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Mujahideen

Mujahideen is the plural form of mujahid, the Arabic term for one engaged in jihad. The English term jihadists grammatically corresponds to it, its widespread use in English began with reference to the guerrilla-type militant groups led by the Islamist Afghan fighters in the Soviet–Afghan War and now extends to other jihadist groups in various countries. In its roots, mujahideen refers to any person performing Jihad. In its post-classical meaning, Jihad refers to an act, spiritually comparable in reward to promoting Islam during the early 600s CE; these acts could be as simple as sharing a considerable amount of one's income with the poor. The modern term of mujahideen referring to spiritual Muslim warriors, originates in the 19th century when some tribal leaders in Afghanistan fought against the British attempts to stop raids on India, it began in 1829 when a religious man, Sayyid Ahmed Shah Brelwi, came back to the village of Sitana from a pilgrimage to Mecca and began preaching war against the ‘infidels’ in the area defining the Northwest border of British India.

Although he died in battle, the sect he had created survived and the Mujahideen gained more power and prominence. During the Indian Mutiny of 1857, the Mujahideen were said to accept any fleeing Sepoys and recruit them into their ranks; as time went by the sect grew larger until it was not only conducting bandit raids, but controlling larger areas in Afghanistan. Usman dan Fodio Jahangir Khoja Ma al-'Aynayn Muhammad Ibn'Abd al-Karim al-Khattabi Muhammad Ahmed Al Mahdi Mehmed V Omar Mukhtar Imam Shamil Sekarmadji Maridjan Kartosoewirjo Basmachi opponents of Tsarism and Bolshevism in Central Asia called themselves mojahed; the modern phenomenon of jihadism that presents jihad as the casus belli for insurgencies, guerrilla warfare and international terrorism, dates back to the 20th century and draws on early-to-mid-20th century Islamist doctrines such as Qutbism. Arguably the best-known mujahideen outside the Islamic world, various loosely aligned Afghan opposition groups rebelled against the government of the pro-Soviet Democratic Republic of Afghanistan during the late 1970s.

At the DRA's request, the Soviet Union brought forces into the country to aid the government from 1979. The mujahideen fought against DRA troops during the Soviet -- Afghan War. Afghanistan's resistance movement originated in chaos and, at first, regional warlords waged all of its fighting locally; as warfare became more sophisticated, outside support and regional coordination grew. The basic units of mujahideen organization and action continued to reflect the decentralized nature of Afghan society and strong loci of competing mujahideen and tribal groups in isolated areas among the mountains; the seven main mujahideen parties allied as the political bloc called Islamic Unity of Afghanistan Mujahideen. Many Muslims from other countries assisted the various mujahideen groups in Afghanistan; some groups of these veterans became significant players in conflicts in and around the Muslim world. Osama bin Laden from a wealthy family in Saudi Arabia, was a prominent organizer and financier of an all-Arab Islamist group of foreign volunteers.

These foreign fighters became known as "Afghan Arabs" and their efforts were coordinated by Abdullah Yusuf Azzam. Although the mujahideen were aided by the Pakistani, U. S. and Saudi governments, the mujahideen's primary source of funding was private donors and religious charities throughout the Muslim world—particularly in the Persian Gulf. Jason Burke recounts that "as little as 25 per cent of the money for the Afghan jihad was supplied directly by states." Mujahideen forces caused serious casualties to the Soviet forces, made the war costly for the Soviet Union. In 1989 the Soviet Union withdrew its forces from Afghanistan. Many districts and cities fell to the mujahideen. However, the mujahideen did not establish a united government, many of the larger mujahideen groups began to fight each other over power in Kabul. After several years of devastating fighting, a village mullah named Mohammed Omar organized a new armed movement with the backing of Pakistan; this movement became known as the Taliban, referring to how most Taliban had grown up in refugee camps in Pakistan during the 1980s and were taught in the Saudi-backed Wahhabi madrassas, religious schools known for teaching a fundamentalist interpretation of Islam.

Veteran mujahideen confronted this radical splinter group in 1996. Before independence, the Turkish Cypriot community maintained its own paramilitary force and equipped by the Turkish Army. In 1967 this force was renamed the Mücahit, in 1975 the Mücahit was renamed the Turkish Cypriot Security Force. In 1974, Turkey led a land invasion of Northern Cyprus with the aim of protecting the Turkish minority population after a Greek-inspired coup brought a threat of union of the island with Greece. Since there have been no major fighting on Cyprus and the nation continues to be an independent country, though linked with Turkey militarily and politically. While more than one group in Iran have called themselves mujahideen, the most famous is the People's Mujahedin of Iran, as of 2014 an Iraq-based Islamic

Manuel Fischer

Manuel Fischer is a German footballer who plays as a striker for GSV Maichingen. Fischer began his career with VfB Stuttgart, he appeared for the club's reserve side in the Regionalliga Süd. He made his professional debut on 12 December 2007 against FC Barcelona in the UEFA Champions League. Fischer set a record for the greatest number of goals scored in an international under-17 season in 2005–06 with a total of 13; the 19-year-old scored his first Bundesliga goal on 17 May 2008 in the last game of the 2007–08 season. On 4 July 2008, he extended his contract until the summer of 2011. On 6 January 2009, Fischer was loaned out to TuS Koblenz until the end of the season. In July 2010, he was loaned out to SV Wacker Burghausen until the end of the season, but the loan was terminated because of a knee injury after six months. After his medical rehabilitation Fischer kept himself fit on loan at the second team of 1. FC Heidenheim 1846 until the summer of 2011, he left Stuttgart in summer 2011 to sign for Bayern Munich II, where he spent a year before signing for SpVgg Unterhaching.

Half a season he signed for fourth tier Regionalliga Südwest club SG Sonnenhof Großaspach, helping them to achieve promotion to 3. Liga in 2014. In January 2015, he transferred to fellow 3. Liga side Stuttgarter Kickers, signing a contract until 2016, his brother Sebastian plays football for SSV Ulm 1846. Manuel Fischer at fussballdaten.de Performance data at dfb.de Manuel Fischer at Kicker

Restless Willow

Restless Willow is a studio album by jazz vocalist Stevie Holland. The album is Holland's fourth and was released by 150 Music on October 26, 2004. Gary William Friedman and Stevie Holland, producers Gary William Friedman and orchestrations George Small, piano Tim Ferguson, bass Sean Harkness, guitar Kenny Washington, drums Noel Sagerman, drums Steve Kroon, percussion David "Fathead" Newman, tenor sax Joe Mennonna, flute Rubén Flores, duet vocalist on "One Touch"