Severe Cyclonic Storm Chapala was the second strongest tropical cyclone on record in the Arabian Sea, according to the American-based Joint Typhoon Warning Center. The third named storm of the 2015 North Indian Ocean cyclone season, it developed on 28 October off western India from the monsoon trough. Fueled by record warm water temperatures, the system intensified and was named Chapala by the India Meteorological Department. By 30 October, the storm developed an eye in the center of a well-defined circular area of deep convection; that day, the IMD estimated peak three-minute sustained winds of 215 km/h, the JTWC estimated one-minute winds of 240 km/h. After peak intensity, Chapala skirted the Yemeni island of Socotra on 1 November. Drier air and increased wind shear weakened the cyclone, although it maintained much of its intensity upon entering the Gulf of Aden on 2 November, becoming the strongest known cyclone in that body of water. After bypassing northern Somalia, Chapala turned to the west-northwest.
Early on 3 November, the storm made landfall near Mukalla, Yemen, as a severe cyclonic storm, making it the strongest storm on record to strike the nation. The storm dissipated the next day; the cyclone first affected Socotra, becoming the first hurricane-force storm there since 1922. High winds and heavy rainfall resulted in an island-wide power outage, severe damage was compounded by Cyclone Megh just days later. Chapala brushed the northern coast of Somalia, wrecking 250 houses. One person drowned off the coast. Ahead of the cyclone's final landfall, widespread evacuations occurred across southeastern Yemen, including in areas controlled by al-Qaeda, amid the country's ongoing civil war. Heavy rainfall – the equivalent to several years' worth – inundated coastal areas, which damaged or destroyed roads and hundreds of homes. Eight people died in Yemen, a low total credited to the evacuations, another 65 were injured. After the storm and Cyclone Megh, various countries, non-government organizations, agencies within the United Nations provided monetary and material assistance to Yemen.
The country faced food and fuel shortages, residual storm effects contributed to an outbreak of locusts and dengue fever, the latter of which killed seven people. A trough developed along the northeast monsoon on 25 October 2015 off the southwest coast of India, consisting of a fragmented area of convection, or thunderstorms; the system was located within an environment of moderate wind shear, which prevented early development, although conditions were anticipated to become more favorable. On 26 October, the system developed a distinct low pressure area; the low consolidated, the circulation became better defined, amplified by decreasing wind shear and good outflow to the north and south. At 03:00 UTC on 28 October, the India Meteorological Department designated the system as a depression. Nine hours the agency upgraded it further to a deep depression, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center classified the system as Tropical Cyclone 04A at 21:00 UTC; the storm moved to the north due to a ridge to the northeast, although the track shifted to the west due to another ridge to the northwest.
With record warm water temperatures for the time of year – reaching 30 °C – as well as favorable conditions related to the Madden–Julian oscillation, the system intensified beginning on 29 October. At 00:00 UTC that day, the IMD upgraded the system to a cyclonic storm; the storm developed well-defined rainbands as the structure consolidated more, with well established outflow to the north and south. An eye began developing, prompting the JTWC to upgrade Chapala to the equivalence of a hurricane, with one-minute maximum sustained winds of 120 km/h, at 12:00 UTC on 29 October. Meanwhile, the IMD upgraded Chapala to a severe cyclonic storm at 09:00 UTC that day, further to a severe cyclonic storm at 18:00 UTC. By early on 30 October, Chapala had developed a well-defined eye 22 km wide, amplified by vigorous outflow and continued low wind shear. Based on satellite intensity estimates from the Dvorak technique, the JTWC assessed Chapala as a high-end Category 4-equivalent cyclone on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale at 06:00 UTC with one-minute sustained winds of 240 km/h.
Based on their estimate, Chapala was the second-strongest cyclone on record over the Arabian Sea. Meanwhile, the IMD upgraded the system to an severe cyclonic storm at 00:00 UTC on 30 October, estimating peak three-minute sustained winds of 210 km/h at 09:00 UTC. During this time, the storm was moving to the west-southwest due to the ridge to the north; the IMD expected Chapala would intensify further into a super cyclonic storm, the JTWC anticipated it would strengthen to the equivalent of a Category 5-equivalent on the Saffir-Simpson scale. However, the storm began an eyewall replacement cycle on 30 October, causing the inner eyewall to degrade and for an outer eyewall to form. In addition, drier air began affecting the storm, causing the thunderstorms around the eye to diminish. However, Chapala maintained much of its intensity due to strong outflow in all directions to the northeast due to a tropical upper tropospheric trough over India, despite increased wind shear. On 31 O
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Joint Special Operations Command
The Joint Special Operations Command is a component command of the United States Special Operations Command and is charged to study special operations requirements and techniques to ensure interoperability and equipment standardization. It was established in 1980 on recommendation of Colonel Charlie Beckwith, in the aftermath of the failure of Operation Eagle Claw, it is located at Pope Field. The JSOC is the "joint headquarters designed to study special operations requirements and techniques. For this task, the Joint Communications Unit is tasked to ensure compatibility of communications systems and standard operating procedures of the different special operations units; the Joint Special Operations Command oversees the Special Mission Units of U. S. Special Operations Command; these are elite special operations forces units that perform classified activities. So far, only five SMUs have been publicly disclosed: The Army's 1st Special Forces Operational Detachment-Delta The 75th Ranger Regiment's Regimental Reconnaissance Company The Navy's Naval Special Warfare Development Group The Army's Intelligence Support Activity The Air Force's 24th Special Tactics Squadron The Intelligence Support Activity's primary role is as a deep reconnaissance, intelligence-gathering special mission unit, in support of DEVGRU and Delta Force.
Meanwhile, Delta Force and DEVGRU are the military's primary counter-terrorism units, eliminating high-value targets and performing hostage rescues are their main roles, along with special reconnaissance and direct action assignments. The 24th Special Tactics Squadron attaches personnel as enablers to these two units such as Combat Controllers to provide air traffic control and fire support, Pararescuemen to provide combat medicine and combat search and rescue, Tactical Air Control Party specialists to co-ordinate close air support; the Joint Communications Unit provides communications capabilities. Units from the Army's 75th Ranger Regiment and 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment are controlled by JSOC when deployed as part of JSOC Task Forces such as Task Force 121 and Task Force 145. JSOC has an operational relationship with the CIA's Special Activities Division. SAD's Special Operations Group recruits from JSOC SMU personnel. Advanced Force Operations is a term used by the U. S. Department of Defense to describe a task force that encompasses personnel from Delta Force, Regimental Reconnaissance Company and SEAL Team Six.
Many locations will have a mixture of operators from one of these 3 units working together as a small interoperable team. Although a term in many cases used to describe a particular sub-set of Delta Force operators, the term "AFO" was known used to describe mixed Special Mission Unit elements doing long range RECCE/long range target interdiction operations etc. According to Gen. Michael Repass, who conducted it in the Iraq War and was familiar with its use in Afghanistan, "AFO consists of U. S. Secretary of Defense-approved military operations such as clandestine operations, it is logically part of Operational Preparation of the Battlespace, which follows the Intelligence Preparation of the Battlespace, a concept well-known in U. S. and NATO doctrine, OPB is used outside of SOF channels. OPB is defined by the U. S. Special Operations Command as "Non-intelligence activities conducted prior to D-Day, H-Hour, in or potential areas of employment, to train and prepare for follow-on military operations".
In the Iraq War, who first commanded the 10th Special Forces Group, took control of a Joint Unconventional Warfare Task Force, which used the 5th and 10th Groups to conduct AFO. AFO units were involved in Operation Anaconda and Operation Viking Hammer; the Joint Special Operations Package / Rotational Group of the United States Special Operations Command consist of Tier 1 and Tier 2 U. S. Joint Special Operations Command units that train and deploy together. All Tier 1 and Tier 2 units maintain three separate operational groups within their respective units; these groups are identical and deploy within their respective JSOC package. The rotational cycle is three months; this allows one group to be deployed overseas, another to be on an 18-hour worldwide emergency deployment notice, the last group to be training, attending military schools, or on "block leave." Tier 1 and Tier 2 units take leave together within their respective JSOC package. This term is called block leave. Given the wartime tasking of JSOC, an additional deployment package is being created.
This will allow less operational strain on these units. JSOC has provided support to domestic law enforcement agencies during high-profile or high risk events such as the Olympics, the World Cup, political party conventions and Presidential inaugurations. Although use of the military for law enforcement purposes in the U. S. is prohibited by the Posse Comitatus Act, Title 10 of the U. S. Code expressly allows the Secretary of Defense to make military personnel available to train Federal and local civilian law enforcement officials in the operation and mainten
United Arab Emirates Armed Forces
The United Arab Emirates Armed Forces is the armed forces of the United Arab Emirates and has primary responsibility for the defence of all seven emirates. It consists of 100,000 personnel, is headquartered in Abu Dhabi, UAE; the United Arab Emirates Armed Forces is nicknamed as "Little Sparta" by United States Armed Forces General and former US defense secretary James Mattis due to its active and effective military role in the War on Terrorism, despite its small active personnel. The Trucial Oman Scouts, long the symbol of public order on the coast and commanded by British officers, were turned over to the United Arab Emirates as the nucleus of its defence forces in 1971. Although small in number, the UAE armed forces have grown over the years and are presently equipped with some of the most modern weapon systems, purchased from a variety of outside countries France, the US and the UK. Most officers are graduates of the United Kingdom's Royal Military Academy at Sandhurst, with others having attended the United States Military Academy at West Point, the Royal Military College, Duntroon and St Cyr, the military academy of France.
France opened the Abu Dhabi Base in May 2009. In March 2011, the UAE agreed to join the enforcement of the no-fly-zone over Libya by sending six F-16 and six Mirage 2000 multi-role fighter aircraft. During the Gulf war, the US had troops and equipment stationed in the UAE as well as other parts of the Persian Gulf. Norway has suspended arms exports to the UAE due its involvement in the Yemeni Civil War. During their respective operational periods in Afghanistan and Australia operated long range patrol aircraft and theatre airhead support from undeclared bases at Minhad Air Force Base; the Canadian name was Camp Mirage. In recent years, the government has implemented national service and it is compulsory. There are two distinct military organizations in the UAE: the federal military force is called the Union Defence Force, several of the Emirates maintain their own forces; as part of the military of the United Arab Emirates, the Ground Force is responsible for land operations. The United Arab Emirates Air Force has about 4,000 personnel.
The air force agreed in 1999 to purchase 80 US F-16 multirole fighter aircraft. Other equipment includes 60 Mirage 2000s, British Hawk aircraft, French helicopters; the air defense has a Hawk missile program. The UAE has taken delivery of two of five Triad I-Hawk batteries. United Arab Emirates Air Defence ForceThe Air Defense Force is responsible for civil defense aircraft and protecting the country therewith; the United Arab Emirates Navy is growing, with 72 vessels. United Arab Emirates Marines – The UAE maintains a small battalion-sized marine force called the UAE Marines, it is equipped with BMP-3s. United Arab Emirates Coast Guard – The United Arab Emirates Coast Guard is the official coast guard agency of the United Arab Emirates and is responsible for the protection of the UAE's coastline through regulation of maritime laws, maintenance of seamarks, border control, anti-smuggling operations and other services. Federal Police Force Four Emirates maintained their own forces prior to the unification of the defence forces.
Three were theoretically merged into the Union Defence Force in 1976, but in practice remained under emirate control and procured weapons separately for some time after. Abu Dhabi Defence Force – Formed in 1965 by order of Sheikh Shakhbut Al Nahyan and commanded by Major Edward'Tug' Wilson; the officer corps were British and Jordanian. Although not an operational force of consequence, by 1975 it had grown to 15,000 men with two squadrons of Dassault Mirage III fighters and Dassault Mirage 5 attack aircraft, a squadron of Hawker Hunter fighter-bombers, 135 armoured vehicles and Crotale missiles, Aérospatiale Alouette III and Aérospatiale Gazelle helicopters, a sea defence wing of four fast patrol boats; the ADDF became the Western Command of the UDF in 1976. Dubai Defence Force – Formed in 1971, by 1975 the DDF had 3,000 men with Ferret and Saladin armoured cars, it expanded to 20,000 men in one infantry brigade group, Aermacchi MB-326 ground attack aircraft and MBB Bo 105 helicopters. The DDF became the Central Command of the UDF in 1996.
Ras al-Khaimah Mobile Force – Formed in 1969, it had 300 men with Ferret and Saladin armoured cars, organised into one armored squadron and two infantry squadrons. It expanded to 9,000 men, it became the Northern Command of the UDF in 1996. In addition, the Sharjah National Guard was formed in 1972, it was a paramilitary force of 500–600 men with Shorland armoured cars. It merged with the Federal Police in 1976, it dispatched an infantry battalion to the United Nations UNOSOM II force in Somalia in 1993, it sent the 35th Mechanised Infantry Battalion to Kosovo, sent a regiment to Kuwait during the Iraq War. In addition, it helps protect the Strait of Hormuz, it is a leading partner in the campaign against terrorism, providing assistance in the military and financial arenas. The UAE military provides humanitarian assistance to Iraq; the UAE sent forces to assist Kuwait during the 1990–1991 Gulf War where several hundred UAE troops participated in the conflict as part of the GCC Peninsula Shield force that advanced into Kuwait City.
The US 363rd Tactical Fighter Wing operated from Al Dhafra Air Base in Abu Dhabi, US ships operated out of UAE ports. The UAE air force carried out strikes against Iraqi forces; the UAE Armed Fo
Saudi Arabian–led intervention in Yemen
A military intervention was launched by Saudi Arabia in 2015, leading a coalition of nine countries from the Middle East and Africa, in response to calls from the internationally recognized pro-Saudi president of Yemen Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi for military support after he was ousted by the Houthi movement due to economic and political grievances, fled to Saudi Arabia. Code-named Operation Decisive Storm, the intervention is said to be in compliance with Article 2 of the UN Charter by the international community; the intervention consisted of a bombing campaign on Houthi rebels and saw a naval blockade and the deployment of ground forces into Yemen. The Saudi-led coalition has attacked the positions of the Houthi militia, loyalists of the former President of Yemen, Ali Abdullah Saleh supported by Iran; the Houthis who had pressured Mansur Hadi for reforms, say that they took power through a popular revolution and are defending Yemen from a western backed invasion. The Saudi-led bombings soon expanded to most of Western Yemen including civilian targets and was followed by UAE-led deployment of ground forces in the South.
Fighter jets and ground forces from Egypt, Jordan, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar and Academi took part in the operation. Djibouti and Somalia made their airspace, territorial waters, military bases available to the coalition; the United States provided intelligence and logistical support, including aerial refueling and search-and-rescue for downed coalition pilots. It accelerated the sale of weapons to coalition states; the US and Britain have deployed their military personnel in the command and control centre responsible for Saudi-led air strikes on Yemen, having access to lists of targets. Pakistan was called on by Saudi Arabia to join the coalition, but its parliament voted to maintain neutrality. On 21 April 2015, the Saudi-led military coalition announced an end to Operation Decisive Storm, saying the intervention's focus would "shift from military operations to the political process". Saudi Arabia and its coalition partners announced the launch of a political and peace efforts, which they called Operation Restoring Hope.
The coalition did not stop its use of force, saying it would respond to threats and prevent Houthi militants from operating within Yemen. Qatar was suspended from the coalition due to the 2017 Qatar diplomatic crisis, Morocco ended their participation in 2019 due to deterioration of Morocco–Saudi Arabia relations following Al Arabiya's alleged documentary questioning Moroccan sovereignty in Western Sahara; the war has received widespread criticism and had a dramatic worsening effect on Yemen's humanitarian situation, that reached the level of a "humanitarian disaster" or "humanitarian catastrophe", some have labelled it as a genocide. After the Saudi-led coalition declared the entire Saada Governorate a military target, the UN's Humanitarian Coordinator for Yemen and Human Rights Watch said that air strikes by the Saudi-led coalition on Saada city in Yemen were in breach of international law. On 1 July 2015 UN declared for Yemen a "level-three" emergency—the highest UN emergency level—for a period of six months.
Human rights groups blamed the Saudi-led military coalition for killing civilians and destroying health centers and other infrastructure with airstrikes. The de facto blockade left 78% of the Yemeni population in urgent need of food and medical aid. Aid ships are allowed. In one incident, coalition jets prevented an Iranian Red Crescent plane from landing by bombing Sanaʽa International Airport's runway, which blocked aid delivery by air; as of 10 December 2015, more than 2,500,000 people had been internally displaced by the fighting. Many countries evacuated more than 23,000 foreign citizens from Yemen. More than 1,000,000 people fled Yemen for Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Ethiopia and Oman; the war has caused a humanitarian crisis, including a famine which has threatened 13 million people, as well as an outbreak of cholera which has infected an estimated 1.2 million. In November 2018, UNICEF described Yemen as "a living hell for children" saying that every 10 minutes a child is dying due to preventable diseases as a result of the war.
More than 85,000 children under age 5 may have died of starvation. Saudi-backed Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi, running unopposed as the only candidate for president, won the 2012 Yemeni elections. Since August 2014, the Houthis, a Zaidi Shia movement and militant group thought to be backed by Iran, dissatisfied with Hadi government's decisions and the new constitution, arranged mass protests which culminated into their takeover of the Yemeni government in 2015, declaring victory of the revolution and drafting a new constitution when Hadi's provisional government had expired its term. Saudi Arabia and other countries denounced this as an unconstitutional coup d'état. In military operations on the ground, the Houthis were supported by sections of the Yemeni armed forces loyal to former president Ali Abdullah Saleh, removed from power as part of the 2011 Arab Spring uprisings. Houthi leaders claimed that Saudi Arabia was trying to break the alliance between the Houthis and Saleh's supporters, reports claimed that Saleh's son Ahmed Ali Saleh had traveled to the Saudi capital to attempt to broker a deal to end the airstrikes.
Saudi media claim that his son had approached Riyadh seeking such a deal. By September 2014, Houthi fighters captured Sanaʽa, topplin
Dame Freya Madeline Stark, was an Anglo-Italian explorer and travel writer. She wrote more than two dozen books on her travels in the Middle East and Afghanistan as well as several autobiographical works and essays, she was one of the first non-Arabs to travel through the southern Arabian Desert. Stark was born on 31 January 1893 in Paris, her mother, was an Italian of Polish/German descent. Stark spent much of her childhood in northern Italy, helped by the fact that Pen Browning, a friend of her father, had bought three houses in Asolo, her maternal grandmother lived in Genoa. Her parents' marriage was unhappy from the outset, they separated early in Freya's childhood. Stark's biographer, Jane Fletcher Geniesse—quoting Freya's cousin, Nora Stanton Blatch Barney—claimed that Freya's biological father was "a well-to-do young man from a prominent family in New Orleans" named Obediah Dyer. There is no known corroboration of this account, it is not known if Stark herself was aware of it. For her ninth birthday Freya received a copy of One Thousand and One Nights, became fascinated with the Orient.
She was ill while young and confined to the house, so she found an outlet in reading. She delighted in reading French, in particular Dumas, taught herself Latin; when she was 13 she had an accident in a factory in Italy, when her hair got caught in a machine, she had to spend four months getting skin grafts in hospital, which left her face disfigured. She learned Arabic and Persian, studied at Bedford College and the School of Oriental and African Studies, both part of the University of London. During World War I, Stark trained as a VAD and served with G. M. Trevelyan's British Red Cross ambulance unit, based at the Villa Trento near Udine, her mother had taken a share in a business. In November 1927 she visited Asolo for the first time in years; that month she boarded a ship for Beirut, where her travels in the East began. She stayed first at the home of James Elroy Flecker in Lebanon in Baghdad, where she met the British high commissioner. By 1931 she had completed three dangerous treks into the wilderness of western Iran, parts of which no Westerner had visited, had located the long-fabled Valleys of the Assassins.
She described these explorations in The Valleys of the Assassins and received the Royal Geographical Society's Back Award in 1933. In 1935 she travelled to the Hadhramaut, the hinterland of southern Arabia, where only a handful of Western explorers had ventured, never as far or as as she went, she published her account of the region in three books, The Southern Gates of Arabia: A Journey in the Hadhramaut, Seen In The Hadhramaut and A Winter in Arabia. For her travels and accounts she received the Founder's Gold Medal of the Royal Geographical Society. During World War II Stark joined the British Ministry of Information, contributed to the creation of the propaganda network Ikhwan al Hurriya aimed at persuading Arabs to support the Allies or at least remain neutral; these wartime experiences were described in her Letters from Syria and East is West. In 1947, at the age of 54, she married a British administrator and historian; the couple had no children, separated in 1952. During these years she wrote nothing on travel and exploration, but published a volume of miscellaneous essays, Perseus in the Wind and three volumes of autobiography, Traveller's Prelude, Beyond Euphrates.
Autobiography 1928–1933 and The Coast of Incense. Autobiography 1933–1939. Stewart Perowne died in 1989. Stark's first extensive travels after the war were in Turkey, which were the basis of her books Ionia a Quest, The Lycian Shore, Alexander's Path and Riding to the Tigris. After this she continued her memoirs with Dust in the Lion's Paw. Autobiography 1939–1946, published a history of Rome on the Euphrates: The Story of a Frontier and another collection of essays, The Zodiac Arch; the last expedition of her old age was to Afghanistan. In her retirement at Asolo, apart from a short survey, Turkey: A Sketch of Turkish History, she busied herself by putting together a new collection of essays, A Peak in Darien, preparing selections of her Letters and of her travel writings, The Journey's Echo, she was appointed a Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 1972 New Year's Honours. She died at Asolo on 9 May 1993, a few months after her hundredth birthday. List of female adventurers J. F. Geniesse, Passionate Nomad: The Life of Freya Stark P. H. Hansen,'Stark, Dame Freya Madeline', in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography M. Izzard'A Marvellous Bright Eye: Freya Stark', in Cornucopia Issue 2 M. Izzard, Freya Stark: A Biography C.
Moorehead, Freya Stark ISBN 0-14-008108-9 R. Knott,'Posted in Wartime' - features inter alia the wartime correspondence of Freya Stark. Duncan, Joyce. Ahead of Their Time: a Biographical Dictionary of Risk-Taking Women. Portsmouth: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 9781280908699. Wor
Aden is a port city and the temporary capital of Yemen, located by the eastern approach to the Red Sea, some 170 km east of Bab-el-Mandeb. Its population is 800,000 people. Aden's natural harbour lies in the crater of a dormant volcano, which now forms a peninsula joined to the mainland by a low isthmus; this harbour, Front Bay, was first used by the ancient Kingdom of Awsan between the 5th and 7th centuries BC. The modern harbour is on the other side of the peninsula. Aden gives its name to the Gulf of Aden. Aden consists of a number of distinct sub-centres: Crater, the original port city. Khormaksar, located on the isthmus that connects Aden proper with the mainland, includes the city's diplomatic missions, the main offices of Aden University, Aden International Airport, Yemen's second biggest airport. On the mainland are the sub-centres of Sheikh Othman, a former oasis area. Aden encloses the eastern side of a natural harbour that comprises the modern port; this city has no natural resources available in it.
However, Aden does have the Aden Tanks. These reservoirs accumulate rain water for the sole purpose of drinking for the city's citizens; the city is prosperous with Indian vessels arriving for trade. The volcanic peninsula of Little Aden forms a near-mirror image, enclosing the harbour and port on the western side. Little Aden became the site of the oil tanker port. Both were established and operated by British Petroleum until they were turned over to Yemeni government ownership and control in 1978. Aden was the capital of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen until that country's unification with the Yemen Arab Republic in 1990, again served as Yemen's temporary capital during the aftermath of the Houthi takeover in Yemen, as declared by President Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi after he fled the Houthi occupation of Sana'a. From March to July 2015, the Battle of Aden raged between loyalists to President Hadi. Water and medical supplies ran short in the city. On 14 July, the Saudi Army launched an offensive to retake Aden for Hadi's government.
Within three days the Houthis had been removed from the city. Since February 2018, Aden has been seized by the Southern Transitional Council. A local legend in Yemen states; some believe that Cain and Abel are buried somewhere in the city. The port's convenient position on the sea route between India and Europe has made Aden desirable to rulers who sought to possess it at various times throughout history. Known as Eudaemon in the 1st century BC, it was a transshipping point for the Red Sea trade, but fell on hard times when new shipping practices by-passed it and made the daring direct crossing to India in the 1st century AD, according to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea; the same work describes Aden as "a village by the shore," which would well describe the town of Crater while it was still little-developed. There is no mention of fortification at this stage, Aden was more an island than a peninsula as the isthmus was not so developed as it is today. Although the pre-Islamic Himyar civilization was capable of building large structures, there seems to have been little fortification at this stage.
Fortifications at Mareb and other places in Yemen and the Hadhramaut make it clear that both the Himyar and the Sabean cultures were well capable of it. Thus, watch towers, since destroyed, are possible. However, the Arab historians Ibn al Mojawir and Abu Makhramah attribute the first fortification of Aden to Beni Zuree'a. Abu Makhramah has included a detailed biography of Muhammad Azim Sultan Qamarbandi Naqsh in his work, Tarikh ul-Yemen; the aim seems to have been twofold: to keep hostile forces out and to maintain revenue by controlling the movement of goods, thereby preventing smuggling. In its original form, some of this work was feeble. After 1175 AD, rebuilding in a more solid form began, since Aden became a popular city attracting sailors and merchants from Egypt, Gujarat, East Africa and China. According to Muqaddasi, Persians formed the majority of Aden's population in the 10th century. In 1421, China's Ming dynasty Yongle Emperor ordered principal envoy grand eunuch Li Xing and grand eunuch Zhou Man of Zheng He's fleet to convey an imperial edict with hats and robes to bestow on the king of Aden.
The envoys set sail from Sumatra to the port of Aden. This event was recorded in the book Yingyai Shenglan by Ma Huan. In 1513, the Portuguese, led by Afonso de Albuquerque, launched an unsuccessful four-day naval siege of Aden. Before British administration, Aden was ruled by the Portuguese between 1513–1538 and 1547–1548, it was ruled by the Ottoman Empire between 1538–1547 and 1548–1645. In 1609 The Ascension was the first English ship to visit Aden, before sailing on to Mocha during the Fourth voyage of the East India Company. After Ottoman rule, Aden was ruled by the Sultanate of Lahej, under suzerainty of the Zaidi imams of Yemen. British interests in Aden began in 1796 with Napoleon's invasion of Egypt, after which a British fleet docked