he was to have opened the United Nations Conference on International Organization for which delegates from 50 countries met in San Francisco to draft and sign the United Nations Charter. On May 19, the delegates held a commemorative ceremony in tribute to his memory in Muir Woods' Cathedral Grove, where a dedication plaque was placed in his honor; the monument was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on January 9, 2008. The main attraction of Muir Woods are the coast redwood trees, they are known for their height, are related to the giant sequoia of the Sierra Nevada.

While redwoods can grow to nearly 380 feet, the tallest tree in the Muir Woods is 258 feet. The trees come from a seed no bigger than that of a tomato. Most of the redwoods in the monument are between 800 years old; the oldest is at least 1,200 years old. Other tree species grow in the understory

Dmitry Gorchakov

Prince Dmitry Petrovich Gorchakov was a Russian writer and poet, best known for his satirical verses and three comical operas, staged at the end of the 18th century. Prince Dmitry Gorchakov was born in Kostroma Governorate, the only son of Prince Pyotr I. Gorchakov, member of an empoverished Russian aristocratic family, the Chernigov's line of Ryurikovichs, he received a high quality education at home, in 1768 joined the army, took part in Wallachian and Crimean campaigns but in 1782, retired to engage himself in agricultural activities in his Tula estate. It was in the early 1780s. In 1790 Prince Gorchakov rejoined the Russian army as a volunteer, took part in the battle at Izmail, was wounded and was praised for courage by Aleksandr Suvorov. In 1807 Gorchakov was made an honorary Russian Academy member. In 1807-1910 he served as a Governorate procurator in Pskov and Tavria as a high-ranked administrative official in the Moldovan army. In 1811 he became the member of an influential group known as Beseda.

In 1813 Gorchakov was appointed a vice-Governor of Kostroma, in 1816 he retired and moved to Moscow where he lived up until his death in 1824. Prince Dmitry Gorchakov was buried in the Danilov monastery in Moscow. Dmitry Gorchakov was best known for his comedy plays King for a Day, The Lucky Tonya and Baba Yaga. Based on Arab and Russian folklore, but featuring'modern' characters, these works parodied ways of Russian petty officials, denouncing corruption and theft. Among his major influences were Gavrila Derzhavin and Nikolai Nikolev, the latter a close friend, it was the latter's anti-tyranny tragedy Sorena and Zamir that inspired Gorchakov to write in the late 1880s his pro-democracy, American-based tragedy which remained both untitled and unpublished. Another unpublished "comedy in verse", The Carefree One was staged in 1799 in Saint Petersburgh, his novelet Plamir and Raida came out in 1796. A keen analyst of the European political affairs, Gorchakov in the early 1800s was regarded as the leading Russian satirist.

Some of his poems were published in the Drug Prosveshchenya magazine in 1804-1806, more of the others circulated as hand-written manuscripts, best-known of, The Epistle to Prince S. N. Dolgorukov which in many ways pre-empted Woe from Aleksander Griboyedov's 1823 classic. Young Aleksander Pushkin was much impressed by Prince Gorchakov’s works. In his 1815 poem Gorodok he mentioned his satires. Tellingly, in 1828 amidst The Gabrieliad scandal, Pushkin tried to ascribe his "dirty" poem to Prince Gorchakov four years dead, trying to exploit the latter's reputation as the early 1800s Russia's major volnodumetz; the first attempt to collect Gorchakov's legacy was made in 1890 by his granddaughter Princess Yelena Gorchakova who published The Works of D. P. Gorchakov; this volume was far from comprehensive, though: none of the earlier publications were included. Large part of Gorchakov's legacy has been lost: a bulk of his unpublished material along with numerous rough copies has perished in the fire that destroyed his country house, while some of poems he did publish remained anonymous

Never Gone Tour

The Never Gone Tour is the sixth headlining concert tour by American boy band, the Backstreet Boys. The tour was launched in support of their fifth studio album, Never Gone, it is the last BSB tour with all five members of the group, as Kevin Richardson left the band shortly after the tour concluded in June the following year, until his return in 2012. The tour grossed an estimated $49.5 million within 79 tour dates. The Click Five Jonas Brothers Kaci Brown Seminole County Jesse McCartney Kate Alexa Sonji The following setlist was obtained from the concert held on August 26, 2005, at the Dodge Theatre in Phoenix, Arizona, it does not represent all concerts for the duration of the tour. "Video Sequence"Act 1"The Call" "My Beautiful Woman" "More than That" "Climbing the Walls" "Shape of My Heart""Video Sequence" Act 2"The One" "I Still..." "I Want It That Way" "Show Me the Meaning of Being Lonely" "Larger than Life" "Siberia""Video Sequence" Act 3"All I Have to Give" "As Long As You Love Me" "I'll Never Break Your Heart" "Just Want You to Know" "Crawling Back to You" "Drowning" "Quit Playing Games""Video Sequence" Act 4"Weird World" "Incomplete"Encore"Everybody"